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I I 



ii 



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MANUAL OF INDIAN TIMBERS: 



AK ACCOUNT OS 



THE STEtTCTURE, GROWTH, DISTRIBUTION. ANI> 
QUALITIES OF INDIAN WOODS. 



PBBFARSD BT 

J, S. GAMBLE, M.A., F.L.S. 

OFFICIATINO CONBBBTATOB OF rOBIBTS, 



m 




i 



JJnblishcb be Orbtr of the Cobtrnmmt of IntU. 



CALCUTTA : 

OFFICE OF THE SUPEBIHTKNDBNI OF OOVERNMEIfT FBINTINO. 

1881. 



OAT.OVTTA : 

OYVIOB ov fHB •vYnmrTBirDBirr ov ooTimnvr rmunviQ, 

S, SABXIirai BfBlBT. 



IKTRODUCTIOIT. 



Ik publishing the 'Manual of Indian TimberSi' the compilation 
of which has^ owing to the writer having been at the same time engaged 
in his ordinary official duties^ lasted over three years^ it is necessary 
*jo make a few remarks on the circumstances which have led to its 
freparation^ the materials by the assistance of which it has been 
compiled^ and the sources from which the information given in its 
piges has been drawn. It will be remembered that the forests and 
forest products of India were represented at the Paris Exhibition of 
1^78 by a collection which was undoubtedly the most complete that has 
e\er been formed in India and sent to Europe for exhibition. This col« 
lection^ prepared and arranged under the immediate supervision of Dr« 
Brandis^ the Inspector General of Forests^ was got together in the winter 
of 1877-78, by the simple process of inviting from the different Local 
Governments and their Forest Officers the contribution of rough wood 
spetimens and other products, which were afterwards prepared and ar- 
ranged in a central workshop, first in Simla and afterwards in Calcutta. 
Durng the progress of this work, which lasted from August 1877 to 
May 1878, a very large and valuable series of wood specimens, of un- 
doul)ed botanical determination, was received. The pieces of wood (to 
which class of specimen alone we need now refer) which were then sent, 
were a:) large and valuable that it was settled that at the same time as 
the prncipal object of the work, the collection for exhibition at Paris^ 
was go ready, a number of duplicate sets should be also prepared, suffi- 
cient tc supply a good stock to the Royal Gardens at Kew, and to other 
museuuB both in Europe and America, as well as type collections to 
be depoftted in the offices of the Forest Conservators in the different 
Province: or Circles. It is obvious that such authentic collections are 
likely to serve as reference collections of great and undoubted value, 
not only to Forest Officers, but to all persons interested in timber 
and ornanental woods and their applications to engineering works 
or industriil manufactures. Chief among these collections was that 
specially se\ apart for the Museum of the Forest School of Dehra Dun, 
and next to t in completeness in India was the coUection de^d^Adi Vn 



U IKTRODUCnOH. 

r 

the office of the Conservator of Forests in Bengal at Darjeeling, and 
it is these two collections^ and especially the former^ which have been 
chiefly used and consulted in the preparation of this work. But it is 
necessary here to point out^ that the collections prepared in 1877-78 
from the contributions to the Paris Exhibition works^ would not alone 
have sufficed for the description of anything like the number of species 
which find a place herein^ and it was owing to the fortunate circum- 
stance that the large private collection of Dr. Brandis was available 
that it was found possible to make sure of the identification of most of 
the more ordinary timbers and lay the foundation for the descriptions 
which are now published. When it is considered that Dr. Brandis 
private collection gave no less than 320 specimens^ and that the privati 
collection personally formed by the writer in the Darjeeliog forest^ 
and that of Burmese and Andaman woods made by the late Mr. SL 
Kurz and presented by the Superintendent of the Boyal Botanicsl 
Gardens^ Calcutta^ gave a further series of 194 specimens^ it will le 
understood that considerable material was available to add to the nucleis 
formed by the Paris Exhibition sets. But this is not all^ for^ by i\e 
kindness of several Forest Officers^ supplementary pieces were receivd^ 
sometimes spontaneously^ sometimes by special request^ from timeto 
time ; and there have been^ even since the work itself was complebly 
printed^ several important additions. These were chiefly obtained by the 
writer's personal collection in various parts of Bengal, such as Darjeelhg, 
the Western Duars^ Chittagong^ Chota Nagpore^ and Orissa^ and lave 
been described^ if not in the pages of the work, at any rate in the 
rather voluminous Adddenda-Corrigenda sheets. In order to explain 
more definitely the sources from which the original Paris Exhilition 
woods were obtained, the following extract from Dr. Brandis' .'ntro- 
duction to the Catalogue of specimens of forest produce sent b that 
Exhibition will be worth quoting : — 

" The orders for the preparation of the present collection were received ir Angast 
1877 ; and, as it was necessary to despatch it early in February 1878, so a to be in 
time for the Exhibition, barely six months were available to bring together pecimens 
from all parts of India, and to prepare and name them. The work wasefiinisted to 
the undersigned and to Mr. J. S. Oamble, Assistant Conservator of Forest, who un- 
dertook the task of supervising the preparation of the specimens. A workoop was at 
once established in Simla, and a large number of pieces were collected frm the hills 
in the vicinity of that place. These specimens are numbered from 1 to If , and from 
145 to 159. Early in November the work was transferred to Calcutta where tha 
specimens from all provinces were collected. 

" The bulk of the logs and pieces from which the specimens were prf ared arrived 
in December and January ; some, however, were not received until Febnary, after the 
eolleotion had been prepared, packed, and despatched. It thus happeii that a large 



INTRODTJCnOH. ii^ 

pToportion of the eontribntionB from the soaihem forests in the Bombay Presidenoj 
firom Sind« Ondh, and Chittagong, and a portion of those from Madras and Assam 
could not be utilized for the Exhibition, becaase they arrived too late. 

" The difficulty was, in the short time available, to bring together seasoned pieces 
of the different species required. Fortunately , a number of pieces collected between 
1866 and 1870, from the North- West and Central Provinces, the Punjab and British 
Burma, which had been kept at Calcutta until they should be required, were available. 
Some of these pieces had decayed or been eaten by insects, but the remainder yielded 
a number of excellent and thoroughly seasoned specimens : and it is remarkable how 
well many of the woods had kept in the damp climate of Calcutta. The specimens 
yielded by these collections were numbered from 160 to 353. 

" From the Punjab a large, varied, carefully named, and selected collection was sent 
by Mr. Baden-Powell, the Conservator, and the officers under his orders ; the main 
series is numbered from 881 to 947, while those sent from the forests of Kulu, Kangra 
and Chamba, by Lieutenant-Colonel Stenhouse and Mr. Pengelly, are numbered, re- 
spectively, 116 to 132, 602 to 617, and 770 to 782.< 

" Besides these collections and those made by the undersigned in Simla, and already 
alluded to, the Rev. Mr. Heyde of the Moravian Mission, Lahoul, sent a number of 
most interesting specimens from the arid districts of the inner Himalaya (numbered 
133 to 144 inclusive) : and Mr. F. Halsey of Madhopur sent a small collection of fine, 
well-seasoned pieces from the district of Gurdaspur (numbered 1190 to 1201). 

'* The contributions of Ajmere were not large enough to give timber specimens of 
the size required for the Exhibition ; they were numbered from 437 to 472. 

" Mr. Greig, the Conservator of Forests in the North- Western Provinces, sent col- 
lections made by Messrs. O'Callaghan and Bagnhawe and Captain Campbell in the 
forests of Dehra Ddn, Jaunsar, and Kumaun ; they are numbered respectively 527 to 
544, 420 to 432, and 873 to 875. Larger collections had been made, but, as the logs 
were unseasoned, they were not sent down to Calcutta. From Oudh a few well- 
seasoned pieces were early received (Noa. 387 to 394), but the remainder did not arrivo 
till after the Exhibition specimens had left Calcutta. 

" The collections sent from Bengal under the orders of the Conservator, Dr. W, 
Schlich, arrived, with the exception of those from Chittagong, in very good time, and 
furnished a large number of interesting specimens from parts of the country the forest 
resources of which are not yet generally known. Mr. Richardson's contributions from 
the Snndarbans (Nos. 395 to 419) illustrate well the forest growth of the delta of the 
Ganges and Brahmaputra ; and those sent by Mr. Cliester from Chittagong (Nos. 708 
to 722, and 1951 to 1965) would have been of great interest had not the main series 
arrived too late. But the chief collections received were sent by Messrs. Johnston and 
Manson and the late Mr. Bonham Carter from the Darjeeling Hills and Terai, 
numbering 170 pieces (Nos. 354 to 385, 433 to 436, 473 to 500, 573 to 601, 618 to 
627, and 641 to 707), and including several very valuable and interesting kinds of 
timber. Besides these, a small collection of 14 specimens (Nos. 964 to 976) was ob- 
tained by Dr. Schlich from the valley of Chumbi, to the north of Sikkim ; which, though 
to the south of the main Himalayan range, is actually in Thibet territory ; and which 
had not hitherto been explored. 

" The collections from Assam sent by Mr. Gustav Mann, the Deputy Conservator, 
and by the Deputy Commissioners of Cachar and Sylhet, included many fine and well- 
seasoned pieces. These were numbered from 628 to 641, 783 to 799, 1228 to 123'!, 
1254 to 1277, 1285 to 1300 — the last numbers arriving too late for the Exhibition. 

^ Besides the numhers here g^ven as indicating the specimens received from the Pan- 
jab and other provinces, there are a few scattered numbers which it has not been thought 
necessary to quote. 



iv nrrttODtJOnoN* 

" From the Central Provinces, the Conservator, Captain Doveton, sent a collpctiotl 
of well-seasoned pieces, numbering 1101 to 1186, procured by Mr. Richard Thompson 
from the Chanda forests. 

" From Berar Mr. Drjsdale, the Deputy Conservator, sent fine pieces of timber, 
numbered 820 to 844, and a valuable series of fibres, numbered 977 to 989. 

" The contributions from the Bombay Presidency comprised a few pieces from Guzerat, 
Poona, and Ahmednagar, too small for cutting up, and a number of large pieces sent 
by Lieutenant-Colonel Peyton, the Conservator, and Mr* Barrett, the Deputy Conser- 
vator, from North Kanara, numbered 992, 993, 12l7 to 1227 : the latter, as well as 
the Sind specimens already referred to, and numbered 1379 to 1384, unfortunately 
arriving too late for the Exhibition. 

"The collections sent from Madras were very full and complete. Those from the 
eastern side of the Presidency were sent by Colonel Beddome, the Conservator, and 
numbered from 1051 to 1109. Besides this collection a few logs and specimens of 
minor produce came from Gumstir — the logs too late for cutting up. From the West 
Coast were received a large number of specimens, Nos. 723 to 769, 845 to 869, pre- 
pared by Mr. Cherry in South Kanara. From Malabar Mr. Ferguson, the officer in 
eharge, sent a most interesting series of sections of young trees, illustratiug the rapid 
growth of teak in the magnificent Conolly plantations at Nilambur. 

"The pieces received from Burma were not very numerous, though they comprised 
the most useful kinds of trees. Many of them were of very large size. The logs sent 
by Major Seaton, the Conservator at Moulmein, were numbered 545 to 554 and 1944 
to 1950 ; while those from Mr. Ribbentrop, the Conservator at Rangoon, were from 
555 to 572 and from 801 to 819. 

" A roost important collection was sent from the Andaman Islands by Major General 
Barwell, the Chief Commissioner. It consisted of 26 large logs (Nos. 501 to 526;, 
besides numerous canes and bamboos. " 

It must not be supposed that because specimens were too late for the 
Exhibition that they were not utilized for the other distributed collec- 
tions and for the descriptions given herein ; on the contrary, they proved, 
several of them, most valuable for description, and especially those from 
Oudh, Sind, Gumsur and Cbittagong. 

After the Exhibition collections had been despatched, by the kindness 
of the Superintendent of the Royal Botanic Gardens, a series of 100 
Andaman Islands woods made in 1866 by Lieutenant Colonel Ford, 
M.S.C., at that time Superintendent of Port Blair, and which were accom- 
panied by a carefully prepared bound catalogue, giving all the available 
information regarding quality and uses, was made available. This col- 
lection had been received in 1867, and, for better custody, had at that 
time been deposited in the Calcutta Gardens. Naturally, after ten years' 
storage in the moist climate of Calcutta, many of the specimens were 
found to be considerably damaged by decay or by the ravages of white- 
ants, but it was remarkable that so many species were found to be 
sound and to have sufficiently resisted those destructive agencies to be 
capable of furnishing good specimens for description and distribution. 
They are numbered B 2201 to B 2300, and an examination of the list 



Drr&oDUonoK. v 

appended to this work will show what species in particular were fit 

for use. A small hand collection was also received from the Salem Dis- 
trict^ Madras ; and a small collection of Ceylon woods was ayailable from 
the Inspector Generals Office. These were separately numbered and 
have been separately quoted. 

The chief contributors of further specimens for purposes of description 
were Colonel Beddome^ Captain Bailey^ B.E.^ Messrs. Bibbentrop^ Thomp- 
son^ Dodsworthj Smythies^ Vincent^ Johnston^ Elliot^ Oliver^ Manson^ 
Fuchs^ Wilmot^ all Forest Officers ; as well as Dr. G. King and Mr. J. 
F. Duthie^ the Superintendents of the Botanic Gardens at Calcutta and 
Saharunpur. 

Taking all these sources together^ the number of specimens named^ 
numbered^ and described reaches 2^530^ belonging to 906 species and 432 
genera. All the wood specimens described in this work bear a letter and 
a number, the numbers having been given in the order of receipt, and 
each number refers to the particular specimen or series of specimens cut 
out of one log or piece. In this way there can be no mistake, any number- 
ed specimen can be at once compared with its description in the book by 
means of its number, the index of numbers, and the list of specimens at 
the end of the description of each species. It will be noticed that 
some of the serial numbers from 1 to 3636 are not represented in 
this work. The reason is that when the Paris Exhibition collections 
were numbered the specimens of dyes, fibres, manufactured articles, etc., 
were also included ; these, or most of them, have now been omitted^ 
as well as such of the wood specimens as were in too bad a condition 
for description, or regarding the correct names of which any doubt 
was felt. 

The letter represents the region from which the specimen came. 
For this purpose eight regions have been established, on the principle 
that the forests comprised in one region should possess a similar climate 
and a similar flora. 

The regions so established and the letters by which they are desig- 
nated are— 

H. The North-West Himalaya, comprising the mountains of that range above an 

elevation of 3,000 feet, between the Indus and the Sardah river on the Nepal 

frontier. 
P. The dry and arid region of the plains and lower hills of the Punjab, Rajpu- 

tana, and Sind. 
0. The plains and Sub-Himalayan tract of the North- West Provinces, Oudh and 

Crorakhpur, ascending to 3,000 feet. 
C. Central India, the hilly country lying south of the Jumna and north of the 

Godaveiy River, and mdading the Yindhia and Satpora UiUa, qa V9c!i\. ^ Onaas^. 



VI IMTBODUCnON. 

E. The Norih-East comprising the Himalaya from the Nepal frontier eastwards, 
the Ehasia Hills, Assam, Cachar, Chittagong and the Sundarhans. 

D. The Dekkan, comprising the country to the south of the Godavery, and chiefly 
included In Madras and Mysore. 

W. The west coast of the peninsula, comprising the Western Gh&ts and the coun- 
try lying between them and the sea. 

B. British Burma, including the Andaman Islands. 

Exception mighty perhaps^ be taken to some points in this classifica- 
tion. The flora of Chittagong is, in reality, quite as closely allied to that of 
Burma as to that of Northern Bengal and Assam ; while that of Orissa 
and Ganjam (Northern Circars) might, perhaps, have more correctly been 
classed with the flora of the Caruatic than with that of Central India, 
But the classification adopted is a convenient one, and was established by 
Dr. Brandis after very careful consideration and discussion. And it will 
be seen by a reference to the accompanying map, kindly furnished by 
Mr. H. F. Blanford, F.R.S., Meteorological Reporter to the Government 
of India, that the regions which we have designated by the eight letters, 
whose meaning we have just described, are really the regions which re- 
present the different zones of comparative rainfall. The map, it will be 
seen, is coloured in four shades from white to dark blue, represent- 



ing:— 



1. The Arid Zone with a rainfall less than 15 inches. 

2. „ Dry Zone „ „ of between 16 and 30 inches. 

3. „ Intermediate Zone ,; „ 30 and 70 inches. 
4 n Moist Zone ,, „ of over 70 inches. 

The first or Arid Zone covers only the north-western plains of the 
Punjab, Sind, and Rajputana ; this, with a portion of the Dry Zone, to 
the north and east of it, constitute the region marked by the letter ' P \ 

The Dry Zone has also two further areas in South India, that is in 
India south of the latitude of 21"; these areas, together with the portion 
of the Intermediate Zone on the east coast of the Peninsula south of the 
River Godavery and a narrow strip along the east of the range of the 
Western Ghats, form the region which we have designated by the letter 
' D '• It may, however, be remarked that Berar, from the similarity of 
its flora to that of the Central Provinces, is classed, though strictly 
speaking within the Brt/ Zone, under region * C \ 

The rest of the Intermediate Zone, forming quite half of the whole 
country, occupies a band stretching right across the head of the Penin- 
sula, as well as a strip along the foot of the Great Himalayan Range. 
Though, comparatively speaking, this large area possesses a flora showing 
a general common likeness and similarity, yet we can easily divide 
it into two by considering the great sal belt between the foot of the Hima- 



nrrRODUcnoK. tii 

laya and the Ganges as one section ; and the great main belt of bH passing 
into teak between that river and a southern boundary approximately re- 
presented by the river Oodavery^ as a second. These two sections 
correspond to the regions represented r^pectively by the letters ' O. * 
and'C^ 

The Mois^ Zone, shown in the map in dark blue^ occupies two main 
areas ijirst, the great belt of the mountain ranges of northern and north- 
east India from Kashmir^ through Nepal^ Sikkim and Assam^ to Chitta- 
gong and Burma ; and^ second, the narrow belt along the western coast. 
This latter corresponds to the region we have marked * W ', while the 
former is divided into 3 sections^ each having its characteristic flora : 
These are — 

1. The Himalajaa region, from Kashmir to the boundarj of Nepal at the Sarda 

river, in longitude about 81°. 

2. The Himalayan region, from the Nepal bouudary at the Mechi river, in longi- 

tude nearly 88*', the Aflsam Valley, Ehasia Hills, Cachar, and Chittagong, 
together with the Delta of the Ganges. 

3. Burma, includiug the Andaman Islands. 

and are respectively represented by the letters ' H ', ' E ' and * B '. 

So that^ with trifling exceptions^ the zones of rainfall and the regions 
represented by the letters prefixed to the numbers of the specimens agree 
with each other. 

As far as it was published^ Bentham and Hooker's " Genera Plantarum^' 
furnished the order in which the families were arranged^ as well as 
the general nomenclature of genera and species. At the time that 
most of the work was written (1878) the " Genera Plantarum^' had only 
been published as far as the end of Qamopetala, Since then the Apetal(B 
have been completed, while the Monocotyledons may be expected to be 
published before long. In almost all cases the names given in the 
''Flora Indica'^ have been taken, though there are a few exceptions in 
some of the genera in which it was considered best to use better known 
names, quoting always the names given in the ''Flora Indica^' as 
synonyms. The "Flora Indica^' is quoted as far as the end of the 
second volume, that is, to the end of Comacea. The third volume 
of the ' Genera Plantarum' and the third volume of the ' Flora Indica,* 
now in course of publication, have very considerably altered the genera 
and specific names of many of the plants whose woods are here 
described. To have inserted these alterations either during the course 
of the printing, or as 'Corrigenda', would have caused considerable 
delay; and so the text remains as it was written. But when a new 
edition is pnblished very great alterations will have to \>e m^^i^ Ui\A. 



vHi nmioDucnoN. 

especially in some of tbe large orders like ' LauracesB/ which will have 
to be entirely remodelled. Generally speakings the only books regularly 
quoted^ are— 

1. Hooker's Flora Indica. 

2. Roxburgh's Flora Indica. 

3. Brandis' Forest Flora of North- West and Central India. 

4. Beddome's Flora Sylvatica of the Madras Presidency. 
6. Earz's Forest Flora of British Burma. 

6. Gamble's Trees, Shrubs and Large Climbers of the Darjeeling District. 

The last-mentioned work being referred to merely as indicating that 
the tree in question is found in the North-East Himalaya^ in the same 
way as Brandis' Forest Flora shows that the tree is found in North- West 
and Central India ; Beddome's Flora that it occurs in Madras ; Kurz's 
Forest Flora that it is a native of Burma, 

A list of other works from which information has been drawn is 
appended to this introduction^ and it must always be borne in mind 
that, excepting the actual descriptions of the woods^ very little of 
what is here given is new^ but has been compiled from all available 
sources of information. In this way the chief points of information 
here recorded under each species are-^ 

1. The scientific name — ^with synonyms, so far as the six books referred to above 

are concerned. 

2. The vernacular names — selected with as much care as possible and with the 

spelling given according to the most ordinary system and the pronunciation 

of the word. 
8. The description of the wood. 

4. The geographical distribution, as shortly as possible. 
6. The record of all available information regarding rate of growth. 

6. The results of all experiments on weight and strength that it was possible to 

quote. 

7. The uses to which the wood and other products of the tree are generally pat. 

8. The list of specimens used in identification and description. 

To have added also a botanical description of the plants as is done in 
Mathieu's " Flore Forestifere " would have doubtless increased the value of 
the work, but it would have at least doubled its size ; and^ in the present 
state of our knowledge of the Indian Flora^ would have been almost 
impossible. Besides^ as has been already explained^ the number of species 
of which the woods have been described is only a small proportion in 
reality of the total number of species of woody plants inhabiting India. 
But some attempt has been made to notice even the species which have 
not been described. In some important genera^ a list of known species 
and their geographical habitat has been given^ in other genera other 
species of note have been mentioned^ and^ whenever possible^ notes regard- 



INTRODUCTION. IZ . 

ing the uses and qualities of the wood and the other prodncts of the trees 
80 referred to have been added. One great object in having thos men- 
tioned other species has been kept in view; vit., to show Forest Officers 
and others who may have the opportunity^ toAat we have not got^ and so 
persuade them to help^ by sending to the writer or to the Forest School 
Museum^ specimens that can be described and help at some future time in 
the publication of a more correct and complete description of the Indian 
woods than can now be attempted. In a few cases where most of the 
species are well koown^ as^ for instance^ the Maples^ an attempt at an 
analytical key by which the species may be roughly determined in the 
forests has been given. In the French Forest Flora this has been done 
for all species^ and the different Indian Forest Floras have similar 
analyses^ but they are all dependent on more or less difficult botanical 
characters^ while what we chiefly require is a series of keys which shall 
enable a non-botanical Forest Officer to ascertain the species of the tree 
he meets with^ by means of the more conspicuous differences in habit^ 
bark^ and leaf. 

It is now necessary to explain how the descriptions of the woods were 
made. During the progress of the work of preparation of specimens in 
Calcutta^ and afterwards at more leisure in Simla^ the examination of the 
different woods and their description was made by a committee which 
consisted of— 

1. Dr. D. Brandis, F.B.S., C.I.E., Inspector GeDeral of Forests. 

2. Mr. J. S. Gamble, M.A., Assistant to the Inspector General of Forests. 

3. Mr. A. Smjthies, B.A., Assistant Conservator of Forests, Central Provinces. 

The descriptions were usually dictated by Dr. Brandis, and written 
down by one of the others, generally Mr. Smythies, but the wood struc- 
ture was examined by all three officers and discussed before the descrip- 
tion was finally passed. The whole was gone over three or four times^ 
and in the later examinations, when the Committee was more accus- 
tomed to the differences of structure, the generic and family characters 
were discussed and drawn up. Some of the later received specimens, as 
well as those given in 'Addenda,' were described by the writer, but on 
the same plan and principle as was originally adopted by the Committee. 

In the description of the woods the chief characters of which note 

has been given are :— 

1. Size of tree. 

2. Evergreen or deciduous. 

3. Description of bark — 

a. Colour. 

5. Thickness. 

c. Appearance and fissures, exfoliation. 



X INTRODUCTION. 

4. Description of wood (sapwood and heartwood)^> 

a. Colour. 

h. Hardness. 

c. Grain. 
6. Annual rings. 

6. Pores. 

7. Medullary rays. 

8. Other characters, such as the presence or absence of concentric markings. 

and these characters require a short explanation. 

1. Size. — The plants are usually described as '^shrubs'', "large shrubs^', 
"•^ small trees *', " trees*', " large trees'*, and " very large trees'', according 
to general size; or as "climbing" or "straggling plants". 

2. Evergreen or Beciduous.^'These characters are given as far as our 
knowledge of the trees extends, and are easily understood. 

3. jSar^.— -Is described according to its colour, which usually presents 
some shade of grey or brown, varying into white, or red, or black ; its thick- 
ness represented by the fractions of the inch ; its roughness or smoothness, 
and the fissures and clefts into which it is cut externally ; its texture whe- 
ther hard or soft, papery or corky ; and the way in which it exfoliates. 

4. Wood, — The wood is described whenever possible according to 
both sapwood and heartwood. The colour is given as nearly as possible 
according to the shades, usually of white or brown, but varying into red^ 
grey, yellow, purple p nd black. The hardness is given according to the 
different categories as 'extremely soft"," very soft", " soft", '* moderately 
hard", " hard", "very hard", and " extremely hard", and in order to give 
an idea of thes* different categories we may instance the following among 
well-known trees : — 



Extremely soft 



Very soft • 
Soft 

Moderately hard 
Hard 

Very hard . 
Extremely hard 



Coehlospermum Oossypium, 



. Sterculia villosa; Bomhax malaharieum, 

• Cedrela Toona ; Albizzia ttipulata, 
. Ficus hengalenHs ; Tectona grandis, 

• Shorea robusia ; Terminalia tomentosa, 
. Dalbergia Sissoo ; Quercus iemecarpifolia, 
. Pterocarpiu santalinus; Hardwickia binata. 

The grain is usually recorded as being " close ", " even ", " open ", 
" rough ", '^ cross", &c., &c., and the relative roughness or smoothness is 
generally given. 

5. Annual ringe.'^In the description of the wood these are only 
referred to as regards their presence or absence, their being more or less 
well marked, and the marks which so distinguish them. 

6. Fores.^'As in the case of the hardness, so, too, the pores are de- 
scribed according to a scale of size which varies in those trees which 
possess them, as " extremely small ", " very small ", " small ", " moderate 



niTRODITCnOH. Xl 

sized '', " large '*, '' very large '^ and '* extremely large '*. As examples 

of these categories may be given— 

Extremely small . . . Buxus tempervirens. 

Very small . . . Acer pictum. 

Small • . • Adina cordifolia. 

Moderate-sized • • . Bauia latifolia, 

"Large • • . Albiztia Lebbek. 

Yerj large . • • Eryihrina subero^a. 

Extremely large • . Many climbers, 

7. Medullary rays, — The classification of the medullary rays has been 

made upon a similar plao^ and they have been divided into '^ extremely 

fine'', " very fine", " fine", '* moderately broad", '' broad", '* very broad", 

and '^ extremely broad ", examples of which categories are— > 

Extremely fine . • . Euonymtu lacerus. 



Very fine • 

Fine 

Moderately broad 
Broad 
Very broad 
Extremely broad 



. Diospyros Melanoxylofu 

• Albizzia Lebbek. 
. Dillenia pentagyna. 

• Blatanus orientalis, 

• Quercus incana, 
. Samara robuita. 

In addition, the distance between the medullary rays is usually given 
and is compared with the diameter of the pores. The medullary rays are 
said to be dUiant when they are further apart than twice the diameter 
of the pores, and in some species they are closer together than that 
diameter, often bending round the pores which come between them. 

8. Other characters, — The most noticeable of these are the presence or 
absence of concentric bars across the rays ; and of patches of white tissue 
and the way they are disposed. These other characters are often 
valuable accessaries in determining the genera, and even the family to 
which a wood belongs. The woods of different species of AxoNACEiB are 
all characterised by regular ladder-like transverse bars, and so far as the 
experience gained in the preparation of this work goes, the character 
affords an unmistakeable sign for recognizing the trees of that order. 

In Sapotacsa again, the wavy concentric lines and the arrangement 
of the pores in short wavy lines affords a character which is almost cer- 
tain ; and if any doubt could arise it would be between that order and 
its neighbour the Ebenacb^, which, however, almost always differs in 
having the wood of a white, grey or black colour, while that of 
SAPOTACBiB is generally some shade of red. 

Concentric lines of soft texture occur in many families and genera. 
They are very common in the LBGUMiNOSiE, as may be seen from the 
description of the seven groups which the woods of that family form, as 
described at pages 115, 116. They occur also in Qarcinia and Mesua 



xii iirrRODUoTioil. 

among GufriTSRiB ; in Elaodendron, CelastruSy and Lophopetalum among 
CfiLASTRiNBiB ; in Heynea^ Amoora^ and JTalsura among Mbliacejb ; Cordia 
in BoBAGiNELS^ and in other genera. The wood of the trees of the great 
and important order of CoNiFBRiB is always recognizable^ at any rate^ by 
the constant character of the absence of pores ; that of the Cupulifebjb 
by the arrangement of the pores in wavy, radial lines, and a particular 
texture; somewhat broad medullary rays often indicate the orders 
DiLLBNiACB^, RHizoPHORBiS, and MYRSiNEiB ; a close and even-grained 
wood, most species of the great order of Rubiacbj; ; while the large 
genus P%cu9 has its woods extremely uniform in character and recognized 
by alternate layers of soft and firm tissue. 

In this way a little practice enables a very near guess to be made at 
the scientific name of the tree which gave any wood which it may be 
necessary to determine, and it may be hoped that, with a rather wider 
acquaintance with the woods of India, we may be in a position to draw up 
an analytical table for the woods which are most chiefly in use in India, 
similar to that given at the end of the French Forest Flora. 

Mention has been made of some families and genera which have woods 
of similar character and structure, but it is also necessary to point out 
that there is no regular rule for determining orders and genera by means 
of the wood, for in some cases the structure of the different component 
genera or species presents characters of a very dissimilar type. In the 
genus Dalbergiay for instance, there is a very great dissimilarity, so that 
while three species (see p. 124.) have hard dark-coloured heavy woods, 
others have white, often soft, woods without heartwood, and one species 
has the peculiarity of a wood divided into concentric rings, which are often 
separable, of alternate layers of wood and bark-like tissue. 

But, in general, it may be said that in the same genus the wood 
structure is usually constant, and in this way the character may often 
serve as a valuable aid in botanic investigation, as it has constantly done 
in palsBontology. 

It is not always easy to give in words an explanation of the reasons 
which lead one who is tolerably conversant with the structure of woods to 
pronounce an opinion ; there are often characters of appearance, touch, 
colour, odour, &c., which afford clues, as well as the arrangement and 
relative size of the pores and medullary rays, and the presence or absence 
of annual rings ; so that it is really only experience and habit that can 
teach us to recognize, from a mere inspection of a wood, the place which 
it ought to occupy in the natural system. 

As an instance of bow the structure of a wood may bear out an opinion 



iMTBODUcrnoN. xii| 

on generic distinction the following may be given. When describing 
the woods of the different species of Olive, one kind was met with which 
presented a stmctore entirely dissimilar from the rest. This was our 
No. E 379 which was sent, accompanied by leaf specimens, from the 
higher forests of Sikkim. Wishing to ascertain the name. Dr. Brandis 
took the specimens to the Calcatta Herbarium, and after careful examina- 
tion pronounced them to belong to a species of OsmaniAus, a genus 
closely allied to Olea, and it is as OsmantAus, nov. sp., that the 
wood is described at p. 257. A few days ago, in the forest near 
Darjeeling, the writer found trees of the well known Osmanfhus/ra^rans, 
and on examining the wood, found that it agreed in structure with 
No. E. 379, having the pretty network of anastomosing bands of pores, 
and not the more regular and uniform arrangement presented by OUa. 
So that the correctness of Dr. Brandis^ determination is borne out 
by the structure of the wood at any rate. 

The examination of specimens to determine the rate of growth was 
chiefly made by Mr. Smythies, assisted at one time by Dr. Warth ; and, 
in writing the account of rate of growth, reference has been made to all 
the information published, or otherwise obtainable, on the subject. For 
the principal woods some data have been procured which will doubtless 
be very valuable ; while even the record of the countings made on our 
small specimens is, though not absolutely reliable, at any rate useful as 
a commencement. Whenever possible, countings were made on the log, 
on the whole diameter of the section, but time and leisure were not 
always available for this during the work in Calcutta, so that many of 
the results given are merely calculated from an inspection of such pieces 
as were available, and are necessarily, therefore, not completely reliable. 
This explanation is necessary, in order that it may be well understood, 
that our record is not always a record of the results of a series of care- 
fully conducted experiments and examinations, but in many cases is only 
given as a beginning and as being the best information available. 

The discussion of the rate of growth of teak was based on a memo- 
randum which was published by Dr. Brandis on the subject and circu- 
lated ; that of sil was chiefly drawn up by Mr. Smythies, and ap- 
peared first in Vol. IV, page 324, of the Indian Forester-, the rest were 
drawn up by the writer. Information regarding the rate of growth of 
our forest trees is one of the greatest of our desiderata, as such informa- 
tion is essential to the determination of the rotation of forests and the 
construction of working plans, so that no possible opportunity should be 
lust of collecting information on the subject. 



nv INTBODITCTION. 

The rate of growth is recorded as ^' slow '\ " moderate '*, or '* fast ", 
according as the namber of rings per inch is greater than 12^ between 12 
and 6y and less than 6. These correspond to ages at 6 feet in girth of 
134 years, 67 to 134, and 67 years respectively. 

Weight, — As already stated in reference to the annual rings, the ex- 
periments made with our specimens in ascertaining the specific gravity 
of different kinds of woods, are also merely given as being often the only 
information available. Most of the specimens weighed were of small size, 
and they were, perhaps, not always cut so as to be capable of very exact 
measurement, but, nevertheless, the information obtained is of value and 
can serve until it is supplemented or superseded by more accurate experi- 
ments made with a large choice of specimens. 

The weighings were done by Mr. Smythies and Dr. H. Warth, and 
the result is given in the form of the number of pounds per cubic foot, as 
being a more easily utilized form of information than the figures repre- 
senting the specific gravity, compared with that of water taken as 1. 
The weight here recorded is always, unless otherwise stated, that of sea- 
soned timber, and it is given as " light^^, " moderately heavy'', '^ heavy '', 
and *' very heavy " according as the woods give:— 

lAght, less than SOlbs. per cubic foot. 

Moderately heavy, from SOlbs. to 501bB. per cabio foot. 

Heavy, from 501bs. to TOlbs. per cubic foot. 

Very heavy, over 701bs. per cubic foot. 

As in the Forest Flora of North- West and Central India, only the in- 
formation regarding the tramverse strength of timber is recorded, though 
in a few cases the modulus of elasticity is also given. 

In regard to transverse strength, the value of P is the result obtained 
by the formular— 

W X L 
B X D* 

where — 

W=The breaking weigbt, or the weight which when placed on the middle of tht 

bar causes it to break. 
L=the length of the bar between supports, in feet. 
B=the breadth of the bar, in inches. 
D=it8 thickness, in inches. 

A great number of recorded experiments have been brought together, 
chiefly from those made by Baker, Skinner, Benson, Bennett, Dundas, 
and others, while in these pages are for the first time published the re- 
sults of the valuable and careful experiments made in Calcutta by Dr. 
Brandis in 1864. 



nrrBOBUCTioK. xv 

In writing ihe remarks on the producU of each tree, the uses for 
which its wood is valuable, and the various economic purposes to which 
the bark, fibre, gum, fruit, leaves, &c., are put, information has been 
extracted from a very large series of books and papers, official documents 
and notes furnished by the officers who contributed to the Paris Exhibi- 
tion. In fact, almost all available sources of information have been con- 
sulted in order to make the remarks as complete as possible. But there 
is still much to be done, every day adds some new fact to the stores of 
our information regarding Indian trees : and the Departmental Reports, 
the Indian Foresierj and the various publications of Government on 
the different subjects of economic interest, the dyes, fibres, gums, oils, 
&c., are constantly still increasing this information, so that before long 
even the more recently added items will become old in their turn. 
As our knowledge of Indian trees and their uses and capabilities extends, 
and as specimens are obtained and wood structures described, so it is 
hoped that facts may be collected which will enable some future Forest 
Officer to revise and republish this work, bringing it up to date and 
making more wide the area of our knowledge of the wonderful 
productions of the very varied forest flora of India. It may be 
called ambitions to attempt a description, even in the shape of a ^ Pro- 
dromus,^ of the woods of such a wide field as that of British India ; but 
the difficulty would always be, in attempting to restrict the area, that 
the various floras of the different regions run so much into one another, 
and so often contain the same or similar species ; so that it may be hoped 
that the publication of this work, which, except as regards the wood struc- 
ture alone, is only after all a compilation, will be looked upon chiefly as 
an attempt to describe the principal woods of India, and in a less degree 
as a convenient book of reference for the native names and economic uses 
of Indian trees. 

The Addenda-Corrigenda sheets are rather lengthy, but the num- 
ber of corrected mistakes is not very great, the chief reason for length 
being the addition of descriptions of woods lately obtained and of native 
names not before published. The K61 names for instance, it is believed, 
are herein published for the first time : , these, as well as a few Oraon, 
Bhumij and Kharwar names, were collected by the writer in the winter of 
1880-81; and he has also added a number of Uriya names obtained 
in the forests of Khurda, and Magh and Bengali names obtained in 
Chittagong. The Mechi and Garo names attached to Mr. Shakespear's 
collections in the Bengal Forest Herbarium have also been added, as 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

well as tbe Mysore names published recently by Major VanSomeren. 
Some further information regarding the rate of growth has also been 
given. 



J. S. GAMBLE. 



DaBJBILINO : 

November, 1881. 



XVll 



LIST OF BOOKS AND PUBLISHED PAPERS REFERRED TO. 

Anderson. An Enmneration of the Palms of Sikkim. Joomal of the Linnean 
Society of London, 1868. 

. An Enumeration of the Indian Species of AcanthaoesB. Journal of the 

liinnean Society of London, 1866. 

Atkinson. Economic Products of the North- Western Provinces. ' Gums and Qnm- 
resins/ Allahabad, 1876. 

Baden-FowelL Hand-hook of the Economic Products of the Punjab, Boorkdo, 
1868. 

Baker. Experiments on the Elasticity and Strength of Different Kinds of Timber. 
Gleanings in Science, 1829. 

Balfour, Timber Trees of India^ Madras, 1870. 

Beddome. Flora Sylvatica of the Madras Presidency, Madras, 1869-73. 

. Report on the Nilambur Teak Plantations, Madras, 1878. 

Bennett. Experiments on Andaman woods. Professional Papers on Lidian En- 
gineering, Koorkee. 

Bentham and Hooker. Genera Plantarum, Vols. I and II. 

Bidie. Report on Neilgherry Loranthaceous Plants, Madras, 1874. 

Brandis. Forest Flora of North- West and Central India, London, 1874. 

. List of Specimens of the Woods of British Burma sent to England for the 

International Exhibition of 1862, Calcutta, 1878. 

. Catalogue of Specimens sent to the Paris Exhibition of 1878, Calcutta, 



1878. 

Brandis and others. Report on the Deodar Forests of Bussahir, 1865. 

. Working Plan for the Bias Forests, 1871. 

^ . Working Plan for the Deoban Working Circle, 1876. 

. Preliminary Working Plan of the Sutlej Working Circle, 

1876. 



• Suggestions regarding the Demarcation . and Management ul* 

the Forests of Kulu, 1877. 

Brandis. Suggestions regarding Forest Administration in the Central Provincen, 
1876. 



• Suggestions regarding Forest Administration in the Hyderabad Assicrued 

Districts, J 877. * 

. Suggestions regarding Forest Administration in Assam, 1879. 

Suggestions regarding Forest Administration in Ajmere and Merwaru, 



1879. 

Catheart and Hooker. Illustrations of Himalayan Plants, London, 1866. 
Clarke. Compositaj Indicao, Calcutta, 1876. 



. A Revision of the Ferns of Northern India. Transactions of the Linnean 

Society, 1880. 

Cleghom. The Forests and Gardens of South India, London, 1861. 

Clifford. Memorandum on the Timber of Bengal, Calcutta, 1862. 

Collins. Report on the Caoutchouc of Commerce, London, 1872. 

Cooke. Report on the Uunw, Retina, &c., in the India Museum, LouOlou, \W\, 



XVIU LIST OF BOOKS AND PUBU8HED PAPERS BEFBR&BD TO. 

Cooke. Report on the Oilseeds and Oils in the India Mnsenm, London, 1874. 

Cunningham. On Stone and Timber of the Gwalior Territory, Boorkee Professional 
Papers, 1854. 

De-Candolle. Prodromns Sjstematis Naturalis Begni Yegetabilis, Paris, 1824- 1 873. 

. Monoji^phifs Phanerogamarom, VoL I, Meliaces, Paris, 1878. 

I>on. Prodromns Floras Nepalensis, London, 1825. 

Drory. The Usef al Plants of India, Madras, 1858. 

2>anda8. Experiments made at Lucknow on the Strength of OH and Teak Timber. 
Professional Papers on Indian Engineering, 1879. 

Femandes and Smythios. Beport on the Bijeragogarh Beser^ed Forests, Nag- 
pore, 1875. 

Firminger. A Manual of Gardening for India, Calcutta, 1869. 

Eluckiger and Hanbury. Pharmacographia, London, 1874. 

Forsyth. Highlands of Central India, London, 1871. 

Gamble. List of the Trees, Shrubs, and Large Climbers of the Darjeeling District, 
Calcutta, 1878. 

Griffith. The Palms of British East India, Calcutta, 1850. 

Heifer. The Provinces of Ye, Tavoy, and Mergui on the Tenasserim Coast, Calcutta, 
1839. 

fiiern. Monograph of the Ebenaoe®. Cambridge Phil. Soc. Transactions, 1873. 

Hill and Vincent. Plan of Operations for the Simla Municipal Forests, 1876. 

Holtzapfflal. Descriptive Catalogue of the Woods commonly employed in the Me- 
chanical and Ornamental Arts, London, 1852. 

Home. Beport on the Vegetation of the Andaman Islands, Calcutta, 1874. 

Hooker. Flwa of British India, Vols. I & 11. 

. Himalayan Journals, London, 1854. 

• The Bhododendrons of the Sikkim Himalaya, London, 1849. 

and Baker. Synopsis Filicum, London, 1874. 

Hunter. Statistical Account of Bengal, Londou, 1877. 

Keay. Scantlings of Timber for Flat Boofs, Boorkee, 1872. 

King and Dey. A Qloesary of Indian Plants, Cajcutta, 1879. 

Kurs. Beport on the Vegetation of the Andaman Islands, Calcutta, 1870. 

• Preliminary Forest Beport of Pegu, Calcutta, 1875. 

. Forest Flora of British Burma, Calcutta, 1877. 

Lang. Indian Timber Trees. Professional Papers on Indian Engineering. 

Laelett. Timber and Timber Trees, London, 1875. 

Iiewin. The Hill Tracts of Chittagong, Calcutta, 1869. 

Iiindley and Moore. Treasury of Botany, London, 1873. 

Kathieo. Flore Foresti^re, Paris, 1877. 

Molesworth. GFrapbio Diagrams for the Strength of Teak Beams. Professional 
Papers on Indian Engineeriug, Boorkee. 

Munro* A Monograph of the Bambusacese. Transactions of the Linnean Society, 
1868. 

Mueller. Select Plants for Industrial Culture, Melbourne, 1876. 

Newbery. Descriptive Catalogue of the Economic Woods of Victoria, Melbourne, 
1877. 

Bibbentrop. Hints on Arboriculture in the Paigab, Calcutta^ 1874. 

• Working Plan of the Kalatop Forest, 1873. 

fiozburgh. Flora Indica, Calcutta, 1832, reprint 1874. 



LTST OP BOOKS AND PUBLISHED PAPBRS RBnCRBED TO. xix 

Boyle. moBbrations of the Botany of the Himakyan Moantains, London, 1839. 

• The Fihroos PUmts of India, London, 1855. 

Schlioh. Report on the Pyinkado Forests of Arakan, Rangoon, 1870. 

8ebert> Notice sor les Bois de k Nonvelle Caledonie, Paris. 

Bldimer. Description and Strength of some Indian Timhers, Madras, 1862. 

Stewart Punjab Plants, Lahore, 1869. 

BtrettelL Note on Gaoutchoac obtained ttom Ckavannesia eseulenia, Rangoon, 
1874. 

Thompson. Report on Insects DeetructiTe to Woods and Forests, Allahabad, 1868. 

Thwaite& Enomeratio Plantamm ZeylanisB, London, 1864 

Van Someren. List of the Forest Trees of Mysore and Coorg. 

Wallioll. Plantse Asiatics Rariores, London, 18S0. 

. ' List of Indian Woods collected by — . By A. Aikin. Transactions of 

the Sodety of Arts, 1889. 

Waring. Pharmacopoeia of India, London, 1868. 

Watson. lost of Indian Products, London, 1872. 

^ Index to Names of Eastern Plants and Products, London, 1868. 

Wight. Icones PUntarum Indi» Orientalis, Madras, 1840-1853. 

. niustratioos of Indian Botany, Madras, 1838 — 53. 

Also numerous papers in the Indian AffriculturUt, Statistical Reporter, Indian 
Forteter ana other periodicals. 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA. 



Pftge 1, iMt line bat 6. Ihr'*E2B50." read" B 2820." 

„ 2, line 7. 4fter " Andamans." add " It has a red bark, peeling off in hard flakes ; 

light brown, moderately hard wood, with large round pores and 
bn)ad medollaiy rajs (E 3370. Kasalong Kesenre, Chittagong.)" 

„ 2, DUUnia indiea. To yemacnlar names add *' Bampkal, Nep. ; Panpui, 

Giro ; Betta kanagala, had kanagala^ Kan. ; Ckilta, Monghyr ; 
Oao, Uri ja ; '* 

^ 2, line 6 from the bottom, after ' radios.' add " A ronnd (E 2810) in the Bengal 

Forest Mnsenm shews 62 rings for a mean radios of 6^ inches, or 
nearly 9 rings per inch." 

3, line 4. Add" The leaves are said by Mr. Brownlow of Cachar to be used for 
feeding the silkworm Attaeus Atlas.'*- 

3, 2>. pentagyna. To yemacalar names add ** Pashkouli, Rajbanshi ; Ayar, 
Mone hyr ; Uekki^ Qtkvo ; Korkot, Oraon ; Korkotta, Edl ; Kaltega, 
kad kanagala, Kan. ; " 



99 



99 



99 



99 



n 



M 



99 



99 



99 



f» 



» 



99 



3, D. pentagyna. To numbers add-^ 

"C3571. Ehurdha Forests, Orissa .... 49 lbs." 

5, Tcdauma SbdgsonL To vernacular names add '* Laigtmgron, Mechi ; 

Fankakro, Giro ;" 

6 Magnolia Campbellii. Before yemacular names add " Bed Magnolia." and 
to vernacular names add " Patagari, Bhutia ; " 

6, Mickelia Cathcartii. To numbers add — 

"E3321. Darjeeling, 6,600 ft." 

6, ]i£. exeelsa. To vernacular names add " Pendre, Lepcha ; 

7, line 2. 4f^er " specimens." add " Toung specimens cut in the Park, Dar- 

jeeling, shew 4 to 7 ^nes per inch of radius ; while a large ronnd 
(E 3631) in the Bengal Forest Museum, having a girth of 91 inches, 
shows 7 rings per inch mean growth." 

7, M, excelio. To numbers add-^ 

"E3686. Darjeeling, 7,000 ft." 

7, line 18. After " growth moderate " add ** 6 rings per inch of radius." 

7, M. lanuginosa. To numbers add-^ 

"E3331. Darjeeling, 6,000 ft 36 lbs." 

9, Polgalthia eerasoides. To vernacular names add " San hessare, Kan ; " 

9. After Poltixthia add " C 3488, from the Kolh4n Forests, Singbhtim, 
Chota Nagpore, is probably P. euberoea, Roxb. Yem. Sandi omi, 
K61. Bark thick, Drown. Wood olive grey, hard, close-grained, 
resembling that of P. cerasoidee,** 

10, Saecopetalum iomentosum. To vernacular names add " Omi^ hake AtSmti 

Kdl ; JSeesare, Kan. ; " 



11 

Page 10, S, tomentosum. To namben add — 

« C 3471. Saranda Forests, Chota Nagpore." 

„ 10. u^fter Saccopbtaxxtm above the 12th line from the bottom of the 
pAge,add — 

" C 3536, from the Khardha Forests, Orissa. Yem. Patmossu, 
Urija, resembles the wood of Saccopetalum iomeniosum, but is whiter. 
Weight, 51 lbs. per cubic foot." 

*'E 3368, from the Kasalong Beserve, Chittagong, is Unona 
longiflora, Roxb. FL Ind. ii. 668 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 61 ; Kurz i. 
35, a small tree of Assam, the Khasia Hills, and Chittagong. Bark 
greenish-grej, thin, smooth. Wood yellowish white, moderately 
hard, close-grained. Pores small, scattered, scanty. Medullary rays 
moderately Droad, joined by numerous white transverse bars. 

" B 3380, from the hills to the east of Toungoo, British Burma, 
is Mitrephora vandcBflora, Eurz L 45, a tree of the forests of 
Chittagong and Pegu, but chiefly found in the Martaban Hills. 
The wood is grey, moderately hard. Pores small to moderate-sized, 
not numerous. Medullaiy rays moderately broad, joined by numerous, 
r^ular, white transverse bars. 

<< E 3300, from Chunbati, Darjeeling, 2,000 ft., is Chniothalamus 
sesguinedalis, Hook. f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 73 ; Eurz i. 41 ; 
Gamble 3. Yem. Sand, Nep. ; Singnoh, Lepcha, a small shrub of 
the Eastern Himalaya down to Burma. Bark black. Wood dark 
grey, soft. Pores extremely small. Medullary rays fine to moder- 
ately broad, wavy. Transverse bars very numerous, very fine." 

„ 11, line 6. 4/rer " B 273." cwirf " B 276." 

„ 13, „ 26, JPbr"52lbs."warf"65lb8." 

„ 13, „ 29. JFbr<<Naghanda"rMk2*'Nagkanda'' 

16. Jfler "* 2. €• aphylla " oirf— 

" 8. O. horrida, Linn, f . ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 178 ; Brandis 16 ; 
EurzL 62. C. zeylaniea, fioxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 667. Yern. His, karvila. 
Ph.; \Karraltira, Oudh; Adonda, Tel.; Katemi, Gondi; Qitoran, 
Ajmere ; Bagnai, Monghyr ; Atanday, Tam. ; Osertoa, Uriya. 

" A climbing thorny shrub. Bark I inch thick, brown, rough. 
Wood yellowish white, moderately hard. Pores small to moderate- 
sized, scanty. Medullary rays moderately broad, not numerous, 
short. Faint, wavy, concentric lines of soft tissue. 

" Most parts of India and Burma. 

"P3244. Ajmere 47lb8. 

"4. C. multiflora. Hook, f . and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 178 ; 
Eurz L 61 ; Gamble 6. Yem. Suntri, Nep. 

** A climbing thorny shrub. Bark smooth, dark. Wood white, 
moderately hard. Pores small, scanty. Medullaiy rays short, fine, 
Faint concentric lines of softer texture. 

" Eastern Himalaya, Upper Burma. 

"E3349. Nagri, Darjeeling, 4,000 ft. 

" 6. C. olaoifolis, Hook. f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 178 ; Gam- 
ble 5. Yem. Naski, haia, Nep. ; JhenoJc, Lepcha. 

" A thorny shmb. Bark \ inch thick, brown, rough , corky. Wood 
white, hard. Pores small, often subdivided, or in radial lines. Medul- 
lary rays fine, very numerous. 

"Sub-Himalayan tract from Nepal to Assam, chiefly in the 
undergrowth of Sissti forests^ along rivers. 

"£3297. Balason, Daijeeling Terai . . 44 lbs. 



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»t 



»» 






9» 






6. C. sepiaria, Lmn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 177; Brandis 15; 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 668; Kurz i. 66. Vern. ffiiin garna, Pb.; 
KomH kapalij Urija. 

"A shrub. Bark brown, Jtb inch thick. Wood white, hard. 
Pores moderate-sized, scanty. Medolkuy rajs short, fine. Faint, 
white, concentric bands. 

** Dry places in India and Borma. 

*'P3242. Ajmere. 

"C 3580, from Ehnrdha, Orissa, is thin species. The wood 
resembles that of the Ajmere specimen, but the medullary rays are 
moderately broad and longer." 

Page 16, OratiBva religioia. To Temacular names add " l}iiladu, bunbartmda, 

Mechi ; Nirujani, Coorg ; " 

16, line 22. For " moderately fine " read ** moderately broad " 

16, „ 32. 4fter *' Zatkan" add " natkdnd," 

16, „ 33. AJUr ** Kuppa-manhala," add '* rangamali" 

16, „ 13 from the bottom. Add after " Nilgiris " " Sanna solti, Hassan ;" 

16, „ 7 from the bottom. Before ** Flaeourtia" add ** Bixa,'* 

16, last line but one. For " Euntto." read " Eunth." 

17, Cockloepermum Qoe^mum. To vernacular names add ^^ Hupu, K61; 
betta tovare, £an. ; Konto palds, Uriya ;" 

17, line 17. After " Buighexs," add " Doddajepalu, Kan." 

i 8, Flacourtia Ramontchi. To vernacular names add *' Serali, tnerlo, K61 ; 
KcUaU, Palamow; Bali baincho, Uriya;" and to numbers add 
*' C 3453. Saidope Reserve, Palamow, Chota Nagpore," and *' 3488. 
Eolhin Forests, Singbhum, Chota Nagpore." 

18, at the end of Flicoubtia after line 18 add " C 3619, from the 
Ehurdha Forests, Orissa, is Flacourtia sepiaria^ Bozb. Vern. 
Baineha, haineh holi, Uriya. Bark yellowish -red, thin. Wood light 
red, hard, close and even-grained. Pores very small, in radial lines 
between the very fine, uniform, closely-packed, wavy meduUary rays." 

18, line 31. For " H 2947." read " H 2949." 

18, line 32. AJUr " Assam " add " Chota Nagpore " 

18, at the bottom of the page, add " E 3401 from Julpigori, Bengal, is the wood 
of Bi^ea Oreliana, Linn. Bark brown, | inch thick. Wood pinkish 
white, soft, even-grained. Pores moderate-sized, in radial strings of 
3 to 6, prominent on a vertical section. Medullary rays fine, closely 
packed. Dent round the pores or groups of pores, so that the distance 
between the rays is less than the transverse diameter of the pores. 
Annual rin^ marked by a line without pores. Growth moderate : 
6 rings per inch of radius." 

19, Order XI. PoLTOALEiE. At the end add '* No. E 3393 is Polvgala 
arillata. Ham., from Jalapahar, Daijeeling, 7,600 ft. It has a 
thin grey bark, and white, sofl wood. Pores small, arranged in 
radial, or sometimes oblique, lines or patches. Medullary rays fine, 
scanty. Annual rings distinct." 

20, heading. For " Tamaria " read " Tamarix " 

21, line 11 from the bottom. After " Kirhalli" add " hallagi" 

23, „ 22. After*' Maiaw,^xamr add** I>ivarige,K9Xi,\** 

24, Garcinia Cambogia, To vernacular names add ** Manthulli, Kan. " 
24 &. Morella. To vernacular names add ** Kankutake, Ean. ; " 
24. J^fUr " 4. G. Morella, " above line 8 from the bottom, add — 

" 6. G. Btdpolata, T. And. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 267 ; Qamblo 7. 
Yem. Sanakadan, Lepcha. 



IV 

"A tree with brown bark. Wood H^ht orange-yellow, moderatelr 
bard, close-grained. Pores moderate-sized, sometimes subdivided. 
Medollaiy rajs moderately broad, numerous. Numerous wavy con- 
centric bands of soft texture, and of colour lighter than the rest of the 
wood, across the rays, and often anastomosing. 

** Sikkim and Bhutan in damp forests up to 4^000 ft. 

" The fruit is yellow and sometimes eaten by Lepchas. It gives 
a yellow gum, chiefly from the fruit, but it does not seem to be used. 

"Ea352. Kalimpung, Bhutan, 4,000 ft. 



** E 3365 is a specimen of the wood of a Gareinia from Burkhal, 
Chittagong Hill Tracts. Bark thin, brown. Wood reddish white, 
moderately hard. Pores large, scanty, often subdivided. Medullary 
rays fine to broad. Numerous, wavy, concentric bands of soft tissue 
across the rays." 

Page 26, line 16. For '* are found " read " they are found " 

„ 25, Calophyllum inophyllum. To vernacular names add ** Finehai, Ean.; 
Foonang, Unya ; " 

„ 25, line 10 from the bottom. Add " Sebert in ' Lea Bois de la Nouvelle Cal^onie ' 
says it is a magnificent wood for cabinet-maker's work, and that it 
gives a yellowish gpreen, pleasantlv scented resin. He gives the mean 
apecifio gravity as 0*924 equivalent to nearly 59 lbs. per cubic foot. 
ui Orissa it is much cultivated, and an oil extracted from the seeds 
is used for burning." 

26, C tometUosum. To vernacular names add " Kuve, bohhij Ean. ; " 

26, line 15. Jfter ** per cubic foot." add ** Molesworth in ' Graphic Diagrams 
for Strength of Teak Beams ' gives : Weight, 37 lbs., P = 640, 
B = 3,500." 






t* 

9f 



f» 



if 



27, Muuaferrea. To vernacular names add ** Nahsher, Mechi ; ^(0#ara,Ean. ;" 

27, line 9. After ** everprreen tree." add " Bark ^ inch thick, reddish brown, 
peding off in flat thin flakes, leaving a slightly roughened surface." 

27, line 26. AJter ** cubic foot in weight. " add *' Molesworth in ' Graphic Dia- 
grams for Strength of Teak Beams' gives : Weight, 71 lbs., P= 1,040, 
E = 6,000." 

27, at the end of MssuA, add ** C 3513 and C 3524 (55 lbs.), from Eohori, Ehur- 

dha, Orissa, where the tree was planted on an area of about 12 acres 
by a former Baja of Ehurdha, are Ochrocarpus longifolius, Bth. and 
Hook, f . Yern. Chhuriana, Uriya. Bark reddish brown, \ inch t^ck, 
exuding a red gum. Wood red, hard, close- and even-grained. Pores 
moderate-sized. Medullary rays moderately broad, very numerous, 
the distance between them equal to, or less than, the diameter of the 
pores. Annual rings marked by a darker line. Lines of soft texture 
numerous, but indistinct. Numerous resin-ducts in radial long cells, 
which appear as shining lines on a horizontal, and black points on a 
vertical transverse section. Growth moderate, 8 rings per inch of 
radius. Weight, 55 lbs. per cubic foot." 

28, line 25. For " Bhutan Himalaya." read " Sikkim and Bhutan Himalaya." 

28, line 10 from the bottom. Add ** Growth moderate, 7 rings per inch of 

radius." 

29, line 15. AJter " Ouli gogen, Nep. ; " add " Laidonto, Mechi ; " 

29, at the end o{ L S. napaolensis, add — 

" 2. S. Boxburghii, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 287 ; Eurz i. 103 ; 
Gamble 8. Temstrdmia serrata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 521. Yern. 
DaMf, Sylhet ; Ouli gogen, Nep. ; Dangeipha, Lepcha ; Laidonto, 
Mechi. 



"A small tree. Bark thin, reddish brown. Wood reddish 
hrown, soft, with large central pith. Pores small, very numerous. 
MednUary rays fine, very nnmerons and closely set. 

" Eastern Sab-Himakyan tracts Khasia Hills, Eastern Bengal 
and Boinuu 

"£3271. Borojhar Beserye, Western Ddars . 42 lbs." 

Page 29^ Sekima WallickU. To vernacular names add *' Singbrang, Lepoha ; 

Cfugera, Giro ; Qogra, phulgogra, Mechi ; Sanpraban, Magh ; 
Sambaw, Airacan ;" 

„ 90, S. Wdllichii. To numbers add — 

"£3602. Sivoke Forests, Darjeeling Terai . . 41 lbs." 

„ 30, line 9. After ''demand" add ''Hooker in Himalayan Journals i. 157, 
says that it is much prized for ploughshares ana other purposes need- 
ing a hard wood." 

„ 30, lines 16 and 17 from the bottom. Ihr "Bark thin*' read "Bark very 
thin " and far " Wood fiprey, soft, even-grained " re<id " Wood pink, 
moderately hard, close- and even-grained." 

„ dO, Camellia drup\fera. To list of numbers add — 

"£3358. Sivoke Hills, Darjeeling, 1,500 ft. . 60 lbs." 

^ SO,lastUne. jFbr " 3142 " rmii " 3143" 

„ 82, line 28. 4fter ** Chtga," add '^ ^oalivara,'* 

„ 32, last line but one. Jfter "No. 63," add "(marked 2>. alatue, which how- 
ever is not the ' £ng ' tree, as this is)." 

9, 34» line 13. jPbr " Medullary rays fine, broad " read " Medullary rays fine to 
broad." 

„ 34, Shorea rohusta. To vernacular names add " Sarjwn^ K61 ; Sargi, Bhumij ; 
Sahoa, Kharwar ; Sekwa, Oraon ; Shal, Beng ; " 

36, above line. 12 from the bottom, ineert " Recent countings made in the 
forests of Ghota Nagpore shew that the rate of growth in Saranda may 
be taken at 7 to 9 rings per inch for trees growing in good soil in 
sheltered localities, and 12 to 16 rings for trees in more exposed 
conditions. (Indian Forester, Vol. YL, p. 318.) Small trees counted 
in Orissa gave the very good rate of 3 rings per inch. Countings of 
rings on rounds in the Bengal Forest Museum, cut in the Dulka Jhar 
Reserve, shew as follows : — 



99 



99 



No. 


Binge. 


BAdioB. 


£3626 


47 


8*6 inches. 


£3627 


42 


80 „ 


£3628 


53 


8-6 „ 


E3629 


70 


90 „ 


£3630 


57 


8-0 „ 



or an average of 6*2 rings per inch of radius. No. £ 3617 from 
Sivoke and £ 3616 from ]E£ununpokri, both rounds, give : the first 7, 
the second 5*7 rings per inch, so that the Sikkim Terai sal seems to 
have a similar rate of growth to that of Oudh." 

36, last line but one. After " being 790 " add " Molesworth in ' Graphic Dia- 
grams for Strength of Teak Beams ' gives : Weight, 60 Ids., P = 
926, £ = 4,800.'^ 
n 37, in schedule of experiments. After " Cunningham " last line but two, add — 

2,500 





1877 


Oadh 


18 


lyxV'xe" 


68 


861 £ 


tt • • 


ft 


(• * • 


12 


2'xl"xl" 


$t 


864 


Thornhill . 


1846 


Teral of N.-W. 
P.andOadh. 


88 


Vtrioos 


If 


710" 



38, line 13. After " now available," add " (A tree, measured in the Valley of 
the Great Rangit, Darjeeling, gave : girth at 4 ft. from the ground 
128 inches; height 161 feet; height to first branch, 86 feet.)" 



VI 



f> 



»* 



Page 38, in list of numbers. Far "0 388" read " 386, 387, 388, 390.' 

38, Aff^ C1236 arfi— 

** C 3434. Kamandi Reserve, Palamow. 

'*C3440. Netarh4t, Palamow. 

"C3441. Chanpi 

** 3444. Henar ^ 

"C 3473 1^°?^' Saranda, Smgbhum. 

"C3478! -) (-2,700 feet. 

"C 3479. Unkua HUl, Saranda ] 2,000 

" C 3480. ) t 1,800 

" 3490. Eolhin Forests, Singbhiim. 

" C 3556. Ehurdha Forests, Orissa ... 48 lbs. 

••C3516. „ „ > 

" E 3385. Berbampore Forest, Bangpore, Bengal 80 lbs. 

and after " E 2322 " add— 

*' £ 3616, 3618. Bamonpokri, Darjeeling, 1 ,000 ft. 

'* E 3624 to E 3630. Dolka Jbar, DaijeeUng Terai 57 lbs. (E3625) 

*' E 3589. Sivoke Forests, Darjeeling Terai . . 47 lbs. 



ft 



>f 



$* 
» 
ft 



tt 
tt 

f$ 

»$ 

t9 



ft 



"E3617. 



*> 99 9* }» 



" E 3390. Dhupguri, W. Duars. 

39, at tbe end of 6. S. siamensis, acfd— 

*' 7. S. assamioa, Dyer ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 307. Vem. Mahai^ 
Ass. 

** A large tree. Wood brown, moderately hard. Pores large, 
sometimes surrounded by a ring of lighter tissue. Medullary ray s 
fine to moderately broad, short, the distance between them equal to 
the diameter of the pores. 

" Upper Assam. 

'* The wood, according to Mr. Mann, is used for planking and for 
making canoes. 

" E 3369. Makum, Assam." 

40, line 27. For " Bennett in 1872, No. 5, Andaman Wood, gave 58 lbs., P = 

737" read " Bennett in 1872, No. 5, three experiments with Andaman 
wood 3* X l\^ X \\^ gave 58 lbs., P = 711." 

42, „ 17 from the bottom. After " Beng. ;" add " Maoh, G^ro ; " 

42, „ 10 from the bottom. After " Juwa, oru, Beng. ;" add "Daswdla, Kan. ;" 

43, M 2. Add " Sebert in ' Les Bois de la Nouvelle Cal^donie' says it is used 

at Tahiti for plankbg and building light boats." 

43. After line 4 add ** E 3289, from the Binkheong Beserve, Chittagong, is the 
wood of JT*. macrophylltts, Bozb. A small tree. Bark i in. thick, 
light brown, fibrous, rather smooth. Sapwood white, heartwood light, 
purplish brown, sof^ even-grained. Pores large, somewhat scanty, 
often subdivided. Medullary rays fine but clearly marked, unequally 
distributed, short. Annual rings marked by fewer pores in the 
autumn wood. Chrowth fast, 3 rings per inch of radius. 

43, line 8. After " (Wallich) ; " add « BeH K6\ ; " 

43, Thespesia populnea. To vernacular names add *' Asha, hurvashi, Kan, ; 
Buffari, Hassan ; " 

43, line 23. Add " Sebert in / Les Bois de la Nouvelle Calddonie* gives the 
weight at 42 lbs. per cubic ft." 

43, Kydia calycina. To vernacular names add *' Moshungon, Mechi ; Bit ha 

gonyer, Kdl; Derhi, Eharwar; Kunji, Gondi; Bende-ndru, Kan.; " 

44, Bombax malabaricum. To vernacular names add-r- 

'< Fanchu, Qkro ; D^l, K6\ ; Burga, Kan. ; " 



Vll 



Page 44^ B. malabarieum. To numbers add — 

" £ S0O6. Sivoke Forests, Darjeeling Terai/' 

„ 44, line 16 from bottom. After '^cattinfff." add ''C978 is a fine specimen 
of the fibre sent from Berar and capable of being used for rough 
paper." 

45, last line but one. After " Dodeli, Ean.; " add " Bara laiphanzeh, Mechi ; " 

46, Stereulia urens. To yemacular names add '* Keonge, Manbhdm ; Teley, 
E61 ; Moguli karaunji, Mongbyr ; " and to numbers add — 

** C 3436. £umandi Reserve, Palamow, Cbota Nagpore." 

46, S, ffiUasa, To vernacular names add "Siei, walkdm, K61 ; Bironja, Mun- 
dari ; Sieir, Oiaon ; " 

47, S. eolarata. To vernacular names add ** Siei, K61 ; Zersima, Kharwar ;" 

49, Helieteres leora. To vernacular names add ** Ainihia dhamin, Monghvr ; 
Benta, sc^omeing, K6\ ; Aiteni, Eharwar ; Muri-muri, Uriya ; 



99 






9» 

9* 
» 

» 

99 

99 
99 

99 

99 

>9 



99 
99 
99 



40, Bterospermum aeerifolium. To vernacular names add " Zaider, Mechi ;" 
and thange " Mw, Beng." to ** Mue, Beng." 

49, P. acerifolium. To numbers add — 

" E 3596. Sivoke Forests, Darjeeling Terai . . 46 lbs." 

50, P. euherifolium. To vernacular names add "Qiringa, Uriya ;" and to 

numbers add*'C 3523, C 3534. Ehurdha Forests, Orissa." 

60. Brioksna Hooheriana. To vernacular names add ** Bundiin, oit buluttg, 
Edl ; Bonra, Oraon ; " 

51, line 8. J?br " C 3791" read «C 3191," and after it add " C 3437. Eumandi 

Beserve, Palamow, Cbota Nagpore." 

52, „ 1 . After '' Chowra" add '' hadu-bende;* 

52, „ 31. After ** markets." add *' It is also cut up into thin planking and 
exported to Assam to make tea-boxes. 

52, Bentaee hurmamea. To numbers add " B 2915. Burma. " 

53. In strength schedule, column ' Tear,' last line but one, <ifter " A. Mendis, 

No. 33" add " 1855" 

53, first line after schedule. After " probably this." add " Molesworth gives : 
Weight 50 lbs., P = 844, E = 3,000." 

53, Berrya Ammonilla, To list of numbers add — 

" No. 33. Ceylon collection 48 lbs." 

54, first line. After *' Tel. ;" add " Bolmengo, 6£ro ; Kohursida, Mechi ; " 

54, Grewia tilutfolia. To yemacular names add " Tarada, Madura ; " 

55, G, ioXvtfolia, To vernacular names add ** Bursu, eita pelu, E61 " and to 

numbers add *' C 3457. Barasand Beserve, Palamow, Chota Nagpore." 

55, O. veetita. To vernacular names add " Bershuajelah, Mechi ; " 

66, O. pUoea, To vernacular names aicf * Bhorkund, JAonghjr -,* Oursihri, 
Eharwar; 

56, at the end of Q. pilosa. After line 14 add '* E 3318 is the wood of a small 

tree from Pankabari, Darjeeling, 3,000 ft. In structure it resembles 
the wood of O, oppositifoiiat but has not the unpleasant odour of the 
latter. It is probably G.polygama, Boxb." 

56, „ 18. 4/«er"^an;,Nep.;"acW"/&imtt/(wWt, Mechi;" 

57, „ 16. ut/lfw-'^i^Wra*, Hind.;" arfrf"2>a«a/a, Mysore;" 

58, Erythroxyion wtonogynum. To vernacular names add ** Devaddrum, Ean.;" 
58, line 22. After " boats." add " Dr. Bidie says that ' During the Madras 

famine the leaves were largely eaten by the starving poor, and as 
there is nothing in them structurally likely to satisfy the pangs of 
hunger, it seems probable that they contain some principle uke that 
of B. acaJ " 



vni 

Page 68. line 21 from the bottom. Aflvr " Bang. ;" aid " Boromali, Uriya ; " 

„ 68, „ 9 from the bottom. 4fter '' Beng. ;" add ** XiranelU, Ktm. ; '* 

„ 69, „ 6. For ** B6nninghau senia " read ** Bonninghausenia " 

. n 59, „ 7. For " Xanthoxylem " read " Zanthoxylea'* and for " Xanthoxy- 

lum** read " Zanthoxfflum " 

„ 69. „ 19. After " Loajam;' add ** holholi " 

„ 69, „ 20. After " Burma," add " Kyd gives : Weight 36 lbs., P= 267." 

„ 69, „ 22. After "Hind. ;" add"Chouldua, Uriya; Laker-konta, Monghyr ; " 

., 69, „ 88. After " Xawat, Mar. i"add" Naibela, Kan. ; " 

„% 69, „ 46. 4fler ** Suniala, Nep. ; " add '* Skoungpang, Magh ; " 

„ 60, „ 28. Ibr « pael" read "pale" 

Pages 60, 61. For the whole of 2. Xanthoztluu, Linn, euhetituie the following : — 

**2, Zakthoxylitic, Linn. 

"Contains 10 small, rarely large trees or climbing shrubs, 
usually armed with strong prickles. Besides the species here described 
Z, tometUellum, Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 493, is a small tree of the 
Eastern Himalaya. Z. Khaeianum, Hook, f., of the Khasia Hills 
and Z, tetr(upermum, W. & A. of the Western Gh4ts, are prickly 
dimbine shrubs. Z. Bhetea, DC.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 496; Bed- 
dome xli {FoMara BheUa, Boxb. Fl. Ind. L 417) Yem. BhStsa, 
mdn, Tel. ; Tessal, Mar. ; Rattu kina, Cin^h., is a large tree of 
Southern India. Z, Andamanicum, Kurz. i. 191, is a straggling 
shrub of the Andaman Islands. 

" 1. Z. alatum, Boxb. FL Ind. iii. 768 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 493 ; 
Beddome xlii.; Brandis 47; Gamble 14. Yem. Timbur, timur, 
tezfnal, diirmur. Hind.; Balay timur, Nep.; Gaira, Monghyr; 
SungrUy Lepcha 

" A shrub or small tree. Bark corky, young stems with thick 
conical prickles from a corky base. Wood close-flprained, yellow. 
Pores small, often in radial lines, not uniformly distribated; belts with 
numerous pores often alternating with belts with scanty pores. Me- 
dullary rays fine, short, very numerous. 

*' Outer Himalaya from the Indus to Bhutan, ascending to 7,000 
ft. ; Khasia Hills. 

'* The wood is used for walking-sticks, the branches for making 
tooth-brushes. The fruit is a rem^y for toothache and is also used 
to purify water and as a condiment. The whole plant has a strong 
nnj^easaut aromatic smelt. 

" H 107. Bhajji, Simla, 4,000 ft. . . 46 lbs. 

''£2329. Tukdah, Daijeeling, 6,000 ft. . 34 „ 

" 2. Z. aoanthopodinm, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 493 ; Kurz i- 
181 ; Ghunble 14. Yern. Bogay timur, Nep. 

"A small tree. Bark i inch thick, greyish brown, shining, 
studded with the hu^ conical corky bases of the prickles which fall off 
as the tree grows. Wood yellowish white, soft. Pores small, often in 
short radial lines. Medullary rays fine, numerous. 

" Outer Himalaya from Kumaun to Sikkim, and the Khasia Hills, 
up to 7,000 ft 

*' A common small tree in second growth forest. Growth fast, our 
specimen (a round) shews 11 rings on a mean radius of 2} inches, or 
4*4 rings per incU of radius. 

" E 3416. The Park, Darjeeling, 6,600 ft. 

" 3. Z. oxyph^llom, Edgew. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 494 ; Gambia 
14. Vern. Timur, Nep. 



IX 



« 



(( 



" A climbing shrub. Bark greyish brown, covered with large 
oorkj lenticeb, and armed with recurved thorns on a conical corky 
base, often | inch high. Wood yellowish white, sofk, poroos. Pores 
large, nsoally many times subdivided radially. Medullary rays moder- 
ately broad, bent where. they pass the pores. Annual rings marked 
by a white line. 

" Himalaya from Garhwal to Bhutan, from 6,000 to 8,000 ft. ; 
Ehasia Hills, 4,000 to 6,000 ft 

E 3375. Darjeeling, 6,500 ft. 

4. Z, HamiltonlamiTn, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 494; Kurz 
L 181 ; Qamble 14. Yern. Purpuray timur, Nep. 

" A climbing thorny shrub. Bark dark grey with white lenti- 
cels, armed with short recurved pnckles on a thick, nearly cylindrical 
corky base, often } inch hiffh. Wood yellowish white, son. Pores 
fine, not numerous. Medullury rays fine to moderately broad, nu- 
merous, nearly equidistant. 

" Sikkim and Assam. 

" E 3416. The Park, Darjeeling. 6,500 ft. 

'* 6. Z. Blldnmga, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 495 ; Eurz i. 182 ; 
Yern. Brojonali, Ass. ; Mayaning, Burm. 

"A tree with greyish-brown bark; young stems covered with 
thick conical prickles from a corky base. Wood moderatelv hard, close- 
grained, white. Pores small, uniformly distributed, onen in short 
radial lines. Medullary rays fine, short, numerous. 

Eastern Himalaya, Ehasia Hills, Eastern Bengal and Burma. 

E 3324. Paokabari, Daijeeling, 2,000 ft 

6. Z. OTalifoliom, Wight ; Hook. FL Ind. i. 492 ; Beddome 
xliL; Gamble 13. 

<' A shrub. Bark thin, groy-brown, with white vertical streaks. 
Wood liffht yellovrish-white, very hard, close-grained. Pores very 
small, rather scanty, evenly distributed. Medullary rays fine, very 
numerous. Numerous sha^, white, concentric lines, as in Murraya 
exotica, which it much resembles in structure. 

"Eastern Himalaya, Ehasia Hills, Assam and the Western 
Ghits. 

*'E3853. Sivoke Hills, Daijeelbg, 1,500 ft. . 54 lbs." 

Page 61, Heading. JFbr ** Xanihoxylum ** read " Zanthorylum ; " 
„ 61, Toddalia aculeata. To vernacukr names add " Tundupara, Uriya ;" 

„ 61, Skimmia Laureola. To numbers aic2 *' E 3293. Mahalderam, Darieeh'nir, 

7,000 ft" 
„ 61, line 14 from the bottom. For " 6 " read " 5 " 

„ 61, lines 13 to 7 from the bottom. Sirike out and add at the end of Jf. exotica 
on page 62 the following : 

" 2. M. Kdnigji, Spr. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 503 ; Beddome xliv. ; 
Brandis 48 ; Eurz i. 190 ; Gamble 14. Beraera Konigii, Linn. ; 
Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 375. Yern. Oandla, gandi, ootoala, Pb. ; Harri , 
hatnim. Hind. ; Barsan^a, Beng. ; Ckanangi, Hyderabad ; Gant , 
Banda ; Humwah, Mechi ; Karsepak, kari-vepa, Tel. ; Kamioepila, 
Tam. ; Kari-h4vu, Ean. 

** A small tree. Bark grey with shallow netted fissures. Wood 
greyish white, hard. Pores smial], sometimes subdivided or arranged 
in short radifd lines. Medullary rays fine, very numerous. Concentric 
white lines less strongly marked than in M. exotica. 

** Outer Himalaya from the Ravi to Assam, Bengal, South India 
and Burma. The wood b durable and is used for agricultural imple- 
ments. The leaves are used to flavour curries. 

''0 3265. Saharanpur 4^\\^%;' 



« 
« 



>» 



Puge 62, Murraifa exotica. To namben add " C 3495. Kolhiin ForestB, Singbhdm, 

Cbota Nag pore." 

^, 62,Unel2. For** 6" read "6" 

„ 62, Atalantia monophylla. To yernacolar names add '* Narguni, Uriya ; " 
and to nnmben add **C 3515. Ehurdha Forests, Orissa." 

„ 62, Feronia Flephantum. To yemacular names add " Vellam, Madura ; " 

„ 63, ^gle Marmelos, To yemacular names add '* Maika, Gondi ; Lohagasi, 
Edl ; Auretpang, Magh ; " 

63. At the end of 8. Aegle. JJter " soft tissue." add — 

" E 3295 is Paramignya mowfphylla, Wight, from Babookhola, 
Darjeeling, 4,000 ft. Bark white, corky, yertically cleft. Wood white, 
hard, close-grained. Pores yery small to moderate-sized. Medullary 
rays yery fine, extremely numerous. Prominent, sharp, white, 
concentric lines at unequal distances and often joining each other. 

'' E 3371 is the Orange, Citnu Auraniium, Linn, from Baja- 
bhatkhawa, W. Ddars. Bark thin, greenish grey. Wood yellowish 
white, moderately hard, close and eyen-grained. Pores small, scanty, 
joined by concentric patches of white colour, which occasionally join, 
forming concentric circles. Medullary rays fine, yery numerous, equi- 
distant. 

"£ 3348 is the Lime, Citrus medica, L., from Darjeeling. 
Bark yellowish white, thin. Wood white, moderately hard. Pores 
small, numerous, often subdiyided or in short radial lines. Medullary 
rays fine, yery numerous. Concentric white lines distant. Pores 
often joined by white concentric patches. 

'' E 3284 is Glycosmis pentaphylla, Correa, from Chittagong. 
Bark light greyish-yellow. Wood white, hard, close-grained. Pores 
small, sometimes subdiyided or arranged in radial lines. Medullary 
rays fine, wayy, yery numerous. Sharp concentric white lines, often 
running into each other, yery prominent. 

" E 3355 is Micromelum pubescens, Bl., from the Teesta Valley, 
Darjeeling. Bark thin, white. Wood yellowish white, hard, olose- 
gramed. Pores small, scanty, often subdivided. Medullary rays 
fine, sharply marked. Sharp white concentric lines, often running 
into each otner, prominent. 

'* E 3354 is Clausena exeavaia, Burm., from Siyoke, Darjeeling 
Terai. Bark thin, smooth, dark brown. Wood white. Pores small, 
scanty. Medullary rays yery fine, yery numerous. White concentric 
lines often interrupted, but yery closely packed radially. 

*'0 3530 and 3570 are Limonia aeidissima, Linn. Vern. 
Shenta, Uriya, from the Khurdha Forests, Orissa. It has a thin, light- 
brown bark, and yery hard, yellowish-white wood. The pores are 
small, surrounded by white tissue, solitary or arranged in oblique 
strings. MeduUaiT rays yery fine, numerous, uniform and equidistant. 
Annual rin^ marked by a white line. Growth moderate, 8 rings per 
inch of radius. Weight, 59 lbs. per cubic foot." 

„ 64, AilafUhus malabariea. To yemacular names add ** Mandadvpa, Hassan; " 

„ 64, A. excelsa. To yemacular names add ** Mahanim, Uriya ; Ohorkaram, 
Palamow ;" and to numbers <tdd ** C 3449. Betlah Besenre, Palamow, 
Chota Nagpore." 

„ 64, line 24. After " tree," add *' Bark light greyish-brown, fibrous, rough." 

„ 65, line 12 from the bottom. For ** Komari " read " Koniari, " and at line 6 
from the bottom add — 

*'C3541. Ehurdha Forests, Orissa . . 46 lbs." 

„ 67, line 3. For* Knkar* read* Kankar' 

„ 67, Oaruga pinnata. To yemacular names add " Nia jotoa, E61 ; Xekur, 
Kharwar ; Karur, Bhumij ; Gharri, Gondi ; " 



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XI 

Page 67, 6r. pinnata. To numbers <idd — 

" £ 3604. Sukna Forest, Darjeeling Terai." 

„ 68, line 3. After " Burma." add *' found by Mr. R. Thompson in Bustar and od 
the hills of Panabaras." 

„ 68, Canarium hengaleiue* To numbers add-^ 

''Ed592. Sukna Forest, Darjeeling." 

„ 70. After \md 12 <idd "Molesworth gives in ' Graphic Diagrams for th# 
Strength of Teak Beams ' : Weight 50 lbs., P = 736, £ = 2,900." 

„ 71. After line 19, to numbers add — 

<< E 3357. Ealimpung, Darjeeling, 4,000 ft. 
'*£3360. Bangirdm, Darjeeling, 5,000 ft." 

„ 71, at the end of Mblia add *' £ 3499 is Cipadeua firutieoea^ Bl., from 
the Khurdha Forests, Orissa, where it is a common shrub or small tree 
of the dry stony hiUs and laterite plateaux, and used for fuel. It has 
a thin reddish-brown bark and a red, moderately hard wood, 
which has a faint odour resembling that of the Toon wood* Pores very 
fine, numerous, usually in lines between the very numerous close and 
fine medullary rays. These latter are slightly wavy and short, and 
bend where they meet the pores. The pores are prominent as red 
lines on a vertical section. Annual rings marked by a white line* 
Growth of our specimen 5 to 6 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 
about 60 lbs. per cubic foot." 

72, Dyeozylum procerum. To numbera add — 

" £ 3595. Bungdung Forest, Darjeeling Terai." 

72, line 4. Before " Assam " add *' Sikkim and the Western Ddars," 

73, Amoora Bohituha. To vernacular names add *' Sikru, K6\ ; " 

73, at the end of "8. A. speotabilis " add~~ 

"4. A.deoandra, Hiem; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 562; Gamble 
16. Vern. Tangaruk, Lepcha. 

" A tree, with thin grey bark. Wood pinkish white, hard. Pores 
small, scanty, joined by wavy, occasionally concentric, bands of soft 
tissue. Medullary rays fine, numerous." 

" Eastern Himalaya, from 2,000 to 6,000 ft. 
" fi 3392. Lebong, Darjeeling, 5.500 ft." 

74, at the end of " Walsubi" add"C 3459, from Bandgaon, Singbhdm, 2.000 ft., 
is Heynea trijuga, Boxb. It has a thin, rough, reddish-brown bark 
and yellowish-white, moderately hard wood. Pores smaU, often 
subdivided, in groups or in short radial strings, surrounded with 
white tissue and arranged in wavy concentric lines. Medullary rays 
fine, short, numerous." 

yy 74, Carapa moluceensis. To vernacular names add '* Pussur, Beng. ; " 

„ 74, line 22. After " the hair. " add *' Capt Baker in May 1829 in * Gleanings 
in Science ' spoke of Tussur or Pussooah as being a jungle wood of 
a deep purple colour, extremely brittle and liable to warp. He said 
that native boats made of the best species last about 3 years, and that 
the wood, if of good quality, stands brackish water better than sal. 

" The following were Captain Baker's experiments : — 

Weight. P= 

49, 52. Large tree 1825 . 6X1^X2* 51*5 472 

47, 48. Small „ 1826 . „ 44 484 

95, 101. Large „ 1826 . „ 46 562 

104. Sm^ „ 1826 . „ 47 586 

334,335. Large „ „ . 33"xli"Xr ... 502" 

75, line 31. After " wood 646." add ** Molesworth gives for Honduras wood : 
Weight 35 lbs., P = 615. E = 3,100." 



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Xll 

Page 76, Soymida fehifuga. To yernacular names add " Suam, Uriya ; " 

„ 76. To namben cuid — 

"0 3666. Khurdha Forests^ Oriaaa . . . 71 IW 

,1 77, Chloroxylon Swietenia, To yemacular names add '* Sengel salt, E61 > 
BharMl, Eharwar ; Bkira^ Gh>ndi ; Bkinoa, Baigas ;" 

„ 77. Below line 31 add *' Molesworih in * Grapbic Diagrams for the Strength of 
Teak Beams ' gives : Weight 60 lbs., P = 950, £ = 5>200." 

f, 77, C 9ioi9i€nia, To numbers add — lbs. 

'* C 3443. Seemah Keserve, Palamow . ..... 

C 3572. Khordha Forests, Orissa . . .57 
D2926. Madras 



... 






„ 78, Cedrela Toona, To vemacnlar names add ^* Kujya, Tippera; Somso, 
Bhntia ; Katangai^ K61 ; Madagiri vembu, Madura ; ' 

79, C, Toona. To numbers add — lbs. 

3476. Saranda Forests, Chota Nagpore • • ... 

C 3546. Ehurdha Forests, Orissa ... 31 

£ 3599. Sakna Forests, Darjeelii^ ... 39 

" £ 3619, Latpanchor, Darjeeling Hills, 4,000 ft . ... 

" £ 3623, KaUngpung, Darjeeling, 2,000 ft. . 35 

(The last shews 11 rings on 7 inches radius or 1*6 rings per inch, 
while No. £ 3619 has 31 rings on a radios of 7i, or about 4 per inch, 
and £ 3599 shews 3| rings per inch.) " 

79. After the end of O. serrata, above the 6th line from the bottom of the 
page, add — 

" In the Monograph of the Meliaces published in 1878 by 
CasimirdeCandolle, the species of Cedrela formerly grouped under the 
one head of Cedrela Ihonat Boxb., have been separately described. 
They are thus distinguished : — 

" Orary glabrous — 

" Leaflets petioled . . • C serraia, Royle. 
** Leaflets subsessile . . C glabra, C. de Gand. 

" Ovary hairy — 

*' Leaflets acute at the base C, Toona, Boxb. 

" Leaflets round at the base . C, mierocarpa, 0. de Cand. 

'* In the ' Trees, Shrubs and Climbers of the Darjeeling District," 
three varieties were spoken of and separated as follows : — 

" ' No. 1. Deciduous ; flowering March ; fruiting June ; bark grey- 
brown, smooth, exfoliating ; found in the plains on low land. 

" ' No. 2. £vergreen ; flowering October-November ; fruiting Feb- 
ruary and March ; bark dark brown, rough, not exfoliating ; found 
in the lower hills up to 4,000 ft. 

** * No. 3, £vergreen ; flowering June ; fruiting November-Decem- 
ber ; bark light reddish-brown, exfoliating in long flakes ; found 
in the upper hills from 5J0OO to 7,000 ft. and of great size.' 

** No. 1 is C. Toana, Boxb. ; ' No. 2 probably C mierocarpa^ C. 
de Cand. ; No. 3, probably C, glabra, C. de Cand. It would, how- 
ever, have probably been oetter to describe No. 1 as ' deciduous in 
the cold season ' and Nos. 2 and 3 as ' deciduous in the rains.' 
There is perhaps a fifth species. 

** They may also be distinguished as follows by the capsule :— 

Capsule «nooib A «'P'«*^* V"''^^ ■ ^^- n ^^- 

l fi long, pomted . C7. mierocarpa. 

Capsule covered with corky tubercles . C, glabra, 

** Of the Northern Bengal specimens which we have examined, 
£ 360 and £ 2333 wiU be C. glabra, while £ 655, £ 2332, £ 3599, 



XUl 

E 3619, and E 3623 will be C mierocarpa. Some of the Assam, 
ChittagoDg and Barma specimens are probably C. mierocarpa. 

"No. B 3378 from tbe Salween, 2,000 feet;, is orobably C. 
multijvpa, Kurz i. 229. Vem. Tounadam<i, Barm. ; liee, Karen. 
(Trade name, like the other Toon- woods, Thitkado.) It has a li^ht., soft, 
pink wood, with the nsual characteristic scent stronji^ly perceptible, 
and structure resembling that of the other species of I'oon, the pores 
being perhaps more scantily distributed. Weighty 35*5 lbs. per 
cubic foot." 

At the foot of the page add^-- 

" E 3341, from the north-eastern part of Sibs4gar, Assam, called 
Mipak, is a soft, reddish wood, resembling that of Melia. It is 
evidently a useful wood for the same purposes as Toon is used ; it 
splits well and is used for shingles. Pores moderate-sized to large, 
often subdiyided« Medullary rays moderately broad, short, tapering 
gradually at the ends. Annual rings distinct, about 7 per inch oi 
radius. Weight, 27 lbs. per cubic foot." 



Page 80, line 19. Omit ^ Daphniphvllopns^* 



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81, Olax icandens. To vernacular names o^ ** ^rMi7, Monghyr ; Bimmel, 
K6\ ; Bodohodoria, Uriya;" To numbers add "C 3467. Bandgaon, 
8ingbhum, Chota Nagpore. and C 3494. Kolh&n Forests, Singbhuip, 
Chota Nagpore. 

81, 2. DaphniphyllopsiSy Kurz, &c.y should be transferred to p. 213 
under GOBNAOBiB. Nyssa seitiliflora, Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. lud. iL 
747. 

81, Daphniphfltoptit eapitata. To numbers add — 

" E 3608. Darjeeling. 6,000 ft." 

83, line 8. After " Weight, 40 lbs. " insert " Growth : a small tree (E 3407) 
felled in the Park, Daijeeling, shewed 14 rings with a girth of 
18i inches, or 4'7 rings per inch of radius." 

85. After ** 6. S. theeefoUus" insert^ 

" 6. E. frigidUB, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 611 ; Gamble 18. 

A straggling shrub. Wood yellowish white, moderately hard, 
compact, with extremely small pores, extremely fine medullary rays 
and annual rings marked by the darker colour of the autumn wood. 

" Himalaya, from Kumann to Bhutan, from 8,000 to 12,000 feet. 
" £ 3406. Tonglo, Darjeeling, 10,000 feet." 

86, Celaetrue paniculata. To vernacular names add ** Kvjuri^ K61 ; " 

86. After line 5 from the bottom ^add '* C 3448, from the Bar^and Reserve, 

Palamow, Chota Nagpore, is the same species as £ 2334, but it differs 
in having no corky Dark, but a brown thin bark. In the wood the 
difference is slight and consists merely in smaller pores, and a closer- 
grained wood. The difference may be only due to climate." 

87, Celaetrus epinoeue. To numbers add "H 2950, Sutlej Valley, Punjab, 

3,600 fl." 

87. 4f^ " 9* ^' senegaJensis " insert— 

*' 4. O. aoiuninatus. Wall. ; Kurz i. 252. Ghfmnosporia acu- 
minata. Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 619. O. thomsoni, Kurz ; 
Gamble 19» Yem. Phugong, Lepcha. 

"A large thorny shrub. Bark thin, greyish white. Wood white, 
hard, close-grained, with numerous white concentric bands, in struc- 
ture resembling that of C spinosusm 

Sikkim Himalaya, and Khasia Hills, up to 5,000 feet. 

£ 3391. Lebong, Darjeeling, 5,500 feet. 



it 



xiv 



<* 6. C. emarginatUS, WUld.; Roxb. F1. Ind. i. 620 ; Beddome, 
Ixvi. ; Qymnosporia emarginata. Both. ; Hook. FL Ind. i. 621. Vern. 
Bali 54at9iff, Uriya. 

" A thorny shrub. Bark grey, thin ; wood white, hard, in stractnre 
resembling that of C, spinotus. 

** Orissa, South India and Ceylon, common shrub on dry laterlte 
soils. 

*• C 3521. Khurdha, Orissa." 



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Page 87, ENodendron Roxburghii, To vernacular names add ** Miri, K61 ; " 

„ 88. Above the first line add " P 460. Ajmere." 

„ 88. Jfter line 7, at the end of Celistrinbjs add " No. E 3346, from Lebong, Dar- 
jeeliu^, is the wood of Microtropis discolor, Wall. Bark very thin, 
greenish grey. Wood white, soft. Pores very small, rather unevenly 
distributed in long radial broken strings. Medullary rays very fine, 
very numerous. Faint, concentric white lines across the rays. Weight, 
35 lbs. per cubic foot." 

„ 88, Zizyphus Jujuha. To vernacular names add ** Yellantha, Madura ; 
Janumjan, K6\; Hinga, Gondi ; Bor, Baigas ; ^o^ri, Bajhanshi ; 
Jibang, Magh ;" 

„ 89, Z. CEnoplia. To vernacular names add ** Mahkoa, Monghyr ;" 

90, Z, rugosa. To vernacular names add " Tshirka, K6\ ; Kataila, Eharwar ; 
Bogrii Bajbanshi ;" 

90, Z. xylopyra. To vernacular names add ** Karkata, K6\ ; Ooit, Bhumij 
Kankor, Kharwar; Got, gotoboro, kanta bohul, Uriya; Ohattol, 
ghotia, Gondi ;" 

90, Z, xjflopyra. To numbers add — lbs. 

"C3508. Sonakalla, Khurdha, Orissa 

"C3559. Khurdha Forests, Orissa ... 53 
"C3433. Latihar, Palamow, Chota Nagpore . ... 

91, line 6. Jfter " Kumaun ;" add " Bonga sarjum, K61 ; Kyonti, Kharwar ; *' 

91. After line 19 add-- 

"C 3484, from the Saranda Forests, Chota Nagpore, is F. calycu- 

lata. It has a similar bark and structnre of wood to the pre- 
ceding, but the wood is somewhat closer grained." 

92, after " 4. B. prooumbens " insert — 

*' 5. B. nepalensiSy Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 640 ; Gamble 

19. Vem. Achat, Nep. 

" A large shrub. Bark dark brown, rough. Wood brownish grey, 
moderately hard. Pores very small to smalL arranged in obliqu- 
anastomosing bands, and sometimes in softer whitish tissue. Medul- 
lary rays fine and moderately broad, short. 

" Eastern Himalaya, ascending to 6,000 ft.; Sub^Himalayan tract ; 
Khasia Hills. 

*' E 3346. Kalimpung, Darjeeling, 4,000 ft. 

" E 3364. Dhupguri, W. Diiars." 

93. After line 10, at the end of Saobrbtia, add " E 3430 is Oouania lepto- 
stachya, DC. from Daijeeling, 6,500 ft. It has a rough brown bark, 
i inch thick. Wood soft, with very numerous large pores and broad 
medullary rays." 

93, AMPELiDBiE, line 5. Afler " V. lanata, Roxb. " add " (E 484. Daijeeling 
., Terai.)" 

93, , line 6. After " V. repanda, W. and A." add " (E 485. 

Darjeeling Terai)" 



XV 



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Page 93, Ampblidba, line 9. Before " H 2913 " insert " H 44/ 

„ 93, , line 10. After " flattened stemg," add " E 486, from the 

Darjeeling Terai, is V, elongata," 

93, , line 16. After " L. samhudna, Willd." add " (E 880. 

Darjeeling Terai)." 

93, , line 20. After " W. Duars " add " Vern. Ashrah, Mechi." 

95, line 12 from the bottom of the page. For " from the Sutlej eastwards," 
substitute *' from the Sjitlej eastwards to Nepal," 

96, Sehleu^hera trijuga. To yemacular names add " Baru^ K61 ;" and to 
numbers add-^ 

'*C3533. Ehnrdha Forests, Orissa . . 65 lbs." 

97, Sapindus attenuatus. To yemacnlar names add " Tigroht, Mechi." 

97. After line 14 insert '* E 3373, from Kaptai, Chittagong Hill Tracts, is 
S. Danura, Voigt. The wood is white, moderately hard, with scanty 
moderate-sized pores, very fine, numerous medullary rays, and thin 
white concentric bands, of soft tissue, intervening between dark bands 
of firmer texture." 

98, line 19. After "Kumaun." aid "The common European Maple is 
A. eampestre^ Linn. ; the Sycamore is A. pseudoplatanus, Linn. ; 
the Norway Maple is A, platanoides, Linn. ; and the Sugar Maple of 
America is ".^. saccharinum, Linn." 

100, Acer caudatum. To vernacular names add " Chetokwa, Bhutia ;" 

100, A, Oampbellii, To vernacular names add ** Kilok, Bhutia ;" 

101, A. picium. To vernacular names add " Mandar, Ohenab ;" 

102, line 9. After " Nagpat, Nep. ;" add " Bundibru, Mechi ;" 

103, Meliosma simplicifolia. To vernacular names add " Laigongron, Mechi. " 

„ 103, line 30. After " inch of radius." add " It is, however, often fast grown, 
especially if from coppice shoots : a tree in the Park, Daijeeling, 
shewed a girth of 22 inches and a height of 32 feet at an age of 22 
years, giving thus 6^ rings per inch of radius. Specimens of still 
faster growth are not uncommon." 

107, Mangifera indioa. To vernacular names add ** Bocho, Giro ; Uli, 
K61 ; Ama, Baigas ; Ttaratpang, Magh ;" 

107, line 30. After " P = 471." add " Molesworth gives : Weight 42 lbs. 
P = 592, E == 3,400." 

108, M, sylvatica. To vernacular names add *' Bagnal, Mechi ;" 

108, line 30. After " are eaten." add '" The leaves are used in Assam to feed the 
silkworm Cricula trtfenestrata,'* 

109, line 20. For " D 1066 " read " D 1066" 

109, Buchanania latifolia. To vernacular names add " Tarum^ K61 : Pta/, 
Bhumij ; Peea, Ebarwar ;" 

110, After line 5, add — 

*' 3532. Ehurdha Forests, Orissa ... 34 lbs." 

110, Odina Wodier, To vernacular names add " Jir, jial, Monghyr ; DotoJca^ 
K61 ; Dowka gia, Bhumij ; Moi, Uriya." 

111. After line 7 add "If this is No. 11 (Nabhay) of Bennett's experi- 
ments with Andaman woods in 1872 the weight was found to be 
59 lbs., and P = 483, in three experiments, with bars 3' X li" xl^, 

111. After Une 24, below " C 1103." add-^ 

"G3529. Khurdha Forests, Orissa . . . 66 lbs." 

Ill, Stmecarpus Anacardium. To vernacular names add " Soso, E61 ; Bhilwa, 
Baigas ;" 






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ft 



ti 



ft 



ft 



tt 
ft 



Piige 113, Spondicu mangifera. To Ternacnlar names add " Adai, Garo ;" 

„ 113, last line but three. After "about Simla." add "The silkworm Actios 
Silene is fed upon its leaves." 

„ 114, Hforinga pterygosperma. To vernacular names add "Mulgia, K61 ; " 

,. 117, line 1. -For " Wood white." read "Wood white, with an irregular grey 
heartwood." 

„ 117, line 2. 2^or " edge " rwrf " edges " 

„ 117, line 7. After " in Europe." add " Our Darjeeling specimen shews 12 
rings per inch of radius." 

„ 117. After line 8 add — 

" E 3406. Sandukpho, Darjeeling, 11,000 ft." 

„ 117, line 10. After "and Bxirmvu' add "It has a smooth yellowish bark» 
white wood and pores rather scanty, solitary or in radial lines between 
the fine medullary rays. (E 3311. Pankabari, Darjeeling, 3,000 ft.)" 

117, at foot of page, add — 

"8. Indigofera stachyodes, Ldl. ; Gamble 25. J. Dosua, 
Ham., var, tomentosa, "Baker; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii, 102. Yero. 
Chiringijhar, Nep. 

" A small tree with thin brown bark. Wood hard, white, with an 
irregular dark-coloured heartwood. Pores small to moderate-sized, 
enclosed in patches of white tissue, forming irregular, sometimes con- 
centric, bands. Medullary rays fine, numerous, equidistant. 

Inner Eastern Himalaya, Khasia Hills, Sylhet. 

E 3359. Bhenokb, Sikkim, 3,000 ft. 

C 3447 from Barasand Beserve, Palamow, Chota Na^rpore, is 
J. pulchella, Boxb. Vem. Uterr, K61 ; Jirhul, Kharwar. The wood 
has a structure similar to that of L heterantha,*' 

118, line 17. After "Kumaun ;" insert "Rel, K61; Ourar, Kharwar;" 
„ 118, line 18. J?br " No. 3479 " fvorfj" No. E 479. " 

118, line 19 from the bottom. After " Kumaun ;" add " Balashoe, Mechi ; " 

118, line 8 from the bottom. After "fish." add "E 3636 from Bamunpokri, 
Darjeeling Tend, is this species. It has a thin brown bark and white 
wood with an irregular du-k heartwood. Pores moderate-sized, often 
subdivided, enclosed in, and often joined by, round concentric rings of 
white tissue. Medullary rays short, fine to very fine, numerous." 

„ 119, Ougeinia dalbergioides. To vernacular names <idd " IHnsai, Gondi ; Buta, 
K61 ; " and (p. 120) to numbers add " C 3477. Saranda Forests, 
Chota Nagpore." 

„ 121. After line 8 add " 3432 is Desmodium fulchellum, Boxb., from 
Amjheria, Lohardugga, Chota Nagpore, with a yellowish-white, hard 
wood, annual rings marked by a white line, small pores, and fine 
white medullary rays ;" 

121, line 10. At the end add " Karzani, Monghyr ; Kaineho, Uriya ; " 

121, Erythrina suberasa. To vernacular nsaxiQaadd '* Farhud, Kharwar ; " 

„ 122, S. indiea. To vernacular names add " FcUdua, Uriya ; Pharad, 
Monghyr ;" 

122, line 12 from the bottom. For " P 3106 " read " E 3106 ;" and to numbers 
a<M"E3330. Darjeeling, 7,000 ft" 

122, line 5 firom the bottom, after " Nep. ;" insert " Moru, murrd, K61 ; Bandu, 
durang, Kharwar ; " 

123, line 3. After "Gondi;" add " Badiiri, Singrampur ; Chikunf, Mon- 
ghyr ; " 






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XVll 

Page 138, Sn^toAtmi^fa. To vemaealar names add **PaUuku, Meehi; Murwi, 

K61 ; Fkarsa, Baigae ; Pardi,fardi, Behar ;" 

^ 123, line 26 from bottom. 4/^ " ^^^^ matches. " acM '' C 979 is a fine speci- 
men of the fibre sent from Berar." 
123, last line bat three. After " Lepcha," eufd '* Dangshuhap, Mechi." 

123, last line. Add *'F. Ckappar,H9m. and F. strobilifera,, B. Br., are 
common shrubs of forest undergrowth. Vem. Ulu, K61." 

124, line 40. For " 4. Dalbergia Sissoo, " read *' 4. D. SiSBOO," 

126, J^Ur the schedule add " Molesworth gives : Weijzrht, 52 lbs., P. = 760, 
E. = 3,800," and to numbers ** E 3588 Darjeeling Terai." 

127, DaJheraia lat\folia. To Temacukr names add '* Bute, Kol ; Buzerap 
Mechi ;" and to numbers add — i\^^ 

*' C 3456. Saidope Reserve, Palamow . . . «• 

"C3522. E3iurdha Forests, Orissa ... 61 

"D1476. Anamahii Hills, Madras 

128, Une 4. For " W 720. " read " W 729.' 

128. D. laneeolaria^ To vernacular names add ** Piri, K61 ; 

129. D. paniculaia. To vernacular names add " Surteli, paai, Baigas ;' 

130. At the end of Dalbbrgiji add " Q 3450 is Dalbergia volubilis, Bozb., 
from Bamundag Reserve, Palamow. Bark thin, brown, peeling off 
in flakes. Wood light brown, hard. Pores small to very large, 
scanty. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. Occasional faint 
concentric bands." 



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130, In Schedule, last line. Foi 

- Bennett, No. 1 1872 „ 49-6 ... 827" 

read-^ 

" Bennett, No. 1 1872 „ 49-6 3 XU XlJ 830" 

131, line 12. For *' B 584 " read " B 548." 

132, Fierocarpui Marsupium. To vernacular names add " Situn, hid, E61 ; 
Beeya, persar, Kharwar ; Byo, Gondi ; Fiasdl, Urya ;" 

133, P. Mareupium, To numbers add-^ 

*'C3542. Ehurdha Forests, Orissa . . . 54 lbs." 

133, Fonaamia glabra. To vernacular names add ** Khawdri, karmuj, 
Sirguja ;" 

„ 133, line 10 from the bottom. After " Beng. ; " add " Nda-bil, C. P. ; " and/or 
'' golaH" read " Qolari" 

„ 134 After line 8 add "No. E 3356, from the Sivoke Hills, Daijeeling, 
1,500 ft, is probably Ormotia glauca. Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 253. 
Vem. Chuklein, Lepcha, a large tree of the Central Himalaya. 
It has a grey bark, and greyish white, moderately hard wood. The 
pores are large, scanty, sometimes subdivided; they are joined by 
irregular, wavy, somewhat anastomosing patches of white, soft tissue. 
The medullary rays are fine to moderately broad, wavy. The tree 
bears a woody poa, filled with bright scarlet seeds, which are used by 
the Lepchas as a bait to catch jungle fowl." 

„ 135. At the end of Cjssalpinia add "C 3460, from Saranda, Chota 
Nagpore, is Ckesalpinia sepiaria, Roxb. Vem. Ucha^, K6\ ; Gilo, 
XJriya. It has a yellowish-white corky bark, with large corky excres- 
cences, bearing strong thorns. The wood is light brown, moderately 
hard, with masses of reddish-brown harder wood near the centre. 
The pores are large, often subdivided or in groups, surrounded and 
connected by anastomosing bands of white tissue. The medullary 
rays are fine, very numerous, the distance between them much less 
than the transverse diameter of the pores." 



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XVIU 

Page 136^ line 13, far *' Manson " read * Mr. Manson " and line 16, after ** end." add 

''A large tree measured by the Inspector Gener^ at Dalingkote 
was found to have a girth of 121 inches, a height of 181 feet and 110 
feet to the first brancn." 

136, Cassia Fistula, To vemacalar names add **Sari, E61; Dunrds, 
Eliarwar ; Jagarua, Gondi : Saella, Baigas." and omit **persar, 
Palamcw.", and (p. 137) to numbers add — 

'<C3544. Khurdha Forests, Orissa . . . 58 lbs." 

139, line 8. For " Paur, beta, Gondi ; " read " PaurJbela, Gondi ;" aud then 
<idd " Lamma, rung, E61 ; Maulan, Kharwar ; ** 

139, line 17. After " Teral" add " C 977 is a fine specimen of the fibre sent 
from Berar. It was examined in 1879 by Mr. Boutledge, who 
reported it to be an excellent, strong fibre, hemp character, and 
tough, {Kew Gardens Report, 1879,)" 

139, Bauhinia matabarica. To vernacular names add " Laha, K61 ; " 

139, B, raeemosa. To vernacular names add " Kaimu, K61 ; Ghatonli, Oraon ; 
Katmaulif Eharwar ;" 

140, B» purpurea. To vernacular names add " Buruju, K61 ;" 

140^ B, variegata. To vernacular names add ** Kurmangf Mechi ; Singya, E61 ; 
JSCundol, Bhumij ; " and at the end of the list of numbers (p. 141) 



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insert *' H 105 from Bhajji, Punjab, 3,000 ft., is also probably this 
species." 

141, B, retusa. To vernacular names add " Laha, K61 ; Tewar, Oraon ; 

Katman, Eliarwar ; Thaur, Gondi." 

142, Tamarindus indica. To vernacular names add *'Jo;o, E61; Chita, 

Gondi ;" 

143, line 15 from the bottom. After "line." add "At the Dehri workshops 

on the Sone Biver, it has been used instead of brass for bear- 
ings for machinery, and found to wear well. In the Sone river piles 
of anjan have been found after twenty years as sound as when first 
put in." 

146, lines 12, 11, and 9 from the bottom. Omit the words " two of the species 
now being grown, viz," and '* P. pallida of" 

146. OmtV the last two lines. 

147. Omit lines 1, 2, 17 to 21. 

147, Frosopis spicigera. To vernacular names add '* Somi, Monghyr; 

Ferambai, Madura;" 

148, line 6. After ** small tree." add " Bark brown, fibrous, deeply fissured 

vertically." 

148, Mimosa **ubicaulis. To vernacular names add ** Dandu deta, E61 ; Arai, 
Eharwar ; " 

148, Xylia dolabriformis. To vernacular names add " Kongora^ Uriya ; " 

and (p. 149) to numbers add — 

''0 3514,3546. Ehurdha Forests, Orissa . . 54 lbs." 

149, Une 3. After " District," add " Orissa," 

149, after the schedule add ''Molesworth gives: Weight 58 lbs., P = 836, 
E = 4,300." 

151, line 34. After the words " Skinner gives 884." add " Molesworth gives 

Weight 54 lbs., P = 880, and E = 4,160." 

152, Acacia leucophloea. To vernacular names add ** Reunja, rinja, Gondi ; 

Goira, Uriya ; " and to numbers add ** C 3506. Ehurdha Forests, 
Orissa." 

154i Above line 19 from the bottom insert'^ 

"0 3526. Ehurdha Forests, Orissa . . . 62 lbs." 



XIX 



Paga 154, line 19 from the bottom. Far " E 663 " read *' £ 665." 
154i, „ 7 „ „ „ For *' loooUy " read " locally." 
154, „ 6 „ „ „ For " P 2355 " read " E 2355." 






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154. Below line 4 from the bottom add " No. 3420 is a piece of hard, dark-rad 

wood, resembling this last form in appearance and stmcture. It was 
obtained from the excavations made at Prince's Dock, Bombay (see 
Indian Forester, Vol VI, p 108.)" 

155. A. Intiia. To vemacnlar names add " Kundaru, E61 ; " 
155, line 15. For " E 2379 " read "E 2359. " 

155. After line 15 add <* C 3468, from Bandgaon, Singbhtim, Chota Nagpore, 
is this species, bat the wood is harder and, though recognizable, the 
angular form of the stem is not so prominent as in the Darjeeling 
specimens." 

155, A. pennaia. To vemacnlar names add " Kundaru, E61 ; Arar, Kharwar ;" 

156, Albitzia LehheJe, To vernacular names add " Tinia, Uriya." and (p. 157 ) 

to numbers add — 

'* C 3560, C 3567. Khurdha Forests, Orissa . 49, 59 lbs/' 

158, A. proeera. To vernacular names add •' Tinia, Uriya ; Pandrai, 

K61 ; Oareo, Kharwar ; Laokri, Mechi ; " 

159, line 2. For " between A, Lehhek and the woods of A» proeera " read 

" between the woods of A, Lehbek and A. proeera** 

159, line 10. JPor " P = 884 " read - P = 695." 

160, A, stipulaia. To vernacular names add *' Ckap^n, kera eerum, K6] ; 

JBufuobrif Mechi ; " 

160, A. amara. To vernacular names add " Wusel, Madura ; " 

164, line 12. Add " Vem. Lali, Nep." 

164, Hue 13. After ** reddish brown " add " with a pretty wavy lustre on a 
radial section." 

164, after line 17, add"E 3422. Eangirum, Darjeeling, 6,500 ft." 

165, line 10 from the bottom. After " Himalaya. " add " It has a brown 

thick, soft bark and porous wood, with large pores and broad medul- 
lary rays. (E 3361, Darjeeling, 6,500 ft.)" 

166, Bubue lineatue. To list of numbers add " E 3383. Senchul, DaijeeUng, 

8,000 feet." 

166, line 17 from the bottom. After "Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 513," add "Vern. 
JSCudy Beng." 

168. After line 6 add " E 3335. Bangirum, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet." 

168, at the end of Ebiobotbya. After line 6 add " E 3411, from Daneeling,is 

Docynia indica. Dene. The wood closely resembles that of Fyrue, 
Bark \ inch thick, greyish brown, shining, splitting ofE in irregular 
flakes and leaving a rough under-surface. Wood light brown with an 
irregular purple-brown heartwood, hard, close, and even-grained. 
Pores very small, more numerous in the spring wood. Medullary rays 
fine, very numerous. Annual rings marked by a line. Our specimen 
is a roujd with a mean diameter of 12 inches, and shewing 36 well- 
marked rings ; the growth, therefore, is 6 rings per inch of radius." 

169, last line but two. Add " E 3404. Tonglo, Darjeeling, 10,000 feet (has 

well-marked medullary patches)." 

170, After line 7 at the end of Ptbus add — 

"E 3403, from Tonglo, Darjeeling, 9,000 feet, is P. 
rhamnoidee. Dene.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 377. Vem. Kumbtil, 
Lepcha ; Kangedoc, Bhutia, a small, often epiphytic tree of the 
upper forests of the Sikkim Himalaya. It k^vi a haxd^ ^^llo^dik- 



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XX 

brown wood, with nnmerons small, evenly distribnted pores and very 
nmnerons fine medollary rays. The annual rings are marked by a 
darker line. 

" E 8633, from Goompahar, Darjeeling, 7.000 ft,, is P. Wallichii, 

t Hook. f. It has a greyish-brown bark ; and brown, moderately hard 

wood. Poles numerous, small to moderate-sized, fewer in the autumn 

wood and thus marking the annual rings. Medullary rays very fine* 

very numerous, indistinct. Medullary patches few." 

" E 3400, from Darjeeling. 7,000 feet, is Fhotinia inteffrifolia, 
Ldl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 381 ; Gamble 37. Vem. Shutnbul, Lepcha, 
a small tree of the Eastern Himalaya* Bark thin, greyish brown. 
Wood brown, moderately hard, close-grained. Pores small, uniformly 
distributed. Medullary rays fine, very numerous, the distance be- 
tween them about equal to the transverse diameter of the pores. 
Annual rings marked oy a sharp line." 

Page 173, line 16 from the bottom. Jbr " H 3038." read " H 3028." 

174, line 8. Omit *' H 2912. " 

177, Carallia integerrima. To vernacular names a<id ** Jur, E61 ; " and to 
numbers add *' 3482. Saranda Forests, Chota Nagpore/' 

179, line 6. After " Lepcha ; " add " Palandu, koldungi, £61 ; Kundol, 
Bhum^ ; Buria, raierr^ Kharwar ; Atundi, Uriya ; " 

179, Terminalia helenca. To vernacular names add " Lupiinq, lihung, K61 ; " 

180, T. Chehula, To vernacular names add " Bola, E61 ; Hadra, Oraon ; " 
and (p. 181) to numbers add — 

"C3531. Khurdha Forests, Orissa .... 59 lbs." 

182, T. iomeniosa. To vernacular names add ' Hatana, E61 ; ' and to numbers 
" E 3690. Darjeeling Terai." 

184 T» Arjuna, To vernacular names add ** Oara latafM, E61 ; " and (p. 186) 
to numbers add — 

«'C3461. Saranda Foreste, Chota Nagpore . . 69 lbs." 

1S6, Anogeissus laiifolia. To vernacular names add " Sesel, E61;* and 
(p. 186) to numbers add^^ 

*' C 3662. Ehurdha Forests, Orissa .... 62 lbs." 

186, A. acuminata. To vernacular names add '* Qara hesel, pandri, pansi 
E61;"and (p. 187) to numbers add ''0 3462. Saranda Forests, 
Chota Nagpore." 

187, line 23. Mier '* A deciduous tree." add " Bark thin, greyish white, 
smooth." 

187, Gyrocarpus Jacquini. To numbers add " C 3617. Sonakalla, Ehurdha, 
Orissa." 

190, line 26. For " 1096-7 " read « 1096-8 " and/or " 2, 3, 4 " read " 2, 3, 4, 
6." 

190, Peidium Ouava. To vernacular names add " Gaya, Magh ;" 

193, Eugenia formoea. To vernacular names add " Panchidung, Giiro ;" 

194, E, operculata. To vernacular names add " Topa, E61 ; " 

194, JS, Jambolana, To vernacular names add " Kuda^ E61 ; Jambun, 
Oraon ;" and to numbers ' E 3698, Daijeeling Terai.' 

196. E. Hevneana, To vernacular names add ** Gara kuda, E61 ; Jamti, 
Eharwar ; " 

196. At the bottom of the page, add " E 3439, from the Bamundag Beserve, 
Palamow, Chota rfagpore, is this species. The white concentric bands 
are more prominent and enclose the pores." 

196, aOer line 6, add *' No. C 3682, from the Ehurdha Forests, Orissa, is pro- 
bablv E. zeylanica, Wight. Vem. Sagarabatna, Uriya. It is a 
Bmul m^'rUe-like shrub of the scrub forests. Bark brown. Wood hard, 



XXI 

close-grained, grey. Pores small and extremely small, joined by 
concentric han& of white tissue, which are doeely packed. Medullary 
rays very fine, very numerous. 

Page 196, JBarringionia acutangula. To vernacular names cM " Ijar, Monghyr ; 

Saprunff, £61 ; Hinjara, Uriya." To numbers add " C 8470, Saranda 
Forests, Chota Nagpore." 

„ 197. Careya arborea. To vernacular names (idd " Asunda, E61; Eum, 
Bhumij ; " 



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197, in schedule, line 8 from the bottom, column 5, omit the word *' Various." 

197, in schedule, line 4 from the bottom, column 5, far *' 2 X XI" read 

" 2 X 1 X 1." 

198, line 9. After "astringent." add "C 980 is a fine specimen of the fibre 

sent from Berar. 

199, At the end of Mblastoma add-^ 

" E 3419, from Lebonjsr, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet, is Oxyspora 
pamieulata^ DC. Bark reddish brown, thin. Wood light reddish- 
grey, moderately hard, with dark-brown medullary patehes. Pores 
small to moderate-sized, scanty, often in short radial lines. Medul- 
lary rays fine, short, numerous, not straight. Concentric bands of 
soft tissue, often interrupted, prominent. 

" C 3561, from the £[hurdha Forests, Orissa, is Memeoylon edule, 
Boxb. Vem. Nirdsa, Uriya. Wood light brown, very hard, consisting 
of alternate concentric layers of dark tissue without pores, and lighter 
tissue in which small but distinct pores are visible. These layers may 
represent annual rings. Medullary rays of two kinds, the hu*trer fine 
and short, the smaller extremely fine. Weight, 60 lbs. per cubic foot." 

199, line 1 3 from the bottom. For " Atlacus " read " Attacu* ;" 

200, Woo^fordia Jloribunda, To vernacular names add " Icha, E61; Dadki, 

Bhumg ; Sanoari, Uriya." 

200, LagerHrdmia parviflora. To vemaeular names €uld " Saikre, E61 ; Sidha 
Behar ; " and ^>. 201) to numbers culd — 

"C3547. Ehurdha Forests, Orissa . . . 58 lbs." 

202. X BegifUB, To vernacular names add " Oara saikre, E61 ; " 

202, line 10 from the bottom. After "Batnagiri. " o^i" Saranda forestn in 

Chota Nagpore." 

203, X. EegifUB, List of Numbers. F(yr •« E 620 " read ** E 630 " and after 

" E 2188. Nowgong, Assam " add ** E 1433. Assam." 

204| Duahanga eonneratioides. To vernacular names add " Achung, G&ro ;" 
and to numbers '*E 3622. Ealimpung, Darjeeling, 2,000 ft." 

204, line 20 from bottom. After ** radius." add *' Our specimen No. E 3622 

shews only 2 rings per inch." 

205, Sonneratia aeida. To numbers add — 

" B 3379, from Eyoukphyoo, Arracan ... 42 lbs." 

206, Casearia tomentosa. To vernacular names add "Bore, E6I; Bert, 

Eharwar ; " and to numbers add^^ 

"C3527. Ehurdha Forests, Orissa .... 43 lbs." 

206, Une 23. For « 1393 " read " 1363." 

206, C. graveoleru. To vernacular names add " Beri, K6\ ; Beri, Eharwar ; " 

208, line 7. For " Bark grey-brown, wrinkled." read ** Bark greyish white, 
one inch thick, spongy, marked with horizontal wrinkles and small 
vertical lines of lentioels : peels off* in thin papery layera." 

209 line 2. After " Cachar ; " add " Arengi banu, E61 ; " 



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Page 209, Une 6. AfUr " H. f and Th. ; " aU ** Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 740. 

„ 209, line 7. For " eastern slopes of the Arracan Yoma." read " Khasia Hills 
and the Eastern, <fec." 

,9 209, at the end of Hsptapleubitu add '* C 3442, from Netarhit, Palamow, 
3,000 feet, is Septapleurum venulosumf Seem. Vern. Sukriruin, 
K61. Bark grey> shining. Wood light hrown, soft. Pores small. 
Medollarj rays fine to moderately broad.'* 

"E 3636 from Goompahar Forest, Daneeling, 7,500 ft., is M. 
impressum, C. B. Clarke. Bark brown, thick, exuding a copious gum. 
Wood grey, soft. Pores very small, evenly distributed. Medullary 
rays prominent, moderately broad. Conspicuous concentric white 
lines which run into each other. Annual rings doubtful. 

„ 210. At the end of Bbassaiopsis add " E 3409, from Darjeeling, 6,700 feet, 
is BrassaiopsU speciosa. Dene, and Plch. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 737 
{B, Horibunda, Seem. ; Gamble 44), a moderate-sized tree, with thin 
grey bark, and soft white wood, in structure resembling that of 
B, mitis. Growth fast, 5 rings per inch of radius." 



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210, line 10. Afier "Miq. ;" add « Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 738." 

210, line 11. For "Martaban Hills above 6,000 feet" add " Eastern Hima- 
laya, Khasia and Martaban, &c." 

210, line 12. After " Seem. ;" add " Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 738." 

210, line 24. After " Linn.;" add " Hook. Fl. Ind. ii, 739." 

210, at the end of Hbdeba add — 

"E3402, from Tonglo, Daneeling, 9,000 feet, is Qamblea 
ciliata, C. B. Clarke ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 740. Vern. Bama, Bhutia, 
a large tree of the forests of the Senchul and Singalila Banges above 
8,000 feet. Bark grey, smooth. Wood white, shining, moderately 
hard. Pores extremely small, except on the outer edges of the 
annual rings, which are very distinctly marked byilines of moderate- 
sized pores. Medullary rays fine and moderately broad, white, 
shining, irregularly distributed. 



" E 3676, from Darjeeling, 6,000 feet, is Pentapanax racemosum, 
Seem. A large climbing or straggling shrub. Bark silvery gprey, 
thin, peeling off in thin flakes. Wood greyish white, soft. Annual 
rings very prominently marked by a line of large pores : the pores 
in the rest of the wood small, scanty. Medullary rays moderately 
broad." 

211, line 2. After " Torricellia tiluBfolia, DC. ; " add " Hook. *1. Ind. 
ii. 748 ;" 

211, line 4. After "Khasia Hills." add "(See p. 81, Daphniphyllopsis capi- 
tata)r 

211, line 11. After " Thwaites ; " add " Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 741 ; " 

211. Alangium Lamarckii, To vernacular names add " Ankol, K61 ; Ahkula, 
dolanku, Uriya ;" and to numbers add — y^* 

*' C 3466. Saranda Forests, Chota Nagpore 

"C3664. Khurdha Forests, Orissa . . .42' 

211, Une 33. After " Roxb. FL Ind. ii. 261 ; " add " Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 743 ; " 

212, Une 6. A^ " Linn. ; " add " Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 744 ; 
212, line 9. After " WaU. ; " add *' Hook. FL Ind. n. 744 ; 
212, Une 24, After " Wall. ; " add " Hook. FL Ind. ii. 744 ; " 

212, Une 36. After " Wall. ; " add " Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 745 ; " 

213, Une 11. After " Hook. f. and Th. ; " add " Hook. FL Ind. u. 747 ; " 



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Page 215, Vtbumum eruheteens. To vernacular names add " Atari, Nep. ; Ndkouli, 

BhutiA ;" 

217, last line but 8. jPor " E 2866." read " E 2866." 

219, Anthocephalu9 Cadamha, To veraacular names add ** Sanko, E61 ;" 

220. Adina cordi/olia. To yemacular names add ** Kurumha, JSComba, E61 ; " 

220, last line but 2. For " Hnanbeng " read " Hnaubeng " 

221, ^. eordifolia. To numbers, ad^ — 

*'C3543. Ehurdha Forests, Orissa . . 43 lbs." 

222, in page number. For " 22d " read •* 222 " 

222. Stepkeffvne parvifolia. To vernacular names add ** Qui, h6mha, K61 ; 
Gurij guri karam, Eharwar ;" and to list of numbers add--' 

" C 824. Bairagarh fieserve, Berar." 

224. Hymenodictyon excelsum. To yercacular names add '* Sali, E61 ; 
Burkunda, Bhumij ; JSConso, Uriya ; " 

225. After line 7, add— 

"C3565. Ehurdha Forests, Orissa . . . 29 lbs." 

226. Webera asiatica. To numbers add **C 3579, C 3520. Ehurdba Forests, 
Orissa. Yem. Jhaujhauka" 

226. Itandia uliginosa* To vernacular names add " Kumhum, E61 ; " 

227, R. dumetorum. To vernacular names add " Fortoho, E61 ; Mohna, 
Eharwar ; " 

227. At the bottom of the page add " E 3363, from Dhupguri, W. Duars, 
is B. rigida, DC. Tke wood resembles in structure that of JR. uli^ 
ginosa,' 

228, Gardenia turgida. To vernacular names add '* Duduri, E61 ; Kharhar, 
Oraon ; " and to numbers add " 3435. Eumandi Beserve, Pala- 



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228. After G. LUCIDA, at the bottom of the page, add : " C 3465, from 

Bandgaon, Singbhum, Chota Nagpore, is G. gnmmifera, Linn. Yem. 
Bururi, burnt, E61 ; Bruru, Bhumij. Bark brown, nearly \ inch 
thick. Wood yellowish white, hard, close-grained. Annual rings 
indistinct. Pores very small. Medullary rays very fine, very 
numerous. This wood might serve as a substitute for boxwood." 

229. G, lattfolia. To vernacular names add " Fapra, papadar, E61 ; Fopra^ 

Eharwar;" 

229, lines 17, 18. For " B " read " C " 

229. At the end of Gabdbnia add " E 3286, from the Binkheong Beserve, 

Chittagong, is Huptianthera stricta, W. and A. Bark brown, 
somewhat corky, thin, cleft in long continuous furrows about 2 
lines apart. Wood brown, moderately hard, close-grained. Pores 
small, evenly distributed. Medullary rays of two classes : small 
ones very fine, very numerous ; larger ones few, fine. Our specimen 
weighs 56 lbs. per cubic foot." 

230, Flectronia didyma. To vernacular names add " Jor, E61 ;" 
230, line 11. For " grey " read " light brown ;" 

230, F didyma. To numbers add " C 3481. Saranda Forests, Chota Nagpore." 

230, Ixora parviflora. To vernacular names add ** Fete, E61 ;" and to numbers 

add — • 

"C 3464. Saranda Forests, Chote Nagpore." 

231, Favetta tomentosa. To vernacular names add *' Sikriba, eikerup, Edl; 

Burhi, Eharwar ;" 

231, line 22. After " Gamble 49." ineeH " The Coffee pUnt." 



XXIV 

Page 232, Morinda exserta. To numbers add-^ 

"C3535. Ehurdlia Forests, Orissa . . 40 lbs." 



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232. At the end of Morindjl add '* C 3431 from Aii^eria, Lohardagga, is 

Samiltonia suaveolens, Roxb. Yem. Kudia^ Kbarwar. It has a grey, 
shining bark, which peels off in short papery flakes. The wood is dark 
grey, soft, porous, with few small pores often subdivided^ and moder- 
ately broad to broad medullary rays." 

233, line 13. IBbr " Weight, 31-6 lbs." read « Weight, our specimen gives 

27 lbs." 

233, last line but one. For " Thibandia " read " Thibaudia " 

236. line 26. Fbr " E 3328 " read " E 3326" 

237. line 9. 4/ter " KSgu" add « kaltna," 

238. At the end of Rhobodbkdbon add ** No. E 3394, Oaultheria Griffith- 

ianOf Wight, from Jalapahar, Darjeeling, 7,600 feet, has a moderate- 
ly hard, grejrish-white wood, with numerous brown medullary spots. 
Fores extremely small and numerous. Medullary rays fine, scanty. 
The bark is light brown, peeling off in papery layers." 

240. After line 26, add ** C 3438 from Bamundag Reserve, Palamow, and C 3628 

from the Khurdha Forests, Orissa, are this species, but the bark is 
thinner, and the wood differs by having the medullary rays only 
* broad ' instead of * extremely broad.' " 

241. At the end of Abdisia add " E 3360, from the Sivoke Hills, Darjeeling, 

1,600 feet, is A. involucrata, Kurz; Gamble 63. Vem. Denyok, 
Lepcha. It has a yellow corky bark and pinkish- white wood; 
with small, scanty pores, and broad, white, wavy medullary rays. 

*' E 3367> from the Kasalong Reserve, Chittagong, is A. panu 
culataf Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 680 ; Beddome cxxxviii. ; Kurz ii. 107, a 
small tree of Chittagong with handsome pink flowers. The bark is 
thin, greyish brown ; and the wood pinkish white, with small pores 
radially disposed between the short, broad, wavy medullary rays. 

"G3463, from Bandgaon Gh&t, Sin^bhum, Ghota Nagpore, 
2,000 feet, is a species of Ardisia, probably A. solanacea, Willd. 
Bark brown, smooth. Wood grey, moderately hard. Fores small 
and very small, often in short tadial lines between the broad, wavy^ 
porous medullary rays." 

242. At the end of Sabcosfebmjl add " G 3604, from the Khurdha Forests, 

Orissa, is Sideroxylon tomeniosum, Roxb. Yem. Kanta bohul, 
TTriya. Bark light reddish-brown, thin. Wood light reddiBh-white, 
hard. Pores fine to moderate-sized, in short concentric or sometimes 
oblique lines. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous, equidistant. 
Goncentrio bands of rather darker colour having the appearance of 
annual rings." 

243. Bassia latifolia. To vernacular names add " Mandukum^ K61 ; Mohul, 

Bhumij ;" 

246, Mimueops indica. To numbers add — 

" G 3661. Khurdha Forests, Orissa ... 72 lbs." 

249. Dioepyroe Melanoxyhn. To vernacular names add ** Tiril, K61 ; " 

249, D.Melanoxylon. To numbers add " 3493. Kolh&n Forests, Singbhdm, 
Chota Nagpore." • 

260, last line but 6. For " No. 62 " read " No. 61 " 

261, Z). Fbenum, To numbers add *' W 1207. South Kanara (saplings)." 

262, line 18. For " white " read '* grey " 



XXV 

Page 252, Z>. SmbryopierU. To numbers add " C 3474. Saranda Forests, Ghota 

Nagpore." 

„ 253. After line 9, at the end of Ebbnacbje, add " C 3502, from the Ehardh. 
Forests, Orissa, is Maba buxifolia, Pers. Vem. Guakoli, Uriya. 
Bark greyish black, thin. Wood greyish white, moderately hard. 
Pores smsJl, scanty, in short radial lines. Medullary rays very 
fine, numerous and equidistant. Concentric lines of white tissue, thin, 
very numerous and regular. In Orissa it is a very oommon bush 
on poor soils." 

„ 253. 4fter line 24 add " E 3372, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet, has a similar structure, 
but the white bands are much less marked. It is probably 8. ierru- 
latum." 

254, at the end of Stmplocos add — 

"E 3347, Daijeeling, 6,000 feet, is Symplocos glomeraia. King. 
It has a thin brown bark and white wood resembling in structure 
that of 8. lucida: 



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" C 3491, from the Eolh4n Forests, Singbhum, Chota Kagpore, 
is 8. racemosa, Boxb. Vem. Ludum, E61 ; Lodh, Oraon. Bark 
yellow, rough, spongy, | inch thick. Wood white, soft. Porea 
small, often in radial lines. Medullary rays short, broad, numerous." 

254 last Hue. Jfter " Beng. ;*' add'' 8amsihar, Eharwar ; Saparung, E61 ;" 

255, Schrtbera nnetenioides. To Temacular names add " Jarjo^ $andapti$ig, 
K61 ; Okato, Oraon ; Qhanto, Eharwar ; " 

256, 8» iwieUnioidet. To numbers add *' C 3454. Bamundag Beserre, Pala- 
mow, Chota Nagpore." 

256, line 35. Jfter <* Shang, Afg. ."add'' Banafsh, Eandahar ; " 

256, line 40. After ** good fuel." add " Experiments, made at Eandahar by 
Captain Call, B.E., with pieces I' X F X 1^ gave for the average 
weight 32*2 lbs. and 641 for the value of P. (Indian Forester, Vol. V, 
p. 480.)" 

„ 259, after line 17, add^ 

"C 3486 from the EoMn Forests, Singbhum, Chota Nagpore, ia 
probably L. dichotoma, DC. {Chionanthua dichotoma, Boxb.Fl. Ind* 
1. 108). Vem. Deorkuda, E61. Bark \ inch thick, light yellowish- 
brown. Wood moderately hard, close •grained, white. Pores moderate- 
sized, often in pairs or threes, scanty. Medullary rays fine, numerous, 
equidistant, the distance between them equal to, or less than, the 
diameter of the x>ores. Fine concentric lines of white tissue, which 
may be annual rings." 

„ 259, at the end of Linogibba add— 

'*C 3412 from Hazaribagh, and C 3492 from Eolh&n, 
Sinffbhdm, Chota Nagpore, are Nyctanthea Arbor-trigtis, Linn. 
Banc t inch thick, light brown, rough. Wood yellowish-brown, 
moderately hard, close-grained. Pores small, grouped in short 
radial lines, but arranged more or leps in concentric rings, the 
annual rings appsrently marked by a dark line and a more complete 
ring of pores. Medullary rays very fine to fine, very numerous, the 
distance between them equal to the transverse diameter of the pores." 

y, 261, Cariesa diffusa. To vernacular names add " Kanuwdn, Oraon ; Anka 
koli, Uriya ;" and to numbers add " C 3518. Ehurdha Forests, 
Orissa." 

,« 261, at the bottom add " C 3511 and C 3569, from the Ehurdha Forests, Orissa, 
are Carissa Carandas, Linn., Vem. Kenda keri, kerendo kuli, Uriya. 
Bark yellowish brown, peeling off in square flakes* Wood white, 
hard, smooth, close-grained. Pores moderate-sized or small, irregularly 
distributed. Medullary rays fine, short, numerous." 



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XXYl 

Page 262, Ahtonia sckolaris. To vernacalar names add " ChaHn^ bomudu, E6l ; 

Chhatiana, Urija ; " 

263, Tabernamontana coronaria. To vemaoular names add " Chameli, 
Monghjr ; " 

263, Sblarrhena antidysenieriea. To vernacalar names add *^ Korhoria, 
Oraon ; Kurchi^ Bhumij ; Towa, kuti, E61 ; Kuria, Eharwar ; 
Pita korwa, Urija;" and to numbers add-^* 

''C3558. Khoidha Forests, Orissa . . . 39 lbs." 

264, Wrightia tomentosa. To vernacalar names add " Sandihtya, E61 ; 
Dudh'koraiya, Monghyr ; " 

265, 4fier line 2 add *' 3496, from Chaibassa, Chota Nagpore, is Thevetia 
neriifbliaf Juss. Bark thin, grevish brown, shining. Wood grey, 
moderately hard. Pores very small and small, numerous. Medu^ary 
rays very fine, very numerous, the distance between them less than 
the transverse diameter of the pores." 

265, line 29. After *' Auk, Uleio.;' add " Akhwan, KhtLrwBr ; Palati, K6\; 
Urtt^.Uriya:" 

265, at line 17 from the bottom. AJUr *' parpoees." add '* C 3446, from the 
Barasand Reserve, Palamow ; and C 3512, from Burkool, Ehurdha, 
Orissa, are Calotropii giganUa, The bark is light yellowish-white, 
consisting chiefly of cork, and deeply cleft vertically. Wood white* 
soft. Pores small to moderate-sized, often subdivided, scanty. 
Medullary rays extremely fine and numerous." 

268, line 20, For " Barman " read " Barm., an " 

268, line 35. For/'BArkj^ inch thick scales" read "Bark J to } 

inch thick, black or brownish black, corky, very deeply and narrowly 
clefb vertically, so as to form thin ridges which easily break off." 

269, Strvchnos potatorum. To numbers add " C 3500. Ehurdha Forests, 
Orissa." 

269, S. Nux-vomica, To vernacular names add " Kuchila, Uriya ;" and to 
numbers, add " C 3537 (63 lbs.), C 3538 (54 lbs.). Ehurdha Forests, 
Orissa." 



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269, At the end of line 11 from the bottom add ** C3475, fiom the Eoel River, 

Saranda, Chota Nagpore, is JShabdia viminea, Dalzell. It has a soft 
white wood, with scanty pores, often subdivided or in short radial lines. 
Medullary rays extremely fine, very indistinct." 

270, Cordia Myxa, To vernacular names add ** jEmhrum, E61 ; ' 

271, C Maeleodii. To vernacular names add " Senta, porponda, E61; 

Bharwar, belaunan, Eharwar ; and to numbers add ** C 3455. Betlah 
Reserve, Palamow." 

273. After line 13 add " 3497, from Ghatsila, Dhalbhdm, is Erycibe pa- 
niculata, Roxb. Yem. drumin, E61, a climber, with the peculiar 
structure of climbers : soft porous wood, large pores and moderately 
broad medullary rays. The woody portions are arranged in wavj 
concentric masses, separated by lines of cellular tissue. The bark is 
brown with corky lenticels." 

275, Oroxylum indieum. To vernacular names add "Sona, Hazaribagh ; 
Sanpatti, Monghyr ; Arengi banu, E61 ; Sonepatta, Eharwar ; 
Phufiphuna, Uriya ;" 

275, line 31. For " E 2396." read " E 2395." 

277, line 3. After " Ceylon Collection " add " (marked Spathodea longifoUa, 

Vern. Daanga, Cingh.)" 

278, Stereospermum chelonoidee. To vernacular names a^d " Kandior, E61 ; " 

278, S, suaveolens. To vernacular names add ** Kandior, E61 ; Fandri, Ehar- 
war i " and (p. 279) to numbers add " O 1378. Gonda, Oudh." 



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XXVll 

Fkge 279, line 16 from the bottom. Far " B 2856 " read *' B 2235. " 

„ 280, line 6 from the bottom. For " Ban marua " read ** ban marua " 

280, foot-note. Far '* Linn. ; Soc." read '* Linn. Soo." 

281, Adhatoda Vanea, To yernAColar names add " Baeung, Urija ;" 

282, CaUiearpa arhorea. To Temacnlar names €tdd ** Bundiin, K61 ; Bogodi, 
gogdi, Kharwar ; Baropatri, Uiiya ;" and to numbers add ** C 3445. 
Seemah Reserve, Palamow, Chota Nagpore." 

292. Before^ line 5 from the bottom ineeri " C 1204 Ehandwa, Central Pro- 
vinces." 

295. At the end " of Pbbuna add "C 3578, from the Khnrdha Forests, Orissa. 
Vem. Agabathu, Urija, is a species oiFremna, near P. ^a^^/ta,which 
it resembles in stmcture. Bark light yellowish-brown, thin." 

29^ Qmelina arborea. To vemjicalar names add " Xasamar, K61;" and 
(p. 296) to numbers add — 

*' 3549. Ehurdha Forests, Orissa ... 37 lbs. 

" E 3605, E 3620. Darjeeling Terai." 

297, Vltex Negundo. To vernacular names add ** Ehuri, E61 ; Sindwar, Ehar- 
war ; Samdlu, Monghyr ;" 

297, F. altissima. To vernacular names add ** Simyanga, gua^ E<51 ;" 

297, F. pubescene. To vernacular names add " Muria, Uriya ;" and to num- 
bers (page 298) add-- 

**C3550. Ehurdha Forests, Orissa . • . 52 lbs." 

299, line 3. J^Ur " Mechi ;" add " Fula marsal, E61 ; AnguH, Uriya ;" 

302, Ntctagihbx. At end add "C3507, from the Ehurdha Forests, Orissa, is 
Fisonia aculeata, Linn. Yem. Hati-ankusa, Urija. It has a very 
peculiar structure, consisting of regularly arranged, very large, single 
or subdivided pores or groups of porps, with 2 or 3 moderato-sized pores 
radially arranged on the inside of each. The medullary rays are very 
fine, very numerous, and often pass through aud subdivide the pores. 
Bark light brown, thin." 

309, Machilus odoratUsima. To numbers add ** E 3634. Darjeeling, 7,000 ft'* 
810, line 25. For " 1378," read " 1373 " 

310, Teiranthera monopetala. To vernacular names add " Po;o, hajam, E61 ;" 

311, After line 18 inMeri *' C 3581, from the Bumai Forest, Ehurdha, Orissa, is 
Actinodapkne angmttfolia, Nees. Vem. Jharchampa, Uriya. Bark 
light brown, smooth; wood light brown, moderately bard, even-grained. 
Pores numerous, moderate-sized, evenly distributed or roughly 
arranged in oblique lines, often subdivided. Annual rings marked by 
more numerous pores. Medullary rays uniform, moderately broad." 

313, line 11. AJter "42 lbs. " add " This species is not a Dapknidiuw, but 
lAndera heterophylla, Meissn." 

325, line 23. For " E 3377 " read " E 3317." 

327, StrebluM asper. To vernacular names add " JETara saijvng, E61 ;" and to 
numbers acUi "C 3577. Ehurdha Forests. Orissa." 

327, Flecospermum spinosum. To vernacular names add " Banabana, Uriya ;" 

329, line 16. For " E 3376 " read " E 3396." 

329, Artocarpus integrifolia. To vernacular names add " PorSs, E61 ;" 

330, A, Zakoocha, To vernacular names add " Dao, E61 ;" 

331, line 7 from bottom. For " W 755 " read " W 758 " and after line 7 from 
^ the bottom insert " W 1208. South Eanara (saplings)" 

„ 332, line 30. Omit " and W 729 from South Eanara ; " and for " resemble " 
read *' resembles " 



XXVIU 

Page 333, FicM bengaUnsu, To vernacalar names add " Bai^ Kdl ;" 
„ 334, F, infectoria. To vernacular names add " Baswesa, K61 ;" 
„ 335, F, religiasa* To yemacolar names add " Hesar, Kdl ; Jart, Uriya ;" 
„ 336, F, retusa. To vemaoalar names add " Butisa, K6I ;'* 
„ 338. F. virgata. To numbers add " H 148. Sain j, Simla, 3,000 feet" 

339, F. Cunia. To vernacular names add ** Bin, ain, E61 ; Foro dumer, Khar- 



war; 



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339, i^. glomerata. To vernacular names atfcf " Z<$a, K61 ; Dumer, Kharwar ;" 

340, F. Boxhurghii, To vernacalar names add " Kotang, K61 ;" 

340, jp*. hispida. To vernacular names oo^e^ " Koiang, sosokera, K6\ ;" 

341, at the end of Ficns add^ 

" E 3334 from Daneeling, 7,000 ft., is F. Fieldingii, Miq., a 
common tree of the Hill forests of the N. £. Himalaya, whose leaves 
are much used for fodder. It has a thin, grey bnrk ; wood white, 
close-grained, soft. Pores moderate-sized, very scanty. Alternating 
wavy bands of soft and firmer tissue prominent. Medullary rays 
short, moderately broad. 

" E 3612 from Chenga Forest, Darjeeling, 1,600 ft., is F elavata. 
Wall. It has a very thin, smooth, greenish-grey bark. Wood white, 
moderatelv hard, close-grained, lustrous. Pores moderate-sized^ 
scanty, oUen subdivided and enclosed in a ring of white tissue. 
Alternating layers of white, soft, and firmer dark tissue, very regular. 
Medullary rays fine to moderately broad, very short, white." 

841, line 12. For " 2076" read " 2976." 

342, Ulmue UUegrtfolia, To vernacular names add " Daurango, Uriya ;" 
344, Sponia orienialis. To vernacular names add '* Barunga, Kdl ; " 

347, line 18 from the bottom, tifter " Beng. ; " add "Sara sefum, E61 ; Sikat, 

Kharwar ; Mahkod, Monghyr ; " 

348, line 27, after *' Vem. " insert " Simul aloo, simul turul^ Beng. ; " 

349, Antidesma OhcBsembilla. To vernacular names add " Mata sure, Kdl ; " 

362, Fhyllanthus Fmblica, To vernacular names add " Meral, Kdl ; " and 

to numbers add — 

"C3639. Khurdha Forests, Orissa . . . 68 lbs." 

363. At the end of " Phyllaivthus," add " C 3486, from the Kolh4n Forests, 

Singbhdm, Chota Nagpore, and C 3601 and C 3663, from the Khur- 
dha Forests, Orissa, are Fhyllanthus lanceolarius, Miill. Arg. Vem. 
Marang mata, Kdl ; Kalchua, Uriya. Bark brown, longitudinally 
deft, soft. Wood reddish brown, moderately hard. Pores small 
and moderate-sized, scanty, in radial lines between the fine medullary 
rays. The distance between the rays is equal to, or less than, the 
transverse diameter of the pores. Weight, our specimen ' C 3563 * 
gives 66 lbs. per cubic foot. 

** C 3461, from the Betlah Reserve, Palamow, is Breynia 
rhamnoides, Miill. Ar^. Bark greyish brown, fibrous. Wood reddish 
brown, hard, close-gramed. Pores small, in radial lines between the 
numerous, fine medullary rays." 

363, last Une. For '* E 6469" read " E 2469." 

366, Briedelia retusa. To vernacular names add ** Kharaka, kaka, Kdl ; 

Karika, Bhumij ; Kanj, kaji, Kharwar ; Kaj, Monghyr ; " 

367, line 8. After "Ceylon Collection" add "(marked B, spinosa. Yem. 

Kettekale, Cingh.) " 

367. Briedelia tomentosa. To numbers add " C 3498. Dhalbhdm, Chota Nag- 
pore." 



XXIX 

Fkge 357. At the end of Bsibdbujl add ** C 3603 from the Khurdha Forests, Orissa, 

is Briedelia aUpularUt £1. Vern. Ghur kasti, Uriya. Bark brown. 
Wood greyish brown, moderately hard. Pores scanty, often subdivided 
or in short radial lines. Medallary rays fine, numerous, uniformly 
distributed, the distance between them less than the transverse dia- 
meter of the pores. Numerous very fine, concentric, transverse bars 
across the rays." 

„ 368, Zehtdieraptis arbieularu. To vernacular names add ** Partuu, pas, E61 ; 
Kergaili, Kharwar ; " to numbers add ** C 3452. Betlah Reserve, 
Palamow, Chota Nagpore ; " and in line 18 after '* poisonous," add 
" and in Singbhdm is so used by the Ho K61s, as also the root, mixed 
with salt." 

„ 359, line 9, after ** Nep. ;" add *< JSTurii, honya, huli, E61 ; Fuiila, Bhumij ; 
Putri, Kharwar ; Puter, Monghyr ; " 

„ 359, Crotan eaudatus. To vernacular names add " Wiigta, Uriya ;" 

„ 359, line 5 from bottom. 4fter " smaller." add *' C 3458, from Chandwa, Tori, 
Chota Nagnore, is this. It has a yellow wood, pores moderate-sized, 
scanty, single or subdivided, or in groups of 3 to 4 ; and medullary 
rays fine and very fine, very numerous. Wavy concentric bands of 
wnite tissue." 

„ 359, Tretoia nudiflora. To vernacular names <idd ** Kurong, Nep. ; Oara 
lohadaru, E61 ; Oamhdr, Monghyr ; Monda, Uriya. 






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363. Bieinus communis. To vernacular names add *' Bindi, K61 ; 

365, Jairopha Cureas, To vemaeular names add ** JSCuleiera, totka hendi, 

K61 ; " 

366. 4/^ Ckjbtocaslvus insert " C 3548, from the Khurdha Forests, Orissa, 

is Oeloninm laneeolaium, Willd. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 831 ; Beddome 
ocxiv. Vern. Kakra, Uriya ; Suragada, Tel. It is a pretty evergreen 
tree of the Eastern Oircars and Orissa, and has a yellow, smooth, 
dose and even-grained wood, which weighs 50 lbs. per cubic foot and 
has a peculiar waxy smell. The pores are moderate-sized, scanty, 
sometimes subdivided. The medullary rays are very fine, very nu- 
merous, and are joined by very faint, fine, white lines. Growth moder- 
ate, 6 rings per mch of radius." 

369. After line 3 insert ** C 3509, from Khurdha Forests, Orissa, is Euphorbia 
Tirucalli, Linn. Yem. S^'u. Bark brown or greenish brown. Wood 
white or grey, moderately hard. Pores small, single or subdiuided, 
scanty. Medullary rays extremely fine and numerous." 

369, Une 5. After *« Baillon." add " The Box Tree." 

372, line 17 from the bottom. AjUr '* roofing houses." add " (H 130, Botang 
Pass, Knlu, 9,000 ft.)" 

372, line 10 from the bottom. For '* E 2404." read " E 2403." 

373, line 6. .Fbr " E 2914." read " E 2904." ; and line 7, for " E 2405." read 

" E 2404." 

374^ line 13. .Fbr " E 2406." read " E 2405." 

376, line 12. For " 8. serphyllum" read " 8. strpyllum:* 

375, Balix tetrasperma. To vernacular names add "Nackal, K61; Cheur, 
Khaiwar ; " 

379, line 18. For " H 3138." read " H 3188." 

380, line 8. For ** Vulgaris" read ** vulgaris " and line 9, for " Castanea 

Vesea** read ** Castanea vulgaris," 

384, Quereus dUatata. To numbers add *' H 777. Kalatop Forest, Punjab, 
7,000 ft" 

386, Q. acuminata. To numbers add " E 3384, Darjeeling, 6,500 ft." 



XXX 

Pktge 302, Jwflans regia. To nmnben add " H 7. Theog, Simla, 6,000 ft" 

„ 392, line 3 from the bottom. For '* H 41 " read " H 36." 

„ 393, t^/Ur line 4 add <'E 3687, E 3632, Daijeeling, 7,000 ft. The latter is 
from a planted tree and shews 16 rings to a radius of 4^ inches, or 
3^ rings per inch of radius." 

„ 408, lines, ^or " H 2898." reai " H 2896." 

„ 409, after line 26, add " Our No. E 2437 shewed, on the round, a mean 
diameter of 22 inches corresponding to 134 years or 13 rings per 
inch of radius. This agrees with several other measurements made 
in the Singalila Forests in Darjeeling, though at a lower elevation the 
growth is faster. Twelve rings per inch may be, therefore, taken as 
an average rate of growth for the Sikkim Silver Fir forests." 

„ 410 line 16. After "above Gh4t." add " C, Latosoniana, Murray, is cultivated 
and grows well at and around Darjeeling." 

,» 410, line 6 from the bottom. 4fter ''Gamble 83." add " The Funereal Cypress." 

„ 411, line 10. At the beginning add " E 3616 from Rangii-dm, Darjeeling, 
7,000 ft., and " and/or " is " write " are " 

„ 411, line 20. A'^ter " Wood soft, " add " white, with a brown, often almost 
black, heartwood," 

„ 412, last Hue. For "K 127 r read'* R 129 r 

,. 41i, line 8, t^er " Cuttack," add ''Bengua, Uriya." and in line 10, for ** Mid.'' 
r«wi"Miq." 

„ 418, line 11. J^or " taUl " rooi " tall" 

„ 419, line 6. After " Hind. ; " ineert " Keeta, K61 ; " 

„ 421, line 14 from the bottom, ^r " ENTINCKIA " r»arf " BBNTINCKIA " 

y, 423, Calamus tenuis. To vernacular names add ** Jali, Cachar ; " and to 
numbers add " (£ 1298. Cachar)." 

„ 424h C. Masiersianus. As number a<f(i '' (E 1299. Cachar)." 

„ 424, C. Jenkinsianus. To vernacular names add " Qallah, Cachar ; " and to 
numbers " (E 1300. Cachar.)' 

,. 426, line 16 from the bottom. For " E 1364," read ** E 1 361, 1364," 

„ 427, line 24 from the bottom. After " Beng. ; " insert " Fepesitnan, Kol x " 
and/or "E 1329 " read " E 1328.'^ 

„ 428, line 12. After " Hind. ; " insert " Katanga, K61 ; " 

„ 428, line 16 from the bottom. After " E 3428 " a<U '' E 1327 ;" and line 16* 
for "E1314 " read " E1312 " 

„ 430, line 10. After " Beng. ; " insert " Mathan^ earing, huru mat, K61 
Bukhar, Palamow (the clump) ; " 

„ 430, line 17. After " basket work." add ** (B 1322, Burma. P 1362, Hoshiar. 
pur, Punjab.)" 

„ 430, line 12 from the bottom. After " E 1341 " add " E 1466." 

„ 431, line 28. For " CRYPTOGAMLE." read " CRYPTOGAMiE.'* 

„ 432, line 21. For " Braineai nsignis " read *' Brainea insignis " 

Under their proper places add E 3693, Beilsehmiedia Boxhurghiana ; E 3^97, Fhretia 
WallicAiana ; E 3600, TWmincdia helerica ; £ 3QOQ,Stereospermum chelonoides ; 
E 3607, Quercus pachyphglla ; £ 3609, QtferctM annulata ; £ 3610, Echimoearpus 
dasycarpus ; and E 3611, Lagerstrbmia parviJlora,^dM from Darjeeling. 



MANUAL OF INDIAN TIMBERS. 



I. DICOTYLEDONS. 
Order I. BANUNCnLACEiB. 

A family which ooDtains chiefly herbaceous plants. Besides Clematis and Narm- 
velia, which are genera of climbing shrabs, Paonia JEmodi, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind i. 
90. Yem. Mamekk^ Pb. is an erect undershrub of the Western Himalaya, whose root 
is said by Stewart to be used in native medicine, and young shoots as a vegetable in 
Kumaun. 

1. CLEMATIS, Linn. 

Of this and the neighbouring genus, Naravelia, 22 species occur in India. They 
are distributed almost all over India : 11 are found in the North- West Himalaya, 14 
in the Eastern Himalaya and Khasia Hills, 2 in Central India, 4 in the Dekkan, 4 on 
the Western Coast and 10 in British Burma. 

The commonest kinds in the North- West Himalaya are C. grata, Wall., C, nutans, 
Boyle, and C. arientalis, Linn., with white or yellowish-white panicles of flowers ; 
C montaua, Ham., with large white star-shaped flowers, and C, oarbellata, £d^w., 
with dull purple ones, common in the hill forests ; while C, Buchananiana, DC, 
is conspicuous for its woolly leaves and large soft tomentose bell-shaped flowers. In 
the Eastern Himalaya this latter species is the most common, with C, aretnaflorii, 
DC, covered all over with golden pubescence, and the beautiful pink-flowered C smilaeu 
folia. Wall. C gourianoy Boxb. and Naravelia zeylanica, DC, are common in 
Beng^, Central India, the Dekkan, and in Burma, where the second species of Nara- 
vtlia (N. laurtfolia^ Wall.) is also found. 

These climbiers are all very ornamental, but they have little or no value, though 
Kurz says that the " stems of the species from Burma while f r^sh are often used for 
ropes and are very strong." Ikbthieu Fl. For. p. gives the weight at 24 to 36 lbs. 
per cubic foot for C, Vitalba, Linn, the European Clematis, or Traveller's Joy. 

1. C. Montana, Ham. ; Hook. il. Ind. i. 2 ; Gamble 1. Yem. QhantidU, Hind. 

H 2851. Mahasu, Simla, 8,000 ft. 

2. C. harhellata, Edgw, ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 3. 

H 2852. Mahasu, Simla, 8,000 ft 

H 3156. Theog, Simla, 7,000 ft 40 lbs. 

3. C, grata. Wall. ; Hook. FL Ind. L 3. Vem. Ghantidli, Hind. 

H 2850. Simla, 6,000 ft 

4. C. Buchanamiana, DC ; Ho<^. Fl. Ind. i. 6 ; Kurz i. 17 ; Gamble 1. 

H 2838. Simla, 6,000 ft. 

Woody climbers, with a fibrous bark and a porous yellowish-white 
wood, with broad or very broad medullary rays and pores which vary 
from small to very large. 



DiLLENiACKS. [ DilUnia. 



Order II. DILLENIAdLS!. 

An order of three Indian genera, belonging to two tribes, vm.,— > 

Tribe I. — DeJimeas Delima and Tetraeera. 



n 



II. — DilleniesD • Dillenia and Wbrmia, 



Delima sarmentosa, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 31 ; Knrz i. 22 ; Gamble 2 (2V^ra- 
cera sarmentosa^ Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 646) Yem. Monhifourik, Lepcha, is an evergreen 
rough-leaved climber of Northern and Eastern Bengal, Burma and the Andamans. 
Tetracera includes two species : T. Itsvis, Vahl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 31 (T. trigynat 
Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 645), a climber of the forests of Malabar ; and T, Assa, DC. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 31 ; Eurz i. 22, a scandent shrub of Chittagong. Wbrmia is found 
in Ceylon. 

1. DILLENIA, Linn. 

Eight species. D. bracteata^ Wight ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 37 (D. repanda, Boxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 652. Wormia hracteata, Beddome t. 115) is a handsome tree of South 
India. D. pulcherrima, Kurz i. 19 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 37. Yem. Byoo, Burm., is a 
handsome deciduous tree of Pegu and Martaban, chiefly in the Eng forests, which Kurz 
evidently identifies with No. 2 of Brandis' Burma List of 1862 (Bjoohen) : weight 
69 lbs., wood hard and strong, and used for rice-mills. D, seahrella, Boxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 653 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 38 ; Kurz i. 21. Yem. Atachi, G&ro, is a deciduous tree 
of AjBsam, Eastern Bengal and Chittagong. D. farviflora. Griff. ; Hook. FL Ind. ii. 
38 ; Kurz i. 21. Yem. Lingyau^ Burm., is a deciduous tree of the mixed forests of 
Burma up to 2,000 feet 

Wood characterized by prominent mednllary rajrs which appear as 
high, shining plates on a vertical section, giving the wood a remarkably 
mottled appearance. The rays are generally of two sizes and the pores 
are small, tike distance between the rays being greater than the diameter 
of the pores. 

1. D. indica, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 86 ; Brandis 1 ; Kurz i. 19 ; 
Gamble 1. D. ^^^'c^a^Thunb. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 650 ; Beddome t. 103. 
Yem. Chalia, Hind.; Cialta, Aargesa^ Beng.; Phamnkol^ Lepcha; 
Otengahj Ass. ; JRai, Uriya ; Uva, Tam. ; Vva^ pedda-kalinga, Tel. ; 
Syalita^ Mai. ; Mota iarmal, Mar. ; Handapara, Cingh. ; TAqprUf cAaura^ 
test, Magh ; Tkabyoo, Burm. ; Carllow^ Taleing. 

^> A large evergreen tree. Bark red, peeling off in small bard flakes. 
Wood red with white specks, close-grained, moderately hard. Pores 
moderate-sized, numerous, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays of 
two classes, broad and extremely fine, a large number of fine ones 
between two broad ones. Two or more lines of pores between each pair 
of broad rays. The medullary rays are visible on a radial section, giving 
the wood a mottled appearance, but not to the same extent as in i>. 
pentagj/na. 

Bengal, Central and South India, Burma ; often planted for ornament. 
Qrowth moderate, our specimens shew seven rings per inch of radius. The weight 
and transverse strength have been determined by the following experiments :^ 

Weight P 

Skinner, No. 58, in 1862, in South India . found 45 lbs., 721 

Kydml831 withAssam wood,hars2'xl*'xl' „ 45 „ 243 (doubtful) 

Brandis, in 1862, Burma List, No. 3 . . „ 41 „ »„ 
Smythies, in 1878, with our four specimens . „ 44*5 „ 



•»• 



■-^* 



Dillenia. ] DiLLBNUCEiS* 3 

The wood is used to make helves and ganstocks, and in oonstrnction ; and is said to 
be dorable under water. It makes good firewood and charcoal. The large fruit is 
surrounded bj the fleshy accrescent calyx which is eaten either raw or cooked. The 
rough old leaves are used to polbh i?ory. 

Ibe. 

S 696. Ehookloong Forest, Daijeeling Terai 40 

£ 2310. Sivoke Forests, Darjeeling Terai 41 

£ 1395. Chittagong 48 

B 2601. Burma 49 

8. D. pentagyna^ Rozb. Fl. Ind. ii. 602 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 88 ; 
Beddome 1. 10^ ; Brandis 2 ; Knrz i. 21 ; Gamble 2. D. augusta, Koxb. 
L c. Vera. Aggai, Oudh ; Kallai, C.P. ; Kariotta, Beng.; SuAa-ruk, 
Bori, C.P.; Tatrif Nep. ; Siuini, Lepcha; AisAi, Abb., Mecbi; Akachi, 
O&ro ; Rai^ Uriya ; Rai, pinnai, nai-tSk, Tarn. ; Rawadan, ehinnakalinga, 
Tel.; Kanagaiuj Mar. ; MircM, Baigas ; Kallei, Oondi ; MaUgeru^ Kurg ; 
MaeAil, Kan.; Zambrin, Magh. ; Zimbyun^ Barm. 

A deciduous tree. Bark ^ inch thick^ grey or pale-brown^ smooth, 
inner substance red. Wood rough, moderately hard, reddish grey ; apt 
to split, warp and crack ; strong, heavy, durable, handsomely marked on 
a vertical section by the darker-coloured medullary rays which appear 
as broad plates. Pores small and moderate-sized, many of them filled 
with a white substance, which is visible both on the horizontal and 
vertical sections, and is one of the characteristics of the wood. Medul- 
lary rays numerous, moderately broad, with a few intermediate, very 
fine rays. Annual rings marked by a narrow belt in the outer edge 
(autumn wood) without pores ; this is particularly distinct in the wood 
from Oudh, less so in the specimens from Burma. ^ 

Oudh, Bengal, Central and South India, Burma. 

Growth moderately fast, our specimens give five to six rings per inch of radius. 
Saplings grow up very fast» with straight, thick-barked stems, crowned by very large 
leaTes. Tha weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following 
experiments f^ 

Weight P » 

Skinner, in 1802, in South India, No. 67 . . found 70 lbs. 907 

Benson, in Burma, with bars S'X 1-4'' X 1*4^ . . „ 58 „ 960 

Kyd, in 1831, with Assam wood, in bars 2' X F X 1^ . „ 46 „ 693 
Brandis, in 1862, Burma List, No. 1 . . • „ 48 „ 
„ in 1864, with Burma wood (4 experiments) 

barsS'xl^'xr . ....... 46 „ 740 

Smythies, in 1878, with our six specimens . . „ 47*6 „ ••, 

The wood is used for construction, ship-building, rice-mills, and for charcoal.' which 
is of good quality. The leaves are very large, often 2 feet long ; they are used for 
plates. The fruit is eaten when green, as also are the flower-buds. The tree is often 
found with s&l. 

Ibf. 

O 348. Gorakhpur (1868) 64 

£ 668. Bakti Forest, Darjeeling Terai 46 

£ 2311. Sivoke, DarjeeUng Teru 64 

^[m] Burma (1867) 47 

B 667. Prome, Burma 38 

8. D. anreai Smith ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 87 ; Brandis 2 ; Kurz i. 20. 
D. omato, Wall. Vem. Chamaggai,OviSh\ DAeugr,^^^.', Bgoobenj'Bxnia. 

A large tree. Bark \ inch thick^ reddish grey. Wood grey^ beauti- 
nflly mottled and wainscoted^ hard^ close-grained. Fores small and 



^^^ 



4 DiLLEKiACEiB. [ DUlenia^ 

Tery small^ often in short radial lines. Medullary rays broad, with a 
few intermediate very fine rays. Annual rings very indistinct. The 
wood differs from that of D, indica and D. pentagyna by smaller pores 
and narrower medullary rays. 

Nepal, BeDgnl, Burma and Andaman islands. 

Weight : according to Benson, 44 Ibe. ; Brandis, 45 lb». ; oar specimens give 48 to 
49 lbs. Benson gives P = 8S4. Wood not used. 

nw. 

B 2602. Burma (1862) : 49 

B 2253. Andaman Islands (1866) . . • . . .48 

4. D. retnsa^ Thunb. ; Thwaites Ennm. 5 ; Hook. FL Ind. i. 37. 
Vem. Oodapara, Cingh. 

A tree. Wood resembling that of the other species. 

Cej^Ion, np to 2,000 ft. 

Weight according to A. Mendis, 51 lbs. per cnlnc fbot. Wood luied for bailding. 

Ibe. 

No. 29, Ceylon collectk)n 61 



Two specimens, 6 2245 (52 lbs.) and B 2275 (44 lbs.), sent by Major Ford from the 
Andaman Islands in 1866 nnder name of Lingyau, have a structure similar to that of 
7). aureUf but the wood is purplish grey and may possibly belong to D, pilosa, Bozb. 
{Kxaz i. 20) which, according to Kurz, is a large tree of the Andamans. 

2. WORMIA, Rottb. 

1. W. triqnetray Rottb. ; Thwaites Enum. 4 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 35. 
Vern. Diyapara^ Cingh. 

Wood reddish; in structure resembling that oi Dillenia. 

Ceylon, up to 2,000 fl. 

Weight 44 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood used for bailding ; the nut g^ves-an oiL 

No. 22y Ceylon collection 44 



Obdbb III. MAGNOLIACiLS:* 

Contains 8 genera of Indian trees, shrubs or climbers, which are chiefly found in the 
Eastern Himalaya and the. Eastern moist zone. The order is divided ino 4 tribes, 

W«.,"— 

Tribe I. — Trochodendree Euptelea, 

„ II. — ^Wintere® Ulicium. 

ff III. — Magnoliese Talauma, Magnolia^ Man* 

glieiia and Michelia, 
„ IV. — Schizandrese Scnizandra and Xadsura, 

Four of these genera contain only shrubs or woody climbers : JStqftelea pleiosperma. 
Hook, f . and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 39, is a shrub of the higher Mishmi Hifis ; jflicium 
contains two shrubs ; I. GhrWithii, Hook. f. and Th. of the Khasia Hills, and I. tnaj'us. 
Hook, f . and Th. ; Kurz i. 23, of the Thoungyeen Hills in Tenasserim ; Schizandra, 4 
climbing species of the Eastern Himalaya, of which 8, grandiflora, Hook, f . and Th. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 44: Brandis 671; Gamble 3. Vem. Klandru, ka\jendru, Simla; 
8illangt%,'KximB.\m\ Singhata, taksielrih, Lepcha, with edible fruits, extends as far 
west as Simla (H. 3,029, Nagkanda, 9,000 ft., with a porous wood and strong resinous 
smell) ; and Kadaurc^ two climbers of Assam and Malabar respectively. Of we remain- 
ing genera, three are here described, the last, Manglietia, containing two large trees ; 



Talauma. ] magnoliaceje. 5 

M, inngnU, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 42 ; Kurz. i. 25, of the Eastern Himalaya, Khasia 
Hflls and Pesn, above 6,000 feet ; and M. Caveana^ Hook, f . and Th. of the Khasia 
Hills. Kearly all the faznilj are ^owy plants, with handsome foliage and sweet-scented, 
large flowers. Many species come from America and are grown in gardens in Europe ; 
among such are Liriodendron tuli^9\ferum, the well known Tulip Tree and several 
handsome Magnolias. 

Wood soft, generally rough. Pores generally small, uniformly 
distributed. Medullary rays sharply marked^ fine. The annual rings 
are generally marked by a clearly defined line, or narrow belt of soft 
texture. The structure of the different species of this order is so uniform 
that no attempt has been made to give generic characters. 

1. TALAUMA, Juss. 

T. Sahaniana, Hook. f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 40 ; Kurz i. 24 Yem. Sappa, 
As8.9 is a large tree of the Khasia HiUs and Burma, whose wood is sometimes used in 
Assun for furniture and planking ; and T, mutabilis, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 40 
(21 Candollei, Bl. ; Kurz. i. 24), a shrub of Tenasserim and Tavoy. Most of the species 
are remarkable for their large fragrant flowers. 

1. T. Hodgsoni, Hook. f. and T. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 40 ; Gamble 3. 
Vem. SiffoOy Lepcha ; HarrS, Nep. 

An evergreen tree. Bark grey, ^ inch thick, smooth. "Wood grey, 
very soft, even-grained. Annual rings distinct. Fores small. Medullary 
rajB fine and very fine. 

Sikkim Himalaya from the Terai up to 6,000 ft. ; Khasia Hills. 

Growth moderate, 7 rings per inch of radius. Weight 21 lbs. per cubic foot. 

lbs. 

£ 3100. Daijeeling 5,000 ft , . . 21 

2. MAGNOLIA, Linn. 

Besides the species given below, M, alobosa^ Hook, f . and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
i. 41; Oamble 2, ib a small tree of the inner ranges of the Sikkim Himalaya; 
Jf. Oriffithii, Hook. f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 41, an evergreen tree of the forests 
of Upper Assam ; and Jf. tphenocarpa, R<jxb. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 41 ; Kurz i. 24. 
{Liriodendron grandiflorumy Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 653.) Vem. Burramturi^ Ass. ; Duli 
champa, S^lhet. is a large evergreen tree of the tropical forests of the base of the 
Eastern Hmdalaya, Assam and Eastern Bengal down to Chittagong. 

1. M. Campbellii, Hook. f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 41 ; Gamble 2. 
Vem. Lai champ , Nep, ; Sigumgrip, Lepcha; Fendder, Bhutia. 

A large, tall, deciduons tree. Bark dark coloured, that of the 
branches black. Wood white, very soft. Annual rings distinctly marked 
by prominent white lines. Fores small. Medullary rays moderate-sized, 
prominent. 

Sikkim and Bhutan from 7»000 to 10,000 feet. Growth moderate, 11} rings per 
inch of radius. Weight 25 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood occasionally used for planking, 
but now scarce. Chiefly remarkable for its magnificent large pmk or white flowers, 
which appear in April. 

lbs. 

E 3d5. Bangyrdm Forest, Darjeeling, 7,600 feet 25 

8. MICHELIA, Linn. 

Besides the 6 species described below, M. Ki^opa, Ham. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 43. 
Vem. Banchampa, Kumaun ; Champ, chohsi, Nep., is a tall tree of Nepal. A. Aikin, in 
his Catalogue ox Indian ^^pods collected by WaUich, says the wood is yellowish, is used 
in Nepal for light works, and has 8 to 11 rings per inch of radius. M, punduana, Hook. 



6 M^ONOLiACBiB. [ Micielia. 

f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 43, is found in the Khasia Hills ; and M, nilagirica Zenk ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 44 ; Beddome t. 62. Vera. Pila champa, Hind., Mar. ; Shembugha, 
Tarn. ; Walsapu, Cingh., with a strong, fine-grained wood, used for building, beams 
and rafters, in the higher forests of the Western Ghats and Ceylon. 

1. M. Gathcartii, Hook. f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 42 ; Gamble 
2. Vern. Kala champ, Nep. ; Atokdung, Lepcha. 

A large tree, with dark-coloured bark. Sapwood large, white, 
heaHwood dark olive brown, moderately hard. Annual rings distinctly 
marked by a white line. Pores small. Medullary rays fine, not very 
prominent. 

Sikkim Himalaya, 5,000 to 7,000 feet. 

Weight 41 lbs. Wood used for planking, will do well for tea boxes. The flowers 
are terminal, white, but turn red in drying. 

lbs 

E 2314. Rangbdl Forest, Darjeeling, 6,500 feet 41 

2. M. Gham^aca^ Linn.,- Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 42; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
656; Beddome vi; Brandis 3; Kurz i. 25; Gambled. Vern. Cia»i/?a, 
Hind. ; Oulia champ, Nep. ; Titasappa, Ass, ; Champa, champaka, Beng. ; 
Shimbu, sempangam, Tam. ; Champakamu, sampenga, kanchanamu^ Tel. ; 
Sampighi, Kan.; Champakam, Mai.; Taaga, Burm. 

A tall everg^reen tree, with grey bark, \ inch thick. Wood soft, 
seasons and polishes well ; sapwood white ; heartwood light olive brown ; 
annual rings distinctly marked by a white line. Fores small and 
moderate-sized, equally distributed. Medullary rays short, fine to 
moderately broad, visible on a radial section. 

Cnltivated throughout India from the Ravi southwards and up to 5,400 feet in 
the North- West Himalaya. Wild in Nepal, Bengal, Assam (ascending to 3,000 feet), 
Burma, and in the forests of the Western Gh4ts as far as Kanara. 

Growth moderate, our specimens shew seven rings per inch of radius* It often 
reaches 8 feet eirth at an age of 100 to 120 years. 

Weight: the mean of 7 experiments made by Bmndis in 1864 gave 37 lbs. 
per cubic foot; Buckle's experiments in Mysore gave 4& lbs. ; while Smythies found 38 lbs. 
per cubic foot as the average of our e^ecimens. In Brandis' experiments of 1864 on Nepal 
wood, 4 with bars 6' X 2" X 2"gave F = 664, while 3 with bars 6' X 2^ X li^gave P = 
661. Buckle's in Mysore with bars 2' X 1* X 1" gave P = 642. 

The wood is very durable : e, g., specimen No. 1437 was cut by Griffith in 1836 and 
has been since then in Calcutta, and is now as sound as if fresh cut. The wood is used for 
furniture, house-building, carriage work and native drums. It is considered valuable in 
Northern Bengal for planking, door-panels and furniture ; and in Assam for building 
and canoes. The flowers are prized on account of their sweet scent^ and the tree is 

planted at Hindu shrines. 

lbs. 

E 576. Khookloong Forest, Darjeeling Tend 36 

E 2313. Sukna Forest, Darjeeling Terai . . . . . .37 

E 2195. Nowgong, Assam 40 

E 1049. Eastern Duars, Assam 36 

E 1437. Mishmi Hills (Griffith, 1 836) 42 

3. M. excelsa, Blume ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 43 ; Gamble 3. Vern. Bara 
champ, safed champ, Nep. ; Sigugrip, Lepcha ; Q6k, Bhutia. 

A lofty deciduous tree. Bark greyish brown, J inch thick. Wood 
soft; sapwood small, white; heartwood olive brown, glossy; annual 
rings distinctly marked by firmer autumn wood with fewer pores. 
Pores small. Medullary rays short, fine and moderately broad, very 
numerous, prominent on a radial section. According to Gamblcj the 
wood is yellow when fresh cut. 



^^ 



Micielia.'l magnoluce^. 7 

Easiera HimaUya, from 6,000 to 8,000 feet ; Khasia Hills. 

GrowiJi rather slow ; 13 to 16 ringsper inch of radios are shewn hy onr specimens. 
Weight, 33 to Silhs. per cnhic foot. The wood is very durable : eg,, specimen No. 1443 
was cat in 1836 and Kept since then i^ Calcutta ; the wood is now as sound as if fresh 

cut. . . ' . 

Used for building, but chiefly for planking, door and window frames, and for fumi- 
toie. The principal building and furniture wood of the Darjeeling Hills. 

lbs. 

£ 657. Chnttockpnr Forest, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet .... 33 

S 2312. Bangbdl Forest, Dajrjeeling, 7,000 feet 33 

E 1442. Mishmi Hills (Griffith, 1836) 34 

4. M. lanuginosa^ Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 43 ; Gamble 2. Yern. 
Go^ajf damp J Nep. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark 4 inch thick, greyish brown, 
smooth. Wood grey, soft, shining. Fores small, scanty. Medullary 
rays fine and very fine, closely packed. Narrow concentric (annual ?) 
rings of soft texture, often confluent. 

Forests of Sikkim and the Khasia Hills from 6,000 to 7,000 feet 
Growth moderate. Weight 27 lbs. per cubic foot. 

lbs. 

£ 9099. Darjeeling, 7,000 feet 27 

5. M. oblonga^ Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 43. Yern. Sappa, phul' 
%appa^ Assain. 

A tree. Sapwood white; heartwood dark grey, soft. Annual rings 
indistinct. Pores moderate-sized, often in short radial lines. Medullary 
rays fine, uniform, closely packed, equidistant; the distance between two 
rays less than the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Khasia Hills and Assam. 

Weighty 40 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood is used in Assam for canoes and rough 
fomiture. 

lbs. 

E 1268. Lakhimpur, Assam 40 



Order IV. ANONACEJE. 

This Older contains 21 Indian genera, the majority of which are South Indian 
and Burmese. 

They belong to 5 tribes, w«.,— 

Tribe I. — Uvariea . ' . . . Uvaria and ElUpeia, 
„ n. — Unonece . . . . Cyathocalyx, Artahotrys, Cananga, 

Cyathostemmat Unona^ PolyaU 
thiay Anaxagorea and Popotoia. 
UL — Mitrephore® .... Oxymitra, Phaanthus, Gonio- 



n 



thalamus and Mitrephora. 
IV. — ^Xylopieffi . . . * . Anona and Melodorum. 
v.— Muiuseae .... Miliu^a, Saccopetalum, Alphonsea, 

Orophea and Bocagea, 

One genus, Anona, contains introduced fruit tre^ ; five, Uvaria, Ellipeia, ArtO' 
hotrys, Oxymitra and Melodorum, chiefly climbing shrubs; fifteen, Cyathocalyx, 
Cyathostemma, Unona, Polyalthia, Anaxagorea, Popotoia, Phceanthus, Oonioma- 
lamus, Mitrephora, Miliusa, Saccopetalum, Orophea, Cananga, Alphonsea and 
JBoeagea, are snrubs or trees. In Northern and Central India the family is represented 



^ AKOKACE^. [ Polyalthia, 

by 4 species of Polyalthia, 3 of Anona, 2 of Saccopetalnm and Miliusa velutina. 
The Eastern Himalaya, Assam and Eastern Benf^al, contain trees, shrubs or climbers 
of the genera Uvaria, Artabotrys, Anona, Polyalthia, Melodorum and Miliusa, while 
the remaining genera, and the majority of tne species of these, are found in South 
India or Burma. 

Of the genera not herein described, the five climbing ones contain about 30 species, 
the principal of which are : Uvaria macropkylla, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 663 ; Hook. Fl. Ind« 
ii. 4^ ; Kurz i. 28. Yem. Bagh-t*unga, Beng. ; Tkabtoot-ntoay, Burm., a large evergreen 
climber common in Eastern Bengal and Burma ; JEllipeia ferruginea. Hook. f. and 
Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 52 ( Uvaria femiginea. Ham.; Kurz i. 29), a shrub of the 
Irrawaddy valley ; and Ariahotrys odoratissimus, B. Br. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 54 ; Kurz i. 
31 ( Uvaria odoratissima, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 666), a large Burmese shrub with fragrant 
flowers. Cyathocalyx martahanicus, Hook, f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 53 ; Kurz i. 
30, is an evergreen tree of Martaban and Tenasserim. Cananga odorata. Hook, f . and 
Th.; Hook- Fl. Ind. i. 66; Kurz. i. 33 (Uvaria odorata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii,661) Vem. 
JSTadapgnam, Burm., is a large evergreen tree of Tenasserim. Unona contains seven 
Burmese and three South Indian trees. Popowia two, vis. : P. Beddomeana^ Hook. f. 
andTh. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. L 68 (P. ramosissima, Bcddome viii.) of the Travancore and 
Tinnevelly hills ; and P. Seiferi, Hook, f . and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 69 ; Kurz i. 39 
of the Andamans and Tenasserim. Alphonsea four, viz,. A, madragpatana, Bedd. 
t. 92; A, zeylanica. Hook. f. and Th., of South India; A, lutea. Hook. f. and Th., of 
Eastern Bengal, South India and Burma; and A. ventricosa. Hook. f. and Th., of 
Assam, Chittagong and the Andaman^, all trees of considerable size. Mitrephora 
grandiflora, Bcddome t. 91. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i.78, is a large handsome tree of the South 
Kanara forests. There are altogether, excluding those of the Malay Peninsula and 
Ceylon, about 100 Indian species ; of these about 60 occur in Burma, 30 in South India 
and 30 in Eastern Bengal. Further spe(umens of the wood of the larger species are 
urgently required for investigation and determination of doubtful woods, such as 
Bamau, &c, (see p. 10). 

Wood light-coloured, generally yellowish and soft. Pores small. 
Medullary rays fine to moderately broad, joined by numerous fine trans- 
verse bars. These transverse bars furnish an excellent character for 
distinguishing the wood of AnonaeesB from that of most other families ; 
they are also found in Bassia and Mimusopa, but in these genera they 
have more the character of wavy concentric lines. The structure of the 
different species of this family is so uniform that no attempt has been 
made to give generic characters. 

1, POLYALTHIA, Blume. 

Besides the two species here described, P. simiarum, Bth. and Hook, f . ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 63 ; Kurz i. 37, is a large tree of Eastern Bengal and Burma ; P. Jenkinni, 
Bth. and Hook, f . ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 64 ; Kurz i. 37, is a common tree of the Andamans, 
found also in Assam and Sylhet ; P. cqffeoides, Bth, and Hook, f . ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 
62 ; Beddome t. 63, is a common tree of the Western Gh&ts, where its bark is made 
into ropes ; P. suherosa, Bth. and Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 65 ; Brandis 6. (Uvaria 
suberosa, Roxb. Fl. Ini ii. 667.) Vem. Bara chali, Beng. ; Banderhola, Ass. ; Chilka 
duduga, Tel., is a smaU tree of Oudh, Bengal and SouiJi India, with a corky bark, 
and close, tou^h, hard, durable wood, weighing, according to Brandis 40, and Kvd 
45 lbs. per cubic foot, and having P = 430. There are also about 8 other species ae- 
soribed, from India and Burma. 

1. P. longifolia, Benth. and Hook, f . ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 62 ; Bed- 
dome t. 88 ; Brandis 4. Uvaria longifolia, Lam. ; Roxb. Fl- Ind. ii. 664. 
Vern. Asoi, debdari, Hind. ; AssotAi, Tam. ; Asoid, devadaru, Tel. 

A larg^e evergreen tree with smooth bark. Wood white. Pores small, 
often subdivided, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays short, fine to 
very broad. Numerous, equidistant, very fine transverse bars across 
the rays. 



Polfattiia. ] AKONACE^. 9 

Wnd in Ceylon. Planted as an avenne tree thronghont Bengal and Sonth India. 
Weight: aocordins to Skinner, No. 76, 37 lbs. ; Brandis says between SO and 40 ; our 
specimen gives 37 loe. Skinner's experiments give P = 547. 

lbs. 

E 2479. Calcutta 37 

2« P. cerasoides, Beuth. and Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 63; Bed- 
dome t. 1.; Brandis 5; Kurz i. 38. Vvaria cerasoides, Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 666. Vern. Hoom, Mar.; Chilka dudtigu, Tel.; Naiulsi, muUli, Tam. 

A large evergreen tree. Wood olive grey, moderately hard, close- 
grained. Pores small. Medullary rays short, broad and moderately fine ; 
the distance between the rays twice or three times as great as the 
transverse diameter of the pores. Numerous, very distinct, fine, equidis- 
tant, tranverse bars between the rays. 

Behar, Eastern and Western Ghats, Dekkan, Burma. 

Weight, 52 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood is used for carpentry and in boat-building. 
It Lb much prized in Bombay. 

lbs. 

C 997. Poona 52 

2. ANONA, Linn. 

Besides the species given below, the ' Bullock's heart/ A, reticulata, Linn. ; Yem. 
Sampkalj and the ' Soursop/ A. muricata, L., are also cultivated in many parts of 
India. (Skinner, No. 14, gives for A, reticulata W = 40 lbs. P = 640). 

1. A. squamosa^ Linn. ; .Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 78 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 657 ; 
Brandis 6 ; Kurz i. 46 ; Gamble 3. The Custard Apple. Vern. Sharif a ^ 
sifapkat, Hind. ; Ata, lina^ Beng. ; Siia^ Tam. ; Sitapundu, Tel. ; AUa, 
Mai., Cingh. ; Auza, Burm. 

A small tree, with an erect, short trunk. Bark thin, grey. Wood 
soft, close-grained. Pores moderate-sized, scanty. Medullary rays moder- 
ate-sized, joined by numerous white transverse bars. 

Introduced from the West Indies, and domesticated throughout India and Burma. 
Cultivated for its fruity which ripens from July to October. Weight, 46 lbs. per cubic 

foot. 

Ibg. 
B 2317. Myanoung, Burma 46 

3. MILIUSA, Lesch. 

Besides the two species herein described, Hf, indie a, Lesch., M, Wiahtiana, Hook. 
f. and Th., and Jf. niuigirica, Beddome, are shrubs or small trees of the Western Gh£ts ; 
M sclerocarpa, Kurz, is a small tree, with a rather heavy wood, from Martaban and 
Tennasserim ; and M. macrocarpa. Hook, f . and Th., a small tree from Sikkim and 
the Khasia Hills. 

1. M. velntinay Hook. f. and Th.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 87; Beddome 
t. 37; Brandis 6; Kurz i. 47. Uvnria villosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 664. 
Vern. Jhrn-sdl, Hind. ; Kari, C. P. ; KAarrei, Oudh ; Peddachilka duduga, 
nalla diduga, Tel. ; Thahiigyee^ Burm. 

A deciduous moderate-sized tree, with a short erect trunk ; in Burma 
a large tree. Bark \ inch thick, rough. Wood yellow when fresh 
cut, grey or greyish brown when dry, moderately hard. Annual rings 
indistinct. Pores small, uniformly distributed, often in short ra<linl 
lines. Medullary rays fine and moderately broad, the distance between 
two rays larger than the transverse diameter of the pores. Transverse 
bars distinct^ numerous. 



10 ANONACKJB. [MUiuSU. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from Nepal to the Ganges, Central India, Qodaveri diatricta 
and Burma. 

Braudis says, " The seasoned wood weighs from 40 to 50 lbs. per cubic foot ;" Knrz 
gives the weight at 42 lbs. ; Benson's experiments give 60 ; and Skmner's (No. 93) 60 lbs. 
Benson's experiments give P = 833, and Skinner's P = 839. 

Used for carts and agricultural implements, spear-shafts and oars. 

lbs. 
B 3062. Prome, Burma. ............ 

B 3122. Burma (1862) 48 

O 3113. Dehra Dun 63 

2. M. EoxbTirglliana, Hook. f. and Th.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 87; 
Kurz. i. 47 ; Gamble 4. Vvaria dioica, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 659. Vem. 
Sim^den, Lepclia ; Tusbi, Sylhet. 

A small tree. Bark thiu^ grey. Wood greyish white^ hard. Pores 
very small^ scanty. Medullary rays short, white^ of all sizes, from fine to 
broad, very numerous, prominent on a radial section. Numerous white 
parallel wavy transverse bands across the rays. 

Terai tod valleys of the Bengal Himalaya, Khasia Hills, Chittagong and Burma. 
Weight 51 lbs. 

lbs. 

£ 2316. Chunbati, Darjeeling, 2,000 feet 61 

4. SACCOPETALUM, Bennett. 

Besides the species here described, S, lonffiflorum. Hook. f. and Th., is a tree of 
Easteni Bengal found near Pumeah. 

1. S. tomentofinm. Hook. f. and Th.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 88.; Bed- 
dome t. 39 ; Braudis, 7. Uvaria tomentosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 667. Vem. 
Kirna, iarri, Hind. ; Hootn, Bombay ; CAiliadfidu, Tel. ; Thoska^ Goudi ; 
Uumb'iy Kurku. 

A large tree with straight stem. Bark \ inch thick, of various shades, 
sometimes black, deeply cracked. AVood olive brown, moderately hard, 
smooth, close-grained ; no heartwood. No annual rings. Pores small 
and moderate-sized, numerous. Medullary rays broad and fine, very 
numerous, distinctly visible on a radial section as long, narrow plates, 
giving the wood a mottled appearance. Numerous, regular, fine, white, 
transverse bars across the medullary rays, the distance between the rays 
being a little larger than the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Oudh, Nepal Terai, Gorakhpur, Behar, Central India, Western Gh4t8. 

Weighty 46 lbs. per oubio foot. 

Ibe. 
O 342. Gorakhpur (1868) 

C 1 109. Ahiri Beserve, Central Provinces . • • • • 46 



The following woods cannot at present be identified, but they probably belong to 
this family : — 

B 1949. (68 lbs.) Bokenet from Tavoy. A hard, close-grained, yellow wood ; when 
seasoned it is said to shew black and white stripes, and is then called Zebra Wood. 
Pores small, scanty. Medullary rays fine and very fine, joined by numerous fine 
parallel transverse bars . Used for fiuniture. Scarce in the Mergui Archipelago but 
plentiful in the Andaman Islands. 

B 2281. (32 lbs.) Received from the Andaman Islands in 1866 under the name of 
Thanloong, Pores small, often subdivided. Medullary rays moderately broad, the 
distance between them many times larger than the transverse diameter of the porea. 
Numerous faint transverse bars. It may possibly be Poly ilthia Jenkinni, Bth. and 
Hook. f. 



SMeeqpetalum.'] anonacsjb. U 

6 2261. (33 lbs.) Beoeived from the Andamans in 1866 nnder the name of Thitpyoo ; 
bju a white soft wood, with small, scanty pores often in short radial lines. The 
medoUazy ravs are moderately broad, far apart^ joined by innumerable parallel bars, 
■ad shew well on a radial section. 

B 273. (38 lbs.) Received from Burma in 1867 under the name Bamau ; has an olive 
grey wood ; it is handsome, even-grained, moderately hard and possesses a certain 
los&e. Pores small, often subdivide Medullary rays fine. Numerous faint white 
transverse bars across the medullary rays. According to Eurz, Bamau is Tetranthera 
groMd'u; bat on aooount of the transverse bars in &e wood, we have placed it under 
Anonaoem. 

B 2236. (63 lbs.) Received fircm the Andamans in 1 866 under the name of Pan-noo ; 
has a similar structure to Bamau, Wood yellowish grey, hard. Pores small, 
transverse diameter eaual to or one-half the distance between the medullary rays, which 
are fine and are joinea by numerous transverse bars. 



Ordbs V. MENISPEBMACiLS!. 

An order which, in India with the single exception of the species described below, 
contains only dimbing plants. Of the 17 genera found in India, many contain only 
single species. These 17 genera belong to 4 tribes, viz,, — 

Tribe L — ^l^nosporese .... Atpidocarya, ParabeBua, Ttnospora, 

Pihraurea, Anamirta, 
M n. — Cocculeee . • . . Tiliacora, Idmacia, Cocculus, Peri' 

eampjflus. 
„ m.— CSssampelidea • . • Stephania, Cissampelae, ChfcUa, 

JLophopeicUum. 
M lY.— 'Fachygonen . • . . Pachygone, Pycnarrhena, HtBrnato^ 

carpus, Antiiaxis, 

Anamirta Cocculus, W. and A. ; Hook. FL Ind. i. 99 ; Brandis 8 ; Kurz i. 63 
(Menitpermum Cocculus, Boxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 807) Yem. Kakmdri, Hind., a climbing 
shrub of Southern and Eastern India and Burma, has bitter berries which in India are 
used to pcMson fish and crows (whence the native name), and in Europe under the name of 
' Cocenlos indicus ' in the adulteration of beer. Tinospora cord\folta, Miers ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. i. 97 ; Brandis 8 ; Kurz i. 62 ; Gamble 4 (Menispermum cordifolium, Willd. ; Roxb. 
FL Ind. iiL 811) Yem. BaHndu, Pb. ; Qolancha, Bong. ; Ourcha, Kumaun ; Gurjo, Nep. ; 
l^ppa tiga, TeL ; Qnlwail, Bombay, is a well known climber which sends down long 
fikrarm runners from the branches of the trees over which it climbs ; the root is used in 
native medicine, and elephants are fond of the stem and runners. Cissampelos Pareira, 
Linn. Hook. FL Ind. L 103; Brandis 10; Gamble 4 (C convolvulacea, Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
iii. 842) Yem. Kaiori, parhik, pataki, tihri, Pb. ; Dakh nirbisi, pdri, N. W. P. ; 
ITaj^'eicri, Ondh; BtUulpatij'&Q^.', Pata, TeL, a climber common Doth to the old 
and new worlds, furnishes the Radix PareirsB of druggists. Cocculus Zeaba, DC. ; 
Hook., FL Ind. i 102 ; Brandis 9. Yem. Vallur, ilUtr, Pb. ; and C. villosus, DC. ;' 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 101 ; Brandis 9 {Menispermum hirsutum, Linn. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 
814). Yem. Hier, dier, are large climbers of the dry and arid zones, while Uliacora 
racemasa, Coleb.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 99; Brandis 10; Eurz i. 54 {Menispermum folu- 
earpon, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iiL 816), Yem. Tiliakoru, Beng. ; Karwanth, rangoe, HmcL; 
Tiiga muskadi, TeL, is a large climber of most parts of India, often covering tall trees 
with its dense daik green foliage. Other genera, such as Aspidocarya, Stephania 
and Parabtsna, furnish climbing shrubs common in Eastem Bengal and Assam. 

'' The structure of the wood of MenispermacesB is remarkable^ and 
differs in seveial respects from the wood of other Dicotyledons. The 
vascular bundles of a young branch (which in most Dicotyledons unite 
and form concentric rings of wood and liber) generally remain distinct 
in Menispermaccffi, and are separated by broad radial masses of cellular 
tissue^ corresponding to the medullary rays of ordinary wood. After 
some time these original wood fascicles cease growings and in the cortical 
cellular tissue exterior to the liber originates a second circle of bundles 
similar to the first formed^ excepting in the absence of spiral vessels. 



12 MENISPEBMACBA!. [ CoCCUluB. 

After these bundles have attained full development, they in turn cease 
to grow^ and a third circle forms in the cellular tissue of the bark, and 
80 on. There is great variety in the wood structure of the genera of 
this family/'— -Branrfw' ForeH Flora, p, 10. 

1. COCCULUS, DC. 

1. C. lanrifoliuSy DC; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 101; Brandis 9. Meni- 
spermum laurifolium, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 815. Vern. Tilpara, kaira, Hind. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Bark thin, grey. Wood greyish 
white, soft, divided by very broad medullary rays and concentric rings of 
the same substance as the rays, into numerous oblong radial masses, each 
mass consisting of wood cells and small uniformly distributed pores with 
a narrow belt of fibres (liber) at the outer edge. 

Outer Himalaya from the Ravi to Nepal ascending to 5,000 ft. 

Weight 41 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Ibf. 

H 2939. Near Suni, Sutlej Valley, 3,000 ft 42 

£ 2466. Calcutta BoUnic Gardens 40 



Order YI. BEBBEBIDKS!. 

An order containing four Indian genera of woody plants, belonging to two tribes, viz. : 

Tribe I. — Lardizabalets : . Decaisnea, Parvatia 

and Hollb'dllia, 

„ II. — 6erbere» • . Berheris, 

Two, each containing one species, are climbers, viz,, Parvatia Brunoniana, Decaisne ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 108, from Assam and the Khasia Hills; and Hollhollia latifolia 
Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 108 ; Brandis 13 ; Gamble 4. Yem. Gaphla, Kumaun ; Chiriya" 
nangri, bagul, Nep. ; Pronchadik, Lepcha ; Domhyeniy Bhutia. The latter is found 
in the Himalaya from Kumaun eastwards, above 4,000 feot elevation, and in the 
Khasia Hills. It has a large edible fruit, a soft corky bark and wood with large 
pores and broad medullar v rays (£ 2859. Tukdah, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet). Decaisjiea 
tnstgrns, Hook, f . and Tn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. L 107. Vern. Nomorchi, Lepcha ; LoO' 
dooma, Bhntia, is an erect shrub of the Inner^ikkim Himalaya, growmg between 
7,000 and 10,000 feet, also with edible fruit. 

1. BERBERIS, Linn. 

Contains about twelve species, all Himalayan ; two only extending southwards to the 
Nilgiris and the hills of Burma. One species, B. asiatica, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 182 ; 
Hook. FL Ind. i. 110. Vern. Kilmora, Kumaun ; Mate-ki^gi, chitra, Nep., is also 
found on Parasn4th in Behar. Besides those here described, B. umbellata. Wall., 
B, asiatica, Boxb., B. Wallichiana, DC, B. insignis, Hook, f ., B, macrosepala. Hook, 
f ., and B. concinnat Hook. f. occur in different parts of the Himalaya, chiefly at 
elevations above 8,000 ft. 

Wood yellow, hard or moderately hard, splits very much in seasoning. 
Pores small, larger and more numerous on the inner edge of each 
annual ring, the rest of the pores smaller and arranged in irregular t^Lils 
or patches. Medullary rays bright yellow, moderately broad, or broad. 

The chief North- West Himalayan species may thus be recognized :— 

Leaves pinnate • JB. nepalensis. 

Leaves simple — 

Leaves thin with many equal serratures . . • B, vulgaris. 

Leaves coriaceous, scrratures few, unequal 
Branches grey 

Leaves large, green beneath . . b B. coriacea. 

Leaves small, glaucous beneath . . B, Lycium, 

Branches reddish B, aristata. 



SerberU.] bbrbseidba. 13 

1. B. nepalensis^ Spreng. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 109; Beddome xi.'; 
Brandis 12; Kurz i. 58 ; Gamble 5. B.pinnaia, Boxb. F). Ind. ii. IS'i 
(probably). Vera. Amudanda, cAiror, Pb. ; Chatri, milkisse^ jamne- 
munda^ Nep. 

An evergreen shrnb attaining in Bengal a height of 20 feet and 
occasionally 2 feet in girth. Bark soft, corky. Wood bright yellow, 
hard. Pores very small, -arranged in radial lines or patches. Medullary 
rays moderately broad, prominent, nameroas, well marked on a radial 
section. 

Outer Himalaya from the Ravi to Bhutan, Ehasia Hills, Tenasserim, Nilgiris and 
Western Gh&ts, above 5,000 feet elevation. 

Weight, 49 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood has a handsome colour and might be 
useful for inlaying ; it is used as a dye by Bhutias. 

lbs. 

E 231& Darjeeling, 7,000 ft 49 

2. B. vnlgaris, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 109; Brandis 11. The 
Barberry. Vem. Ziriakk^ kaskmal, chochaty Pb. 

A deciduous thorny shrub, with soft brown bark, ^ inch thick. 
Wood lemon yellow, moderately hard, even-grained. Annual riug^ 
marked by an irregular belt of small pores, which are larger than those 
in the rest of the wood. The pores in the main portion of the annual 
rings are grouped in short, whitish, irregularly bent lines or tails. 
Medullary rays fine to moderately broad, well marked on a vertical 
section. 

Himalaya, from Nepal westwards, in shady forests above 8,000 ft. elevation, 
Afghanistan and Bcloochistan, Europe. 

Weight, our specimen ^es 52 lbs. per cubic foot ; Mathieu Fl. For. p. 12, gives 45 
to 57 Iba. Fruit edible. The wood is a good firewood. 

lbs. 

H 3037. Matiyana, Simk, 9,000 ft 

H 3040. Naghanda, Simla, 9,000 ft 55 

8. B. aristata, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 110 ; Beddome xii. ; 
Brandis 12; Gamble 5. B. anguatifoUa^ Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 183. Vern. 
Sumlu, simlu, kasmalychitra, Pb. ; Tsema, Bhutia; CAUra, Nep.; CAoira, 
Hind. 

An erect spinous shrub. Bark soft, light brown, corky. Wood 
yellow, hard. Annual rings distinctly marked by a narrow belt of 
numerous pores. Pores small, in short, narrow, wavy tails of white 
tissue. Medullary rays moderately broad. 

Outer Himalaya from the Sutlej to Bhutan : in the North-West Himalaya 6,000 ft. 
to 10/XX) ft, in Darjeelinff above 10,000 ft. ; Western Gh4t8 at high elevations ; Ceylon. 



Wood used for fuel, the root in native medicine. 

lbs. 

H 80. Simla, 7,000 ft 52 

H 2888. Na^kanda, Simla, 8,000 ft 
H 3053. MaLasu, Simla, 8,000 ft. 



. ... 
. ... 



4. B. Lydimi, Royle; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 110; Brandis 12. Vern. 
Kasmal, Simla ; KasAmal, cAotra, Hind. 

An erect rigid shrub. Bark rough, corky, white or light grey. 
"Wood yellow, moderately hard. Annual rings marked by a narrow porous 
belt. Pores very small and extremely small, in narrow irregular lines 
of white tissue. Medullary rays moderately broad, numerous. 



14 



BBRBBRIDBJE. 



[ Berberii. 



Nortk-West Himalaya from 3,000 to 9,000 ft 

H 46. Simla, 6,500 ft 

H 3054. Mahasa, Simla, 7,500 ft 62 

5. B. COriacea, nov. sp.^ Brandis. Vern. Kashmal, Simla. 

A large erect thorny shrub, with soft corky bark. Wood yellow, 
moderately hard. Annual rings marked by a belt of small or moderately 
sized pores ; in the rest of the wpod the pores are very small or ex- 
tremely small, and arranged in numerous confluent, irregularly shaped 
tails and patches of whitish tissue. Medullary rays short, fine to 
broad. 

North- West Himalaya above 8,000 ft ; often forming alone or with other shnibs 
large extents of scrub jangle, e. g,, in the valley south of ifagkanda near Simla. 

lbs. 

H 48. Nagkanda, Simla, 9,000 ft. 

H 2894. 

H 3039. 

H 3041. 

H 3043. 

H 3038. Matiyana, Simla, 8,000 ft 
H 3042. Hattu, Simla, 10,000 ft. 

6. B. angolosay Wall; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
Ciulra, Nep. 

A large erect shrub. Bark soft, brown, corky. Wood dark grey 
or yellowish brown, hard. Annual rings marked by a belt of small 
pores ; in the rest of the wood the pores are very small, arranged in 
irregular radial tails of whitish tissue. Medullary rays fine, numerous. 

Inner ranges of Nepal and Sikkim above 11,000 ft. 
£ 2862. Suburkum, Darjeeling, 11,000 ft. 



» 


ff 


ff 


9t 


$9 


99 


tf 


ff 


ff 


»f 


ff 


ff 



55 

62 



i. Ill; Gambled. Vern. 



Order VTI. CAPPAEIDILE. 

Six Indian genera are of trees, shrubs or climbers belonging all to one tribe, Oapparesa. 
The climbing genera are : Mcerua, one species, M. areruiria. Hook, f . and Th. ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 171 {Capparis heteroclita^Roj^). ¥\, Ind. ii. 570). Yem. Patta tiga, Tel, a 
1^^ woody climber of the Western Himalaya, Upper Gangetic plain and Central 
India ; and Moydsia, two species, R, suaveolens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 643 ; Hook. FL Ind. 
i. 180; GamHe 5. Yem. Kawnli, Nep.; IV^^or, Lepcha, in the tropical forests of 
Sikkim, Bhutan and the Khasia HUls, and R. ootusifblta, Hook. f. and Th. ; Kurz i. 
67. Yem. Ngaphyoo, Burm., in the swamp forests of Burma. Niehuhria linearis, 
DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. L 171, is a small tree of the hilly parts of the Camatic ; and the 
species of Cadaha are small straggling shrubs chiefly oi the arid zone, C, indica, 
l^mk. Yem. Kali iaka, occurring m Berar and the Dekkan, and C. heterotricka. 
Stocks ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 173, l^ing a small tree found in rocks near Cape Monze 
in Sind. 

Wood light-coloured. Pores small to moderate*sized, rarely large ; 
often arranged in radial lines; medullary rays moderately broad^ wavy. 

1. CAPPARIS, Linn. 

A genus of about thirty species of thorny shrubs or climbers. About fifteen occur' in 
Burma, ten in the Dekkan and Camatic, five on the western coast, eight in Bengal and 
Assam, two in the Ghmeetic valley and Central India, and three in the arid zone of the 
Punjab and Sind. Besides those here described, there are scTeral common species. C, spi- 
nosa, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 173 ; Brandis 14. Yem. JSTahawa, Afg. ; Aii&na, Tibet ; 
Kaur, keri, kander, kakri, taker, her, barari, bauri, bassar, Pb. ; Ulta-kanta, Kumaun ; 



Capparis, ] cappaeidbjb. 16 

Kalvdri^ Sind, Ib a small trailisg shrub of the Poigab and Sind, whose flower buds give 
ihe capers of oommeroe; they are pickled and eaten in Sind and the Poigab Salt Bange. 
C. difjarieata, Lamk.; Hook. FL Ind. i. 17 (C stylosa, DO.; Beddome xiii) Yem. 
Ibaratti, Tarn. ; Budareni, Tel. ; Pachi&ndat Mar., is a shrub or small tree of the 
Dekkan and Camatic, with large scarlet fruit. C. olactfolia. Hook, f . and Th. ; Hook. 
FL Ind. L 178 ; Gamble 5. Yem. Nashi, hats, Nep. ; Jhenok, Lepcha, is a common 
thorny shrub of river banks and valleys in Northern Bengal and Assam. C. horrida, 
Linn. ; Hook. FL Ind. L 178 ; Brandis 15 (C zevlanica, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 567). Yem. 
His, karoila. Ph.; Karralura, Oudh; Adonda, TeL; Katemi, Gondi; Oitaran, 
Ajmere ; Aianday, Tam. is a climbing shrub common in most parts of India. 

1. C. grandis, Linn, f.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 176; Beddome xiii; C. 
bisperma, Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 569. Yem. Ouli, regguii, ragoiay Tel. 

A small tree. Bark thick^ extremely irregalar^ rough and corky, 

deeply and irregularly cracked. Wood white, moderately hard. No 

heartwood, no annual rings. Pores scanty, moderate-sized to large. 

Medullary rays moderately broad, short. 

Chanda district and eastern part of the Dekkan, Eastern 6h4ts and Camatic. 
Weight, 46 lbs. Wood durable, much used by the natives in the Madras Presidency. 

• Ibf. 
C1134. Ahiri, Central Provinces 46 

2. C. apl^Ua^ Roth; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 174; Beddome xiii; Brandis 
14. Vem. Karil, Pb.; Kiral, Sind; Kari, Behar. 

A small tree with scanty, small, caducous leaves, found only on the 

jroung shoots. Bark \ inch thick, grey, corky, with deep irregular cracks. 

Wood light yellow, turning brown on exposure, shining, very hard and 

close-grained. Annual rings doubtful. Pores small, generally in groups 

or patches between the prominent, very short, numerous, fine medullary 

rays. 

Punjab, Sind,'Rajputana and the Dekkan. 

Weight, 53 lbs per cubic foot. The wood is used for small beams and rafters in 
loofs, for the knees of boats, for oilmills and agricultural implements ; it is a good 
firewood, and is not eaten by white ants. The fruit is eaten both raw and preserved, 
and the young flower bnds are preserved as pickle. 

lb§. 
P 444. Ajmere •..»•••....... 

P 892. Multan 53 

P 941. ft .••••••......• 

P 3066. n •••.••...••,•, 

2. CEATiEVA, Linn. 

1. C. reUgiosa, Forst.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 172; Beddome t. 116 and 
xiT (0. Nurvala, Ham.) ; Brandis 16 ; Gamble 5. C. Roxburghiiy Ham. ; 
Kurz i. 66. Capparis tri/oliaia, Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 571. Yern. Brama, 
bildtiy bila, biliana^ Hind. ; Bariin, tikto-ahak, Beng. ; Purbong, Lepcha ; 
Maralingam, marvilinga, Tam. ; Vakia, usiki, ulimidi, urumatti, tellavoO' 
lemara, Tel. ; Nirvdla^ Kan., Mai. ; Kumla, karwan. Mar. ; Kadet, katat, 
Barm. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark grey, ^ inch thick, with long 
horizontal wrinkles. Wood yellowish white, when old turning light 
brown, moderately hard, even -grained. Pores moderate-sized, numerous 
and uniformly distribute, often in short radial lines, each pore surrounded 
by a whitish ring. Medullary rays short, very wavy, fine and mo- 
derately broad, the distance between the rays slightly greater than the 
transverse diameter of the pores. 



16 CAPPARIDEJB. [Craiova. 

Sub-Himalftyan tract from the Ravi eastwards, Bengal, Assam, Central and South 
India and Burma. 

Weight, 42 lbs. The wood is used for drums, models, writing-boards, combe and in 

turnery. 

Ibi. 
P 3217. Na^ahar, Ajmere ^ 

O 270. Garhwal (1868) 33 

O 3112. Dehra Dun 47 

C 3115. Chanda, Central Provinces 45 

B 565. Prome, Burma 43 

No. 23. Salem Collection 44 



Oedee VIII. VIOLACEiE. 

This order contains three eenera of Indian plants : of these, two, viz., Viola and 
Tonidium, tLTe herbaceous; while the third, ^/^oci^^, comprises six shrubs or small 
trees found in Northern and Eastern Bengal, Burma and Malabar. A, bengaleiuit. 
Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i, 186 ; Kurz i. 70; Gamble 6. Vem. Kalipat, Nep., occurs in 
Sikkim, Assam, Burma and the Andamans. A . Roxbnrghii, Wall. ; Hook. PI. Ind. 
i. 186; Kurz i. 69 (Vareca heteroclita, Roxb. PL Ind. i. 648), in Sylhet and the 
Andamans ; and A, racemoga, Hook. f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 187 {A. longirare' 
moga, Kurz i. 70), in Assam and Tenasserim, said by Kurz to have a yellowish white 
close-grained wood. 

No. B 3198. (Home, 1874, No. 26, Kyadoo), A white scented wood from the 
Andamans, with scanty, moderately large pores ; moderately fine, wavy, medullary rays, 
and numerous concentric lines of soft tissue, was identified by Kurz from Home's 
specimens as coming nearest to Alsodeia (Brandis* Memorandum on the Forest 
Eesources of the Andamans, dated August 25th, 1874). 



Oedee IX. BIXINEJE. 

Seven genera belonging to three tribes :— 

Tribe I. — Bixeae . • . Cochlospermum and Bixa. 

„ II. — Placourtieffl . . . Scolopia, Flacourtia and Xylotma* 
„ III. — Pangies9 .... Qynocardia and Hydnocarput, 

Bixa Orellana, Linn. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 581 ; Hook. Fl, Ind. i. 190 ; Beddome t. 
79 ; Brandis 17 ; Kurz i. 72 ; Gamble 6. The Amotto Plant. Vem. Zaikan, Hind., 
Beng. ; Jarat, Ass. ; Jafra, Tel. ; Kuragumangjal, Tam. ; Kuppa-mankaia, Kan. ; 
Kisrit Mar. ; Theedin, Burm., is an American shrub, introduced and cultivated in 
India for the red dye given by the pulp surrounding the seeds. 

Mydnocarpus contains four Indian species. H, heterophylla, Bl. ; Kurz i. 77. Vem. 
KaUUiU'UOf Burm., is described by Kurz as an evergreen tree with heavy, strong, 
yellowish white wood, found in the tropical forests of Burma. H. castanea, Hook, 
t. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 197 ; Kurz i. 79, is a tree of the Andaman Islands. 
JT. alpina, Wight; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 197; Beddome t.77. Vem. 3farate«t, Nilgiris, 
is a tree of the Western Gh4ts, whose wood is said by Beddome to be used in the 
oonstraction of native houses, for packing cases and firewood. H. Wlghtiana, Bl. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 196 (R. Wighiiana and H. inebrians, Vahl.; Beddome xvi, xvii). 
Vera. Yetti, maravetti, Tam. ; Kawti, Mar. ; Makulu, Cingh., is a conmion tree of 
the Western Ghats and western coast. 

Tlie wood of Flacourtia^ Jylosma, Oynocardia and Scolopia is 
uniform and remarkably similar to the wood of Euphorbiacese ; it is hard 
and close-grained and the pores are small^ in short radial lines between 
fine or very fine, closely packed medullary rays. The wood of 
CocAlospermum has an entirely different structure. 

1. COCHLOSPERMUM, Kuntto. 
1. C. Oossypinm, DC; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 190; Beddome xiv; 



CbeAloipcrmum.'] bixinba. 17 

Brandis 17; Kurz i. 7S. Bombax Oossypium, Roxb. FI. Ind. iii. 169. 
Vem. Kimbi, gabdij ganiir^ galgal, gangal. Hind. ; Oangam, Gondi ; 
Gungu, tong, kandu-gogu, Tel. ; Tanaku, kongillam, Tarn. ; Chima-punji, 
Mai. ; Ganeri, BhU ; Oaneri, gunglay, Mar. 

A small deciduous tree, with shorty thick, spreading branches. Bark 
one inch thick, deeply furrowed ; inner substance red. Wood extremely 
soft, grey; no heartwood. Pores large, scanty, often subdivided into 
compartments. Medullary rays broad, on a raddal section, visible as long 
rough plates. 

Forests at the base of the North- West Himalaya, ^m the Satlej eastwards, 

Central India, Dekkan, Prome District in Burma. 

Weight, 17 Ihs. per cahic foot. Wood useless. Gives a clear white gum (Katira), 

which, according to Baden-Powell, is used in the trade of shoemaking. 

Ibi. 

C1141. Ahiri Reserve, C. P 17 

2. SCOLOPIA, Schreber. 

Three roecies. 8. erenata, Clos.j Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 191 ; Beddome t. 78 (Phoheros 
crenaitu, W. and A. Prodr. 29). Vem. Hitterlu, Burghers, is a tree of MaJahar, Kanara 
and Mysore, said hy Beddome to have a hard, dense, white wood, liable to warp. 
8, Boxhurghii, Clos. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 190 ; Kurz i. 73 (Ludia svinosa, Roxb. FL 
Ind. ii. 507), is an evergreen tree of Tenasserim, the stem and older Branches of which 
are armed with long, straight or compound spines. 

1. S. rhinanthera, Clos. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 190. B 1969, collected 
by Knrz in the Andamans in 1 866, bears this name. It has a hard red 
wood, with a structure similar to that of Flacourtia, the pores being 
small, in short radial lines, between the very fine and closely packed 
medullary rays. Weight 60 lbs. per cubic foot. 

8. FLACOURTIA, Commerson. 

Seven Indian species. The following are the names given in the Flora Indica i., 
191 to 194 .— 

1. JP. Mumairanti, Planch. ; Kurz i. 74 . . . Tenasserim. 

2. ^. inermis, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 833 ; Beddome Sylhet, S. India, Martaban. 

xvi ; Kurz i. 74. Vem. Tomitomi, Mai. ; 
UhbolUf Kan. Perhaps introduced. Fruit 
edible. 

3. F, Montana, Grab. ; Beddome xvi. Vem. Attak, Western Coast. 

Kan., Mar. 

4. F. mollis, Hook, f , and Th. ; Kurz i. 74 . • . Tenasserim. 

5. F. Cataphraeta, Boxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 834 ; Bed- Bengal, Burma, Bombay, 

dome xvi ; Kurz i. 74. Vem. Paniala, Western Gh&ts. 
panizali, Beng.; Talispatri, paniala. 
Hind. ; Talisapairi, Tam., TeL ; Na-yuwai, 
Burm. 

6. F. JBamontchi, LUerit. India. 

7. JP. sepiaria, Boxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 835 (also JP. Kumaun, Bengal and South 

obcordata); Beddome xvi; Brandis India. 
18; Kurz i. 75 (also J^. rotundtfolia). 
Vem. Sharatoani, dajkar,jidkar, Hind. ; 
JSCanru, Tel. 

1. F. Bamontcllii L'Herit. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 193; Beddome xvi; 
Brandis 18. F. sapida, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 835 ; Kurz i. 75. Vem. 
KAhU, kakoa, kangu, kandei, Pb. ; Bilangra, bAanber, kanju, kandi 



•» 



18 BixiNEf. IFlacourtia. 

iaitdr, ialti. Hind.; Kaikun, Mhairwarra; Kdnh, iduii, bildii, C. P.; 
Arma-suri, iaiien, Oondi; Ourgoti, Kurku; Bincka, katdi, Beog. ; 
Bonicha, Uriya; Pahar, bhekal, kakei, kaker, Mar.; Bkulankas, 
Hyderabad ; Kanregu, pedda-kanru, kaka, nakka^naregu, Tel. ; iTgura^sa, 
Cingh. ; Na^yuwai, Burm. 

A small thorny deciduous tree. Bark grey. Wood red, hard, cloae- 
and even-grained, splits, but does not warp and is durable. Pores 
small, in radial lines between the fine, uniform, closely-packed and some* 
what wavy medullary rays. 

Dry hills throughout India, Frome District in Burma. 

Weight : Brandis gives 50 lbs. per cubic foot, the average of our specimens is 53 lbs. 
The wo^ is used for turning and agricultural implements, and the fruit and leaves are 
eaten. 

lbs. 

P 460. Ajmere. . 52 

P 3221. Nagpahar, Ajmere , . ... 

O 260. Garhwal (1868) 50 

C 2739. Moharli Beserve, C. P 52 

B 3125. Burma (1862) 59 

4. XYLOSMA, Forster. 

Three species. X. controvertum, Clos. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 194, is a tree of Nepal 
and the EJiasia HiUs, nearly allied to 2C, longifoliwn, X, lattfoUum, Hook. f. and 
Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 194i is a large thorny tree of the Babahuden HiUs in Mysore. 

1. X. longifolinm^ Clos. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 194 ; Brandis 19. Vem. 
Chopra, cAirunda, cAirndt, drendu, Pb. ; Kattdwa, Oudh ; Banddl, katari^ 
kandhdra.muii. 

A small evergreen tree. Bark ^ inch thick, grey. Wood pinkish, 
moderately hard, even-grained. Pores small, in short radial lines between 
the wavj, very fine and closely-packed medallary rays. 

North- West Himalaya ascending to 5|000 feet, Assam. 

Weight, 55 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood is used for fuel and chaiooal. 

lb*. 

H 2947. Jander, Sutlej Valley, 3,500 feet 55 

5. GYNOCARDIA, R. Br. 

1. 0. odorata^ R. Br. j Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 195 ; Eurz i. 76 ; Gamble 
6. Chanlmoogra odorata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 835. Vem. CAaulmugri, 
petarkura, Beng. ; Eadu, Nep. ; Tuk, Lepcha ; Toungpung, Magh. 

A moderate>sized evergreen tree, readilv known by the hiird, round 
fruits which grow on the stem and main branches. Bark ^ inch thick, 
grey, smooth. Wood hard, close-grained, yellow or light brown. Pores 
very small, in radial lines between the white, very numerous and promi- 
nent medullary rays. 

Northern and Eastern Bengal and Assanii Chittagong and Burma. 

Weight, 47 lbs. per cubic foot. 

The wood is used in Chittagong for planking and for posts, and the pulp of the 
fruit in Sikkim to poison fish. The seeds give by expression a thick oil, used in the 
treatment of cutaneous diseases, especially leprosy. 

Ibt. 

£ 708. Chittagong 47 



Piiio9pornm. ] pnrospoRE^. 19 



Order X. PITTOSPOSEJE. 

An order oontaining one genus of Indian trees or shrubs, the remaining genera 
being ehiefly Aostralinn. The fsetkxx% Pittosporum, Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 198, contaios eight 
Indian species, two of which, P. glcLbratum, Ldl. and P. kumile, Hook. f. and Th., grow 
in the Khasia Hills ; three, P. tetrawermum, W. and A., P. nilffhirense, W. and A., 
and P. dasfcaulon, Miq., on the Western Gh&ts, and one, P. ferrugineuMt Ait. ; 
Kan L 78, in Burma. Oi the remaining two : one, P. eriocarpum, Boyle ; Brandis 
19, is found in the outer Himalaya of Kumaun and Garhwal (Meda tumri, gaV'Silung, 
garskuna, Hind.) ; and the other, P.Jloribundum, W. and A. ; Beddome xvii; Brandis 19 ; 
Gamble 6 (CeUutrus verticillata, Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 624). Vem. Yekaddi, Mar. ; 
Prongsam, Lepcha, is a common small tree of the outer Himalaya from the Jumna to 
Bhutan asoendmg to 8,000 feet, the Khasia Hills and Western Gh4ts. 



Order XI. POLYOALEJE. 

Three Indian genera of woody plants of little forest interest. 

Polygala arillata,Kam.; BLook. Fl. Ind. i. 200; Gamble 6 {ChanuBbuxus arillafa, 
Hassk. ; Kurz L 79). Vem. Karima, N^. ; Michepnor, Lepcha, is a shrub of Northern 
Bengal and the Khasia Hills; and P. JStarensium, Kurz (C. Karefuium, Kurz i. 79), 
a shrub of Martaban. Seeuridaca tavayana. Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 208 (S, inap' 
pendienUUa^ Hassk. ; Kurz i. 80), is a large woody climber of Eastern Bengal, 
Arracan and Tenasserim. Xanthophyllum contains four species: X, flavescens, 
Rozb. Y\. Ind. ii. 232 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 209 ; Kurz i. 81 (mcluding, according to 
Bennett in the " Flora Indica^" X. AmoUianumt Wight, X. angustifolium, Wight, and 
X. virens, Boxb. ; Beddome ziz). Vem. AJensak,gandif Beng. ; Thitpyoo, Burm., is 
a tree of Bengal, South India, and Burma, said by Kurz to have a heavy, close-grained 
wood.^X. glaueum. Wall.; X. Qrifflthii, Hook, f.; and X, afflne, KorUi., are 
evergreen trees of Burma. 

Order XIL TAMASISCINEiE. 

A small order containing bushes or small trees with small sessile or scale-like 
sheathing leaves: two genera, Tamarix and Myricaria, 

Wood white or reddish^ sometimes darker in the centre^ bat no heart- 
wood. Pores small to moderate-sized^ often in groups^ more numerous 
and large in the spring wood wherever the annual rings are distinct. 
Medalkury rays generally moderately broad to broad^ shorty distant. 

1. TAMARIX, Linn. 

Bushes or small trees, with scale-like leaves and white or pink flowers, chiefly found 
on the banks of streams and on the lowlands near rivers. There are six species, of 
which the most important are : T. articulata, Vahl., T, dioica, Boxb., and T. gallica, 
Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 248 ; Beddome xx ; Brandis 20 ; Kurz i. 83 (T.indica, Boxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 100). Vem. K6an^ rukh, leinya, ghazlei, pilchi, Pb- ; Zei, Idifjhau, Sind ; 
Telia, Tibet ; Jhau, Beng., the last two species being found aJong rivers and the sea-coast 
ahnoet throughout India. Of the remaining species, T. salina. Dyer, and T, stricta, 
BoiBS, are found in the Punjab and Sind, and T. ericoides, Rottb., in Bengal and Central 
India. Mathieu, Fl. For. -p. 23 gives 40 to 48 lbs. as the weight per cubic foot of T, 
gallica, 

1. T. dioica, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 101; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 249; 
Beddome xx ; Brandis 21 ; Kurz. i. 83 ; Gamble 6 ; Vem. Lei, piichi, 
ioan, kachleiy Pb. ; Oaz, IdOfjau, Sind ; Lai jhau, Beng. ; Jau, Hind. 

A gregarious shrub. Bark grey with reticulate cracks, shewing the 
red inner bark. Wood moderately hard^ red, outer portion white. 
Pores small to moderate-sized^ in groups or short radial linesi more 
abundant and larger in tlie spring wood. Medullary rays very promi- 



20 



TAMARISCINBJi. 



[ Tamariam 



nent, shorty fine to very broad^ very prominent on a radial section. The 
distance between the rays is generally three or foor times the transverse 
diameter of the pores. 

Throughout India from Sind to Burma. Often planted for ornament. 

Of the rate of growth, little is known. Minniken, in his report of 1878 on the 
Delhi Bela plantation, gives the following measurements of seven trees in the 4th 
(Jaffar Khan) oompartment^ 3 years old, 8 to 15 feet high : — 
No. 1 26 inches 



9$ 
9* 



tf 



>» 



2 






. 18 


3 






15 


4 






. 14 


6 




• 


. 12 


6 






. 6 


7 






3 



»> 



>f 



If 



ft 
ft 



tt 



Average 13 inches or 1*4 rings 
per inch, which is fast. 



Weight, 49 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood is used mainly for fuel, but also for the 
supporting sticks oi roofs. 

P 888. Multan 48 

P 1388. Lahore 51 

2. T. articnlata^ Yahl.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 249; Beddome xx; 
Brandis 22. Yern. FarSs, /anoa, r&kh, ukhan, iiarlei, narlei, Pb.; 
Asrelei, Sind. 

A moderate-sized tree, with grey rough bark, coppices well, and is 
easily reproduced either by seed or by cuttings ; wood white, moderately 
hard ; annual rings indistinct. Pores moderate-sized, often in groups, 
scanty. Medullary rays short, fine to very broad, the distance between 
the rays somewhat greater than the transverse diameter of the pores ; 
prominent on a radial section as irregularly shaped plates, giving the 
wood a mottled appearance. 

Punjab and Sind. 

" Growth rapid, trees 12 years old, on an avera^ attain a girth of 2 to 3 feet, one 
15 years old measured 4 ft. 10 in. in girth, and it is stated that at times it attains 
5 ft. in 7 years." — Brandis. ** It grows very rapidly and to a large size, and I have 
frequently seen trees of. 10 to 12 feet girth and 60 or 70 feet high "^^.Z. Stewart, 
Punjab Plants, p. 92. 

Weight : Brandis says, 40 to 60 lbs. when seasoned ; Stewart says, 92 lbs. per cubic foot 
ereen and 60 lbs. dry; the specimen received weighed 61 lbs. Wood used for many 
kinds of ordinary work, for ploughs, Persian wheels and small ornaments, and for 
charcoal. The bark is used for tanning as weU as the galls ( Jfdt, Punjab ; Sakun, Sind) 
which are also used as a mordant in dyeing. 

lbs. 
P 886. Multan 61 



2. MYRICARIA, Desvaux. 

The genus contains, besides the species given below, M, eleaans, Boyle, a smaU 
bosh of me inner Western Himalaya and TibeC where it is very valuable as fuel. 

1. M. germanica, Desv.; Hook. Fl. Ind.i. 250; Brandis 23. 
Vera. £is, skalakdl, kathi^ humbu, Pb.; Ombu, Lahoul. 

A shrub with rough brownish bark. Wood hard, white. Annual 
rings marked by porous spring wood. Pores small, medullary rays 
broad, short, very numerous and prominent. 

Inner Himalaya from Punjab to Sikkim. 

Wood used for fuel, and the branches as fodder for sheep and goats. 

lbs. 
H 133. Lahoul, 10,000 ft 

£ 974 Chumbi Valley, Tibet, 10,000 ft 



... 



CratoxjUm. ] htpericines. 21 



Obdeb XIII. HTFESICIKEiE. 

A Bmall Older with three Indian genera. One, Ascyrum, contains only one small 
plant from SUckim. Hypericum, a number of herbs and small shrubs of the Himalaya, 
the most common of which are H» cemuum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 400 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 
253, a handsome small shrub with large bright yellow flowers, found in the Western 
Himalaya especially on rocks ; and ff. Mookerianum, W. and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 
254; Gamble 6. Vem. Tumbomri, Lepcha. (E 2861, Daijeeling, 7,000 ft. (43 lbs.) ) a 
yery common, rather gregarious, handsome shrub of the Sikkim Himalaya, often used 
for hedges. This last has a close-grained, moderately hard wood, with annual rings 
marked by a ring of larger pores than those in the rest of the ring, which are small, 
scanty. Medullary rays fine, very numerous. 

1. CRATOXYLON, Bl. 

A genus of five trees from Burma and the Andaman Islands containing besides the 
one described, Cybrmofvin, Bth. and Hook, f., from the Andamans, and Cpruniflorum, 
Kurz, C polyanthumf Korth., and C, arborescent, BL, from Martaban and 
Tenasserim. 

L C. neriifolinm, Kurz i. 85. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 257. Vera. 
Baiiya, Barm. 

A tree. Bark dark coloured^ rough. Wood dark grey, hard, close- 

gprained. Pores large, in short narrow wavy irregular patches of softer 

tissne. Medullary rays not prominent^ fine, numerous, on a radial section 

visible as dark narrow plates. 

Chittagong and Burma. 

Weight, 47 lbs. per cub. ft According to Kurz, the wood is used for building 
purposes, for ploughs, handles of chisels, himimers and other implements. 

lbs. 

B 312. Burma (1867) 47 



Oeder XIV. GUTTIPERflB. 

An order of tropical trees, containing six genera, belonging to two tribes, viz. .* — 
Tribe I. — Garciniese .... Oarcinia and Ochrocarpus, 

n II.— Calophyllece «... Calophyllum, Kayea, Mema and 

Poeciloneuron^ 
Of Ochrocarpus, there are three species. O. longifolius, Bth. and Hook, f, ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 270; Beddome t. 89. Vem. fi'uriTfyt, Mar. ; Sura-ponna, Tel.; Serdya, 
Mai-; Wundi, iaringi {d)tpoone (?), suringi, fardundi (?), Kan., is a large, 
usually dioecious tree of the Western Gh^ts, whose dried flowers are used for dyeing silk. 
Skinner, No. 35 (Calaphyllum longtfolium) gives weight 46 lbs. P = 646. O. *»a- 
menns, T. And. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 270 ; Kurz i. 94. Vem. Taraphee, Burm., is an ever- 
green tree of the £ng forests of Prome and Martaban, and O. nervosus, Kurz i. 94, 
an evergreen tree of the tropical forests of the Arracan Yomah. Pcpciloneuron 
includes two species, given by Beddome under Temstromiaccxe, but referred to this 
Family by Dyer in "Flora Indica, i. 278." P. indicum, Beddome t. 3. Vem. 
Kirhalli, Kan., is a large tree of the western slopes of the Ghats from South Kanara 
to Malabar, from 3,000 to 4,000 ft., said by Beddome to have a hard wood used for 
rice-pounders. P, pauciflorum, Beddome t. 93. Vem. Pudangalli, is a large tree of 
the Ghits of Tinnevelly and Travancore with a valuable, hard, reddish timber, used 
for building, and to make walking-sticks. 

Wood red (in Calophyllum, Mesua and some species of Garcinia), 
generally with a distinct heartwood. Pores variable in size. Medullary 
rays generally fine. Numerous concentric lines or bands of soft texture 
across the rays. 

1. GARCINIA, Linn. 
A large genus of evergreen, opposite-leaved trees, usually with a yellow juice. 



22 GUTTIPER-B. [ Oareinia, 

generally giving a more or less pure description of gamboge. They chiefly come ^m 
the tropical regions of India, none of them extencUng to Northern and (Jentral India, 
and only one or two as far as Northern Bengal. There are about 22 Indian species, 
the synonymy of which is somewhat confused. 

The following is Dr. T. Anderson's list^ given at pages 259 to 270 of 
Hooker's Flora Indica, Karz's species being added in brackets : — 

SECTION I.-OARaNIA. 

1. G. Mangostana, Linn. ; Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 618 ; Cultivated in South Te- 

KvLTZ i. 87. The Mangosteen. Vem. nasserim. 

Menghopf youngzalai, Burm. In 

Heifer's " Renort on the Provinces of Ye, 

Tavoy and Mergui" of 1839, he says 

that "a full-grown tree yields 1,000 

fruits, which at the lowest can be 

reckoned at Rs. 3 per 100," and that 

'* the integument of the fruit yields a 

very strong and valuable tan." 

2. O, cornea, Linn. ; Roxb. FL Ind. ii. 629 ; Kurz Eastern Bengal and 

i. 88. Burma. 

" Wood brown, heavy ; gives an inferior kind of 
gamboge." — Kurz, 

3. G. specwsa, WalL ••.... Tenasserim and Anda- 

mans. 

4. G, indica,Cho\sy ((?./)tfrptfr«a, Roxb. FL Ind. Qh&ts of Concan and 

ii. 624 ; Beddome xxi). Brindall, Gt>a. Kanara. 
" The firuit has an agreeable, acid flavour, a 
syrup is made from it ; the seeds furnish 
a concrete oil called Kokum in Bom- 
bay." 

5. G, Cambogia, Desrouss Western GhAts. 

6. G. Cbtoa, Uoxb Assam, Ben^, Burma 

and Andamans. 

7. G. lanceeefolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 623 ; Kurz i. 91. Assam, Sylhet and Chit- 

{G, purpurea Wall.) Vem. Kirindur, tagong. 
Sylhet. 

8. G, loniceroides, T. And. {G. 9ucc\foUa, Kurz Swamp forests in Pegu. 

L 91). 
•*Wood white, perishable; yields little and 
inferior gamboge." — Kurz. 

9. G. pedunculata, Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 625 ; Ghunble Rangpur, Qoalpara and 

7. Vem. Tikil, tikur, Beng. ; Borthekra^ Symet. 
Ass. ; cultivated for its fruit. 
" Wood used for planks, beams, and ordinary 
building." — Mann, 

10. G, Moreila, Desrouss Assam, Eastern Bengal, 

South India. 

11. G. heterandra,WB\\, (G.elUptica, Wall,; KuTZ Hills of Burma up to 

i. 49). Vern. Thanat-tau, Burm. 3,000 feet. 

"Wood soft, white; yields a superior quality 
of gamboge." — Kurz, 

12. G. TFi^A^w, T. And. ... . . South India. 

" The gamboge of this species is very soluble 
and yields a good pigment." — T, And, 

13. G. paniculatay Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 626 ; Kurz i. Eastern Himalaya, Kha- 

92. Vem. Bubukowa, Sylhet sia Hills, Sylhet and 

Chittagong. 

14. G, atrO'Viridis, Griff. Upper Assam. 

16. G. anomala, PL and Trian. ; Kurz i. 89. Vera. Khasia Hills, and hills of 
Usaqueng, Ass. Martaban, 3,000 to 

6,000 feet. 



Gareinia. ] quttifbba. 23 

SECTION I.— OABCINU— «o)i<JN««<2. 

16. G. siipulaia, T. And. ; Gamble 7. Vem. Sana- Sikkim and Bhutan, up 

kadan, Lepcha. to 4|0(X) feet. 

" Fruit yellow, sometimes eaten bj Lepchas ; 
the tree and fruit give a yellow sum, 
but it does not seem to Tbe used."— 
Gamble, 

17. G. merguensis, Wight ; Kurz i. 89 . . . Tenasserim. 

18. G, iravancorica, Beddome t. 173 (G. sp. 2. Forests of Travancore 

Beddome xxi). Vern. Malampongu, Tin- and Tinnevelly. 
neyelly. 
" Every portion of the tree yields an abundance 
of bright yellow gamboge, not yet ex- 
amined." — Beddome. 

19. {G. mierostigma, Kurz i. 91) .... Andamans. 

SECTION II.— XANTHOCHYMUS. 

20. G, XantKochymus, Hook, f . ; Kurz i. 93. Xan* Eastern Himalaya, East- 

ihochymus pictorius, Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. em Bengal, Burma, 
633 ; Beddome t. 88. Vem. Tepor, Ass. ; South India. 
Maohla, Phekial ; Dampet, Hind. ; 
Iwara memadi, tamalamu, chitaka- 
mraku, Tel. ; Matato, Burm. 
'^ Yields a large quantity of indifferent 
gamboge." — Roxburgh. _ 

21. G. ovalifolia. Hook, f . ; Jl. ovalifolius, Roxb. Western Ghilts. 

Fl. Ind. ii. 632; Beddome xxi. Vem. 
Kokatie, Tam. ; JEllagokatu, Cingh. 

22. G. duleU, Kurz i. 92 (X dulcU, Boxb. Fl. Andamans. 

Ind. ii. 631). 

Wood close-gprainedj hard. Pores small to large^ subdivided. 
Nnmerous concentric bands of softer texture. The structure of the wood 
of the species of Garcinia is not uniform. 0. Cowa and G. Morella have 
similar wood, while G. speciosa differs by having fine medullary rays and 
G. Cambogia by the absence of distinct concentric rings. The structure 
of the Garcinias requires further investigation. 

1. 0. Bpeciosa, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 260; Kurz i. 88. Vem. 
Falawa, Burm. 

An evergreen tree. Bark thin^ greyish-black. Heartwood red^ very 
hard, cross-, and close-grained. Pores small, very numerous. Numerous 
short, wavy, transverse bands joining the pores. Medullary rays very 
fine, uniform, equidistant, not very distinct, the distance between two 
rays about equal to the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Tenasserim and the Andaman Islands. 

Weight, according to Major Protheroe, 72 lbs. ; our specimens give only 52 lbs. and 
Wallich (Nos. 73, 74, Garcinia sp., Pullowa) 46*5 lbs. 

Used for house and bridge posts, and other purposes; said to be used by the 
Andamanese to make bows. 

lbs. 

B 504. Andaman Islands 52 

B 2402. Do. (Home, 1874, No. 18) .... 62 



Two specimens marked B 2493 Pantagah, No. 20. (51 lbs.), and £ 2,500 
Phungnyet, No. 19 (62 lbs.), brought by Home from the Andamans in 1874 resemble 
G, tpectotat but the pores are m short radial lines and the medullary rays more 
distmct. 

B 2206 (47 lbs.), received from the Andamans in 1866 under the name of Thingan^ 
nee is similar in structure to B 2493 and 2500, but the pores are larger. 



24 GUTTIFER^. [ Garcinia. 

2. 0. Cambogia, Desr. ; Hook. FI. Ind. i. 261 ; Beddome t. 85 ; Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 621. Vern. Jradal, Kan.; Heela, Burghers. 

A small evergreen tree. Wood grey, cross-grained^ shining^ hard. 
Pores small and very small^ in short radial lines^ between the closely 

Eackedi uniform^ very fine medullary rays. Concentric bands present^ 
ut indistinct. 

Western Coast and Ceylon. 

Weight, 54 lbs. per cubic foot. Beddome says the wood would answer for common 
furniture. 

Thwaites states that this tree yields a yellow insoluble gum, which is consequently 
valueless as a pigment. It is, however, said to be soluble in spirits of turpentine, and 
to form a beautiful yellow varnish. Mr. Cherry says it gives an oil which is used in 

medicine. 

Ibi. 
W 845. South Eanara 54 

3. G. Cowa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii, 622 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 262 ; 0. Cowa 
and &. Kydia, Boxb. ; Kurz i. 90. Vern. Cowa, Hind. ; ToungtAalay^ 
Burm. 

A tall evergreen tree with round stem and dark grey bark. Wood 
greyish-white^ moderately hard. Pores moderate-sized to large, scanty^ 
often subdivided. Medullary rays fine to broad. Numerous, wavy, 
concentric bands of soft tissue across the rays. 

Eastern Bengal, Assam, Chittagong, Burma and the Andaman Islands. 

Weight, 42 lbs. per cubic foot (Brandis 1862, No. 19) ; our specimens give an average 
of 40 lbs. Kyd gives weight 47 lbs., P = 815. Wood not used. Is said to give a kind 
of gamboge of a rather different colour to that produced by G, Morella, 

lbs. 

B 549. Martaban 43 

B 3148. Burma (1862) 37 

4. 0. Morella, Desrouss. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 264 ; Thwaites Ennm. 
49 ; Beddome t. 86. G. picioria, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 627 ; Beddome t. 87. 
G. Gutta, Wight. The Gamboge Tree. Vern. Aradal, punarpuli, Kan.; 
Gokattiykana'gorakay Cingh. (The gum resin, Gotagamba, Hind. ; Idakki, 
Tam. ; Revachinnt^ Mar. ; Sanalosi, Burm. ; Gokaiu, Cingh.) 

An evergreen tree. Wood yellow, hard, mottled. Pores large, sub- 
divided. Medullary rays moderately broad. Numerous, wavy, concentric 
bands of soft texture across the rays which are narrower than in G. Qma. 

Forests of the Khasia Hills, Eastern Bengal, Western Coast, and Ceylon. 

The tree which produces the true gamhoge. The gum is, however, not collected 
in the forests of South India, and the chief trsde supply is obtained from Siam. In 
Ceylon it is usuallY collected by cutting a thin slice off the bark of the tree here and 
there of the size of the palm of the hand. On the flat space thus exposed the gum 
collects and is scraped off when sufliciently dried. 

lbs. 

No. 14, Ceylon collection (marked Camhogia Gutta, Vern. Coeatiye) . 56 

%. CALOPHYLLUM, Linn. 

A large genus of chiefly tropical trees, of which many species occur in the Malay 
Peninsula and Ceylon. Six species occur in India, of which four in Burma Mid the Anda- 
mans, three in Southern India and one in Northern and Eastern Bengal. Five species are 
herein described, and the remaining species is C retusunit Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. L 272 
(C. amcRnum, Wall.; Kurz i. 95), an evergreen tree of Tenasserim. The genus is 
remarkable for its handsome flowers and beautiful parallel-veined, opposite, coriaceous 
leaves. 



Oalopkyllum. ] GUTTiFERiE. 25 

Wood soft and moderately hard, reddish, with a darker coloured 
heartwood, seasons well, weight moderate. Pores moderate-sized or large, 
prominent on a vertical section, often arranged in wavy strings or groups. 
Medullary rays fine or very fine, indistinct on a cross section but prominent 
as straight narrow lines on a radial section. Interrupted concentric lines 
of soft tissue. 

1. C. spectabile, Willd.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 271; Kurz j. 94; 
C. itoonii, Wight, Beddome xxii. ; C. amoenum, Wall, in Exhibition 
Catalogue; C. Mrapeialum, Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. 608. Vern. Panta-ia, 
kyandoOy Burm. ; Dakar tdladd, And. ; Lalchuni, Hind, (from Andamans). 

A tall evergreen tree. Wood light red, shining, cross-grained, moder- 
ately hard. Pores large, in scattered groups, and wavy lines prominent 
on a longitudinal section. Medullary rays fine, very numerous, promi- 
nent on a radial section as long, straight, dark-coloured narrow plates. 
Concentric lines of soft tissue divide the wood into what at first sight 
appear to be annual rings, but on closer examination are found to 
be interrupted, and cannot be held to be the lines which mark the 
annual increment ; these lines are visible on a vertical section. 

Tenasserim and Andaman Islands. 

Weight, 38-39 lbs. pr cubic foot. No. 13, from the Andaman Islands, of Brandis' 
experimenU of 1866 is probably this : Weight, 39*6 lbs. P = 630 — mean of 8 experi- 
mente with bars 2' X 1" X 1.^ 

The wood ia used for masts and spars ; also for planking, for which purpose it 

has lately been used in building barracks in the Andamans. 

lbs. 

B 525. An<lftTnft.Ti Islands 39 

B 1992. „ „ (Kurz, 1866) 38 

B 3197. „ „ (Home, 1874, No. 14, Teeni) . . . . 39 • 

2. C. inophyllimi, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 273; Beddome xxii.; 
Kurz i. 95; Koxb. Fl, Ind. ii. 606. The Alexandrian Laurel. Vern. 
Sultana Champa^ Hind.^ Beng. ; Pinnay, Tamil ; Piina, punas, Tel. ; 
Wuma, Kan. ; Undi, Mar. ; Domba, Cingh. ; Pongnyet, Burm. ; BintangoTy 
Malay. 

An evergreen tree. Bark grey or blackish-brown, smooth. Wood 
reddish-brown^ moderately hard^ close-grained. Pores small and 
moderate-sized^ arranged in groups. Medullary rays extremely fine 
and numerous. Numerous^ not very prominent^ interrupted concentric 
lines of soft tissue. 

South India, Burma and Andaman Islands, often cultivated for ornament in other 
parts of India. 

Weight : 63 lbs. per cubic foot according to Kurz ; the specimens received averaged 
42 lbs. omitting the last which was rather decayed, " Used for masts, spars, railway 
sleepers, machinery, &c." — Kurt. 

IbR. 

W 733. South Kanara . . . 38 

B 2257. Andaman Islands (1866) 45 

B 2258. „ „ , 44 

B 2263. „ „ „ 26 

3. C. polyantlininy Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 274; Kurz i. 95; 
Gamble 7. Vern. Kandeb, Beng. ; Kironli, Nep. ; Sunglyer, Lepeha. 
An evergreen tree. Structure the same as that of C, spectabile. 

Northern and Eastern Bengal, Ehasia Hills, Chittagong and Burma, ascending to 
5,000 feet. 



26 GUTTiFER^. [ CalophgUum. 

Weight, 40 lbs. per cubic foot. Mr. Chester says it is used largely in CKittagong 

for masts, spars and rafters, and sometimes for small boat building and canoes. 

lbs. 

E 1400. Cbittagong 44 

E 2490. Chenga Forest, Darjeeling Terai 38 

E 2953. Chunbati, Darjeeling, 3,000 feet 39 

These last two have the same structure as C, polyanthum, but the wood has a dark 
red colour. 

4. C. tomentosim^ Wight ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 274 ; .Beddome xxii. 
C, elafum, Beddome t. 2. The Peon Spar Tree. Vern. Foon^poone, 
Mai. ; PongoOy Tamil ; Siri poone^ Kan. 

A lars^e^ tall^ evergreen tree. Bark with numerous longitudinal 
cracks. Structure the same as that of C, spectabile. 

Evergreen forests of the Western Coast from Kanara southwards. 

Wei^t : Couch's experiments at Plymouth Dockyard gave 36 to 43 lbs. per cubio 
foot ; our specimens give 35 lbs. per cubic foot. Yields the Poon spars of commerce, 
good spars often fetching large prices. It is also used for building and bridge work. 

The seeds give an oil. « 

lbs. 

W 762. South Kanara 32 

D 1279. Anamalai Hills 38 

5. C. Wightianum, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 274; Beddome t. 90. 
C decipienSy Wight Ic. 106. Vern. Kalpoon, kull-ponni, Kan. ; Chem 
pinnaj^, Tara. 

An evergreen tree. Wood hard, red. Pores large and moderate- 
sized, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays very fine, not very distinct. 
Numerous interrupted, wavy and auastomoziug concentric bauds of 
soft tissue. 

Western Ghats from the Konkan to Travancore. 

Weight, 45 lbs. per cubic foot. It is probably No. 36 of Skinner s List (C spu' 
rium) W = 39 lbs. ; P = 567. Beddome says the timber is much esteemed and 
valuable for engineering purposes. 

lbs. 

W 861. South Kanaia 46 

3. KAYEA, Wall. 

Two Indian and one Ceylon species. jET.florihunda, Wall. ; Hook. FK Ind. i. 276 ; 
Kurz i. 96. Vern. JTarram-yoira, Sylhet, is a tree of the tropical forests of the Eastern 
Himalaya and of the hills of Martaban, ascending to 3,000 feet. ^. Tiervosa, T. And. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 277 ; Kurz i. 97 is an evergreen tree of Tenasserim. 

1. K stylosa, Thwaites Enum. 50; Hook. PI. Ind. i. 276; 
Beddome t. 102. Vern. Suvanda, Cingh. 

A large tree. Bark dark grey. Wood soft, reddish. Pores moderate- 
sized, numerous. Medullary rays very fine, indistinct, with concentric 
bands of soft texture across the rays. 

A. Mendis gives the weight at 56 lbs. and P = 814. 

IbB. 

Ceylon, south of the island. No. 82, Ceylon collection . • • .66 

4. MESUA, Linn. 

Beddome gives six species of this genus, but all these are included in the Flora 
Indica by Dr. T. Anderson under one, Mesuaferrea, lu the " Genera Plantarum " 
there are said to be three species. These indude M, Thwaitesii, PL and Trian., of 
Ceylon, and a species from Malacca. 



Mesua. ] guttiferjb. 27 

1. M. ftrrea^ Lmn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 277; Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. 
605 ; Kurz i. 97 ; Beddome xxiii (with also M. speciosa, Choisy ; 
Jf. Roxburghiif Wight ; M. scleropAj^lla, Thw. ; M. pulcAella, PI. and 
Trian. ; and M, eoromandeliana, Wight ; Beddome t. 64) ; Thwaites Enum. 
50. Vera. Nagenar^ Beng. ; Nahor, Ass. ; Nageshvoro, Uriya ; Nangal^ 
mallaf nangal, Tarn.; Naga-iesara, Tel.; Nang, Tinnevelly; Naga 
Mmpigi, Kan.; Kag-champa, Mar.; Behetta-ckampagamj Mai.; Nd^ 
dega-nd, Cingh. ; Kaing^go, Magh ; Oangau^ Burm. 

A large evergreen tree, Heartwood dark red, extremely hard. 
Pores moderate-sized, often in groups^ scanty, often filled with yellow 
resin. Medullary rays extremely fine, uniform, equidistant, very 
numerous. Numerous fine, wavy, concentric lines of light-coloured 
tissue. 

Eastern Bengal from the Monas eastward (though traces of its having formerly 
been found west of that river occur sometimes in the names of places, e. ^., 
Nageshwarbari, or Naksarbari, a town in the Sikkim Terai on the Nepal firontier), 
Assacn, South India, Ceylon, Burma and the Andamans, often cultivated. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following experi- 
ments : — 









Weight. 


Value of P, 


A. Mendis 


Ceylon No. 59, with bars 2' X 


r X r found 


72 lbs. 


994 


Brandis 


Burma No. 18, 1862 




69 „ 


• • t 


Bennett 


Andamans No. 4, 1872 . 




70 „ 


1053 




r Assam (4 specimens), 1878 . 




67-5 „ 


... 


Smjthies 


} Kanara(l „ ), „ 




62 „ 


••• 




C Burma (6 „ ), „ 




70 „ 


. • . 



Several of our specimens, however, reached 74 to 76 lbs. per cubic foot in weight. It 
is very durable. It has been found to answer for sleepers equally well with 
Pynkadoy but the cost of cutting the hard wood, its weight, and the freight from the 
Tenasserim forests to Calcutta prevent its being much used, as the total cost is scarcely 
covered by the price (Bs. 5) per broad-gauge Bleeper. It is used for building, for 
bridges, gunsiocKS and tool handles ; but its more general use is prevented by its 
great hardness, weight and the difficulty of working it. In Ceylon an oil is obtained 
from the nut, and the tree is often planted for the sake of its handsome flowers. 

lbs. 

E 2309. E. Duars, Assam 64 

E 793. Kamnip „ 61 

E 2190. Nowgong „ 75 

E 1273. Cachar 70 

W 741. South Kanara 62 

B 2504. Burma (1862) 69 

Martaban 75 

Tavoy (WalUch, 1828) 60 

Andamans (Major Ford, 1866) 76 

„ (Home, 1874, No. 10) 67 

74 

Ceylon Collection {^Metwi Nagaha) 72 



B 


554. 


B 


2700. 


B 


2238. 


B 


2491. 


B 


520. 


No 


. 59. 



OaoER XV. TEBNSTBOMIACEjS:. 

Twelve genera belonging to three tribes, viz, : — 

Tribe I. — Temstromiesa .... Anneslea, TernHromta^ Adinan* 

dra, Cleyera and Eurya, 
„ II. — Saurauje» .... Actinidiay Saurauja and Stachg- 

urus, 
„ IIL— Gordonie» .... Pgrenaria, Schima^ Gordonia and 

Camellia^ 



28 TEENSTROMiACEiE. [ Eurj/a. 

Anneslea contains two small trees of Burma : A,fragrans, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 
280 ; Kurz i. 98, of the Eng forests, and A. tnonticola, Kurz i. 98, of the hill forests of 
Martaban at 6,000 to 7,000 feet. 2'emstromia, two trees of South India and Burma : 
T.japonica, Thunb. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 280; Kurz i. 99 (21 gymnanthera, Beddome t. 
91). Vern. KaymonCf NUgiris, an evergreen tree of the Western Gh&ts and the Marta- 
ban Hills, said by Beddome to have a pinkish wood, used for house-building ; and 
T, penanffiana, Ghoisy ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 281 ; Kurz i. 99, an evergreen tree of the 
Andamans and Tenasserim. Adinandra villosa, Choisy ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 283 ; Kurz 
i. 100, is an evergreen tree of Pegu. Cleyera ochnacea, DC, and C. ffrandiflora, Hook, 
f. andTh. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 283, 284, are small trees of the North-Eastem Himalaya 
and EHiasia Hills. Actinidia contains two climbing shrubs : A. callosOj Ldl. (^o. 
E. 2858, Tukdah Forest, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet, with corky bark and brown, very porous 
wood) at about 6,000 feet, n'om Garhwal to Bhutan and the Khasia Hills, and A. 
strigosa, Hook, f . and Th., of the Sikkim Himalaya, at 6,000 to 8,000 feet : both. Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 286 ; Gamble 8. Vern. Tikphal, Nep. ; Taksing, Lepcha. Fruit edible, of 
good flavour. Stachyurus himalaicus. Hook, f . and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 288, is a 
small glabrous tree oi the Eastern Himalaya from 6,000 to 8,000 feet. 

In JPyrenaria are four evergreen trees : three of which, P. attenuata. Seem. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 290 (P. serrata, Bl. ; Kurz i. 106) of Tavoy; P. diospyricarpa^ 
Kurz i. 104, and P. camelUoiflora, Kurz i. 106, of the Martaban Hills, are Burmese : 
and one, P. harringtoniafolia. Seem. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 290, of the G4ro Hills in 
Assam. Gordonia obtusa, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 291 ; Beddome t. 83. Vern. 
Nagetta, Nilgiris, is a tall grey-barked tree of the Western Gh4ts, said by Beddome 
to have a yellowish-white, even-grained wood, used for house-building, but liable to 
warp. O, exceUa, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 291, is a tree of the Bhutan Himalaya. 

Pores small, uniformly distributed between the fine or very fine 
medullary rays. The species of Eurya have a few broader rays alternat- 
ing with the fine rays. 

1. EURYA, Thunb. 

A genus of evergreen shrubs or small trees, of the Eastern Himalaya, Assam, 
Southern India, and Burma, E.japonica, Thunb.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 284; Beddome 
t. 92 ; Brandis 24 ; Kurz i. 101 ; Gamble 7. Vern. JBaunra, gonia, deura, Hind. ; 
Jhingniy Nep.; Tungchong, Lepcha; ^oofoont, Nilgiris ; Toungletfet, Burm., is found 
in the Himalaya from the Jumna eastwards, above 3,000 feet in altitude, in the Western 
Ghats and in Burma, It grows quickly and often gregariously in the Sikkim hills, 
and coppices well. E. trichocarpa, Korth. is a small tree of Bhutan and the Khasia 
Hills. 

1. E. symplocina, Bl.; Hook. Fl.Ind. i. 284; Kurz i. 102; Gamble 
7. Vern. BaraJAingni, kisi, Nep. ; FlofungcAong, Lepcha. 

A small evergreen tree. Bark brown, thin. Wood reddish-white, soft, 
close-grained. Annual rings marked by more numerous pores in the 
spring wood. Pores very small. Medullary rays very fine and moder- 
ately broad, the latter short, prominent. 

Hills of the North-Eastem Himalaya, from 6,000 to 7,000 feet, Burma. 
Weight, 38 lbs. per cubic foot. Used only for firewood. 

IbB. 

E 2319 \ ^^^S^^l» I^arjeeling, 7,000 feet J . 2 

2. E. aCTlininatay DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 285 ; Kurz i. 101 ; Gamble 
7. Vern. Sanujhingnij Nep.; Flotungchong , Lepcha. 

A small evergreen tree. Bark brown, thin, smooth. Wood differs 
from that of E, symplocina in having the larger medullary rays less 
broad and less prominent. 

Hills of the North-Eastem Himalaya, Assam and Martaban, from 5,000 to 
8,000 feet. 



Saurauja. ] tbbnstbomiacs^. 29 

Weight, according to Kyd 32 lbs. ; oar specimen, however, weighed 47 lbs. 

Kyd 8 experiment on a bar 2' X I''' X 1^ gave P = 337, for wood from Goalpara. 

Ib8. 
E2320. Bangbdl, Daijeeling, 7,500 ft 47 

2. SAURAUJA, WiUd, 

A genus of trees or shrubs with handsome, parallel- veined, |^enerall^ scaly and 
rasty-tomentose leaves, and pink or white flowers. Of the eight Indian species five are 
foniMl in Banna, and six in the Eastern Himalaya. Besides the species here described, 
5. Orifftthii, Dyer ; Hook. Pl.llnd. i. 286 ; Gamble 8. Vem. Goaen, Nep. ; Hlosipha, 
Lepcha, is an extremely handsome small tree with large leaves bright green above and 
densely yellow tomentose beneath, f ocmd in Sikkim and Assam. S. fasciculata. Wall. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 287 ; Gamble 8. Vern. Ookul, Sare gogen, Nep. ; Sipha, Lepcha, from 
Sikkim ; and S, punduana, Wall. ; Hook. FI. Ind. i. 287 ; Kurz i. 103 ; Gamble 8. Vem. 
Bata gogen, Nep ; Sipha, Lepcha, from Sikkim, Assam and Burma, are small trees 
or shrubs ; 8. Eoxburghii, Wall. ; Hook. PL Ind. i. 287 ; Kura i. 103 ; Gamble 287 
{Temtiromia serrata, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 521). Vern. Dalup, Sylhet ; Ouli gogen, Nep. ; 
Dangsipka, Lepcha, is a small tree of the valleys of Sikkim, the Khasia Hills, and 
Barma; a,nd 8, tristyla, DC.; Hoolc. Fl. Ind. i. 287; Kurz 1.104; (Ternstromia 
bUocularut Boxb. FL Ind. ii. 522) occurs in Tenasserim. 

1. S. napaulensis, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 286 ; Brandis 25 ; 
Gamble 8. Vern. Gogina,goganda, Hind.; Gogen, Nep.; iT^wur, Lepcha. 

A small tree. Bark reddish-brown, thin. Wood light pink, very 

soft, spongy ; shrinks much. Pores small. Medullary rays fine and 

moderately broad, prominent on a radial section. 

Outer Himalaya from the Jumna to Bhutan above 3,000 feet, Khasia Hills. 
Weight, 25 lbs. per cubic foot. Leaves lopped for cattle fodder. 

lbs. 

£ 2321. Tukdah, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet 25 

3. SCHIMA, Reinw. 

Six species. 8. crenata, Korth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 289 ; Kurz i. 107. (Gordonia 
Mata, Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 672. G.Jfloribunda, Wall.) is an evergreen tree of Burma. 
S. khasiana, lysex'. Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 289, is a white-barked tree of the Khasia Hills. 
8. tnonticola, Kurz i. 107, is a tree of the summits of the Nattoung Range in 
Martaban, at 6,000 to 7,200 feet ; and 8, bancana, Miq. ; Kurz i. 108, is a tree of the 
£ng forests of Martaban and Tenasserim. 

1. S. Wallichii, Choisy ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 289 ; Gamble 8. 
Gordonia integrifolia, Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. 572, Vern. CAilauni, goechassi, 
Nep. ; Makusaly Hind. ; Sumbrong, Lepcha ; Gugera, Goalpara ; Makriah 
chilauni, makmal, Ass.; Dingan, Khasia; Boldak, G^ro; Jam, 
Cachar. 

A large evergreen tree. Bark black or dark grey with deep vertical 

cracks. Wood rough, red, moderately hard, shrinks much in seasoning, 

but is durable. Pores moderate-sized and small, round, extremely 

numerous and uniformly distributed. Medullary rays very fine, uniform, 

equidistant, very numerous : on a radial section visible as narrow, darker 

coloured plates. 

Northern and Eastern Bengal, and Chittagong, ascending to 6,000 ft. 
Growth moderately fast, our specimens shew 4 to 8 rings per inch of radius. 
The following experiments have been made to determine the weight and transverse 
strength : — ^ 

Weight. P = 

Kyd with Goalpara wood in 1831, No. 48, bar 2 ' X 1 ' X 1 ♦' . found 43 lbs. 383 
Brandis with Sikkim „ in 1864, bar 6 ' X 2 " X 2 " . „ 46 „ 760 

Smythies with our four specimens in 1878 . . . „ 46 „ 



30 TBRNSTROMIACBJB. [ Schima. 

The wood is durable; E 1449, brought by Griffith from the Mishmi Hills io 1836, 
was perfectly sound when cut up in 1878. It is used in Northern Bengal and Assam for 
many purposes, but chiefly for building. Many of the tea factories in Darjeeling have 
been built of it, and the Public Works Department have sometimes used it for bridges. 
Mann states that in Assam it is used for planks and ordinary building purposes and 
for canoes. In 1875 several sleepers were made over to the Northern Bengal State 
Railway for experiment, but the result is not yet known. As large quantities of the 
timber, well grown and straight, are available, it is to be hoped that it may be ere 
long in more extensive demand. 

It seeds profusely every year during the winter ; the fruit is a hard capsule which 
splits open to let fall the flat, slightly winged seeds. In thick forests, however, 
seedlings are rarely found, but wherever light is admitted and the soil has been 
slightly stirred, they come up in profusion. 

lbs. 

E 491. Bamunpokri Forest, Darjeeling 43 

E 646. Ehooklon^ Forest, Darjeeling Terai 44 

E 636. Eastern Dtiars, Assam 42 

E 1449. Mishmi Hills (Griffith, 1836) 50 

2. S. NoronhSBy Rwdt. ; Kurz i. 107. Vern. Panma, ikityay Burm. 

An evergreen tree. Bark brown, irregularly cracked. Wood reddish- 
brown, moderately hard, close-grained. Pores small, in short radial lines 
between the very fine and closely-packed medullary rays. There is some 
doubt about the identification of this number. 

Tenasserim and Martaban Hills. Weight 45 lbs. per cubic foot. 

lb*. 
B 299. Burma (1867) 45 

4. CAMELLIA, Linn. 

Four species. C raudata. Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 293 ; Kurz i. 108, is an 
evergreen shrub of the forests of the Martaban Hills at 3,0(X) to 4,000 feet. C. 
lutescens, Dyer ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 293, is a shrub of the Mishmi Hills. 

1. C. dmpifera. Lour.; Hock. Fl. Ind. i. 293; Kurz i. 109; Gamble 
9. C Kisst, Wall. Vern. Kissi, hingua, Nep. ; Chalking, Bhutia, 
Lepcha. 

A large evergreen shrub. Bark thin, greyish -white. Wood grey, 
soft, even-grained. Pores very small, uniformly distributed between 
the very JBne, very numerous medullary rays. 

Eastern Himalaya, Assam and Khasia Hills, ascending to 8,000 feet, Tenasserim, 
and Andaman Islands. 

E 3II1. Kalimpiing, Darjeeling, 4,^00 feet. 

2. C. Thea^ Link.; Brandis 25; Kurz i. 109; Gamble 9, the 
China Tea Plant. C. theiferoy Griff. ; Hook. Fl. Ind, i. 29£, the Assam 
Tea Plant. Vern. Cha. 

A shrub with thin grey bark. Wood grey, soft. Pores numerous, 
very small, uniformly distributed between the numerous fine medullary 
rays. 

Cultivated in many districts in India, especially in Kangra, Kulu, Dehra Ddn, 
Kumaun, Darjeeling, the Western Duars, Assam, Cachar, Chittagong and Hazaribagh 
in Northern India, as well as in the Nilgiri Hills and Ceylon. 

Weight, 56 lbs. per cubic foot. 

lbs. 
S142. Dehra Dun 66 



IHpteroearpua. ] dipterocaiiprs. SI 



Obdee XVI. DIPTEEOCAEPEJE. 

An order of great forest importance, containing large resinous trees and a few 
dunbing shrubs, belonging to seven genera, viz,, Dipterocarpnjt, Anchtrocladus, 
Anuoptera, Vatica, Skorea, Hopea and Vateria. JDoona axid Monaporandra are 
found in Ceylon. 

Of AncUtrocladn*, a genus of climbing sbrubs, two species are found in India : 
A, Wallickii, Planch; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 300; Kurz i. Ill, in Chittagong, Burma and 
theAndamans; and A. Chriffithii, Planch; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 300; Kurzi. 110. Yem. 
Pcmben-nway, Burm., in swamp forests in Pegu, Martaban and Tenasserim. Anuoptera 
glabra, Kurz i. 112. Yem. Thingado, Burm., is a large evergreen Burmese tree. 

The camphw of commerce is obtained from Dryohalanops Camphora, a tree of 
Sumatra. The camphor is often found in the stem in a solid state, but is also procured 
liquid by incision. 

The DipterocarpesB here described have a uniform structure. The 
pores are rounds often in groups^ small to large^ but generally moderate- 
sized^ enclosed in a narrow white ring. The medullary rays are fine and 
moderately broad, generally equidistant. The heartwood is generally 
distinct, dark coloured, heavy (from 40 to 70 lbs.) and resinous, exuding 
wood oils or dammer, which are found, not in separate resinous duets, but 
in the pores (vessels) of the wood. The wood of most species is hard^ 
strong and durable, that of several species of Dipterocarpus is softer and 
])erishable. 

1. DIPTEROCARPUS, Gaertn. f. 

Twelve species, all lofty trees, of Eastern Bengal, South India and Burma. These 
species are :— 

1. D. turhinatusy Gaertn. f Eastern Bengal, Burma and 

Andamans. 

2. 2>. lavu. Ham Burma. 

3. B. vesiiius. Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 296. . Tavoy. 

4. D. obtusifoHus, Teysm Hills of Prome and Martaban. 

5. D. pilosus, Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 615 ; Hook. Fl. Arracan, hills of Martaban 

Ind. i. 296; Kurz i. 115. Yem. Hollong, and Tenasserim. 

Ass. 

" Rarely used for canoes, does for planks. " — Mann. 

6. (2>. JSasselfii, Bl. ; Kurz i. 114) . . . Tenasserim and Andamans. 

7. D. tuberculatus, Roxb. .... Chittagong and Burma. 

8. 2>. scaber. Ham. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 297. • Eastern Bengal. 

9. D. alatus, Roxb Chittagong, Burma and 

AndamajiB. 

10. D. incantiSf Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 614; Hook Chittagong. 

Fl. Ind. i. 298. 

11. D. Griffithii, Miq. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 299 ; Tenasserim and Andamans* 

Kurz 1.116. 

12. {D. cottatus, Gaertn. ; Kurz i. 117. Under Hills of Chittagong, Marta- 

D. alatu4 in Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 298.) ban and Tenasserim. 

This list is chiefly taken from Dyer's description in the " Flora Indica," and Kurz* 
** Burma Flora, " but there is considerable difference in the synomymy given in Kurz, the 
•• Flora Indica " and Alphonse de CandoUe's Monograph in the " Pro<h*omus, " Vol. xvi. 
Kurz' species are given in brackets. 

The species of Dipterocarpus have a reddish, soft or moderately hard 
heartwood, generally rough. Pores visible on a vertical section, moderate- 
sized to large. Medullary rays often of two sizes, fine and moderately broad, 

1. D. tnrbinatns, Gaertn. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 295 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 612 j Kurzi. 114. The Gurjun-Oil Tree. Vern, Gurjun, tiliyagurjun, 
Beng. ; Kanyoung, Magh ; KanyiU'Tiee, kanyin-toeUming, Burm. 



32 DiPTBROCARPEiB. . [ Dtpterocarpus. 

A lofty evergreen tree. Wood rough, moderately hard ; heartwood 
reddish grey. Pores round, large and moderate-sized, joined by short 
concentric bands of soft tissue. Medullary rays prominent, broad and 
very fine, a large number of the latter intervening between a pair of the 
former; very prominent and shining on a radial section. 

Eastern Bengal, Chittagong, Burma and the Andaman Islands. 
Skmner, No. 64, gives the weight at 46 lbs. and P = 762 ; Kurz gives 66 lbs. for the 
weight, while our specimens average 60 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood is used for house- 
building and for canoes in Burma ; and the wood-oil is used in painting houses and 
ships. 

lb«. 

E 709. Chittagong 49 

B 293. Burma (1867) 43 

B 2216. Andaman Islands (Major Ford, 1866) 62 

B 2665. Burma (1862) . 66 

2. D. Is&vis^ Ham. ; Kurz i. 114. D. turbinafus, Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 
295 (in part). Vern. Kanyin, kany in-nee, Burra. 

A lofty tree. Sapwood white ; heartwood rough, reddish, soft. Pores 
moderate-sized, numerous. Medullary rays red, fine, moderately broad 
and broad, visible on a radial section as long bands, the distance between 
two broader rays equal to two to four times the transverse diameter of the 
pores. 

Tropical forests throughout Burma. 

Weight : our specimens give an average of 46 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood is 
rarely used, but is occasionally employed for planking and rafters. It yields copiously 

a resm and a wood-oil used for painting. 

ibf. 

B 292. Burma (1867) . ' 43 

B 2606. „ (1862) 49 

D. indicusj Beddome t. 94. Yem. Ouga, Kan., of the Western Gh4t8, is referred to 
this or to D, turhinatus by Dyer. 

3. D. obtusifolius, Teysm. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 495; Kurz i. 115. 
Vern. Kanyin-kok, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark | inch thick, ash -grey, longitudin- 
ally cracked, rough. Heartwood reddish brown, rough, moderately 
hard. Pores large and moderate-sized. Medullary rays fine and very 
fine, numerous. 

Eng forests of Prome and Martaban, ascending to 3,000 feet. 

Weight, 59 lbs. per cubic foot. 

lbs. 
B 3128. Kya-eng, Attaran Valley, Burma 69 

4. D. tnbercnlatuSy Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 614 ; Hook. PI. Ind. ii. 297 ; 
Kurz i. 113. D, grandijlorus^ Wall. The Eng Tree. Vern. Eng, Burm. ; 
Sooain, Talcing. 

A large deciduous gregarious tree, with dark grey bark, forming the 
'' Eng forests ^' of Burma. Wood red, hard. Pores circular, large and 
moderate-sized, often filled with resin. Medullary rays prominent, 
moderately broad, with a number of fine rays between each pair of broad 
ones; distance between broader rays as much as twice transverse dia- 
meter of pores. 

Cbittagong and Burma. 

Weight : Srandis in Burma List of 1862, No. 12, gives 66 lbs. ; Skinner, No. 63, 
gives 45 and Benson 46 lbs. ; while the average of our specimens gives 54 lbs. Benson 



Dipieroearpui. ] diptjbbocarpbje. SS 

gives P=758 ; Skinner 7S0, The timber is very largely used in Burma for building, 
eanoei, and house posts. It gires no wood-oil, but a clear yellow resin. 

B 2505. Burma (1862) 50 

B 306. „ (1867) .52 

B 2480. „ 59 

5. D. alatufL Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 614; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 298; Kurz 
i. 116. Vem. Gurjun, Beng. ; Kanyin, ianyin-pyoOj Burm. 

A very large tree with grey bark. Sapwood white ; heartwood reddish 

grey^ moderately hard, smooth, mottled. Pores scanty, larore, often oval 

and subdivided. Medullary rays undulating, short, nne and moderately 

broad^ not prominent. Pores prominent on a longitudinal section. 

Chittagong, Burma and the Andaman Islands. 

Weight: Brandis in Burma List, 1862, No. 11, ^ives 38 lbs. ; our sneciroen gives 
60 lbs. ; Bennett^ No. 9, Andaman woods, (Eanyin), gives Weight 49 fi)s., P := 727. The 

wood is used for house-building and canoes, but is not durable. 

lbs. 
B 818. Burma ....... 50 

B 2243. Andamans (1866) (rather eaten) 38 

6. D. zeylanicoSy Thwaites Enum. 33; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 297; 
Beddome ^cxv. Vern. Hard, Cingh. 

Heartwood red, moderately hard. Pores moderate-sized to very large. 

Medullary rays fine and moderately broad^ frequently bending. 

Ceylon, up to 3,000 feet. 

Weight, 45 lbs. per cubic foot Wood used for building. It gives a wood-oil and 

gum resin. 

Ibf. 

No. 37. Ceylon collection 45 



E 720 is a wood sent from Chittagong under the name Michamma, In structure 
it resembles DipterocarpuSy and differs chieflv by the very numerous, very fine, equi- 
distant medullary rays. The pores are joined by white, wavy concentric lines. The 
wood is interrupted by concentric belts of fibrous substance resembling liber, about \ 
inch thick. 

£ 1257. (43 lbs.) from Tezpur, Assam, has the structure of Dipteroearpus, 
E 1960. (37 lbs.) Vem. jLowOy Beng. ; ChaJcyai, Magh, from Chittagong, is 
probably a species of Dipterocarpus : it is distinguished by numerous broad ana fine 
medullary rays, and moderate-sized, often subdivided pores. 

2. VATICA, Linn. 

Six species, F. grandiflora, Dyer ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 301 (Anisoptera odorata, 
Kurz i. 112. Hopea grandiAora, Wall.) is a deciduous tree of Martaban and 
Tenasserim, where also are found V, fagineay Dyer ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 301, and 
r. Relferiy Dyer; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 301 {Shorea Helferi, Kurz i. 119). V. scaphula, 
Dyer; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 301 (Hopea scaphula, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 611; Kurz i. 121). 
Yern. JBoihhura, Beng., is a tree of Chittagong, especiallv on Masoal island, whose 
trunk is used for making canoes. F. Boxhurghianay Bi. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 302 ; 
Beddome t. 95. Vem. Mendora, Cingh., is a large tree of the Western Coast and 
Ceylon, yielding a gum resin. 

1. V. lanceafoUa, Bl.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 302; Kurz i. 122; Roxb. 
Jl. Ind. ii. 601. Vem. Morhal, Ass.yMoal, Sylhet; Pantiilya, Burm. 

A large tree. Heartwood red, rough, hard. Pores small, numerous, 

uniformly distributed. Medullary rays fine, not distinct. 

Eastern Himalaya, Assam, Eastern Bengal, Chittagong and Burma. 
If this is Skinner*tf No. 131 ( Valeria lanceafolia, Vem. Let-touk, Burm.) the weight 
ia 58 lbs. and P = 931 ; Wallicb gives 54 lbs. ; our specimens 35 to 52 lbs. per cubic foot. 



84 DiPTEiiocABPRB. [ Shorea. 

m 

The wood is not very good. The tree gives a resin called ghund, nsed in temples. 

lb«. 

B 2508. Burma (1862) 36 

B 2282. Andamans a866) 52 

"We ideutify this last by the structure, though the tree is not given from the 
Andamans. 

8. SHOREA, Roxb. 

Nine species. S.Jlorihunda, Kurz. i. 119; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 304, is a deciduous 
tree of Tavoy. S* (Msamtca, Dyer ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 307, is a tree of Upper Assam 
discovered by G. Mann on the banks of the Dehing river. S. ffratissima, Dyer ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 307 {Hopea ffratissima, Wall. ; Kurz i. 121), is found in Tenasserim. 

Wood generally cross-grained. Heartwood brown, bard or very 
hard. Pores moderate-sized to large, generally filled with resin, in 
patches of lighter coloured tissue. Medullary rays fine, broad, equidistant. 

1. S. stellata. Dyer ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 804. ParoiAorea ttellata, 
Kurz i. 117. Vera, Koungmhoo^ Burm. 

A very large evergreen tree. Bark \ inch thick, dark brown, 
longitudinally fissured. Wood white, hard, rough. Pores round, 
moderate-sized to large, uniformly distributed, often filled with a white 
substance; each pore enclosed in a narrow white ring. Medullary 
rays moderately broad ; the distance between two rays generally equal to 
the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Burma. 

Weight, 47 to 50 lbs. The wood is a used for canoes and in boat-building. 

lbs. 

B 1944. Tavoy, Burma 47 

B 2481. Tenasserim 60 

2. S. Talura, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 618; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 304. 
8. lacci/era, Heyne ; Beddome t. 6. Fatica laccifera, W. and A. Vern. 
Talura, taldri, Tarn. ; Jaldri, Tel. ; Jalaranda, Kan. 

A large tree. Bark grey, with longitudinal fissures. Wood grey, 
very to extremely hard, smooth, with small dark-coloured irregularly- 
shaped heartwood. Pores small and moderate-sized, often in groups 
enclosed in patches of white tissue, which are frequently elongat^ and 
wavy, forming interrupted concentric bands. No distinct annual rings, 
but alternating belts, with numerous and with few pores. Medullary 
rays fine, very numerous, frequently white, bending. 

Mysore and the eastern districts of Madras. 

Weight : Puckle gives 43 lbs. per cubic foot ; our specimens give 65 to 70 lbs. 
Puckle nnds P= 896. The wood is much used for house-building, and is largely 'sent 
down to Madras for that purpose. 

lbs. 

D 1066. South Arcot 70 

D 1092. Madura 65 

D 1092 has a smooth, yellow, even-grained wood, while D 1056 is grey with a dark 
brownish-red heartwood, but the structure of the two is identicaL 

3. S. robusta, Gaertn.; Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 615; Beddome t. 4; 
Brandis26; Kurz i. 119; Gamble 9. The Sdl Tree. Vern. Sdl.sdla, 
salwa, idkhuj %akher^ Hind. ; SaktoUj Nep. ; Teturl, Lepcha ; Bolsal, Garo ; 
Salwa, 9oringhi, Uriya ; Koroh, Oudh ; Sarei, rinjal, C. P. ; Ougal, Tel. 

A large gregarious tree, never quite leafless. Bark of young trees 
smooth with a ^w long, deep, vertical cracks ; of old •trees 1 to 2 inches 
thick, dark coloured, rough, with deep longitudinal furrows. Sapwood 



Siorea. ] 



DIPTBROCABPILB. 



35 



small, i?hiti8h, not durable. Heartwood brown, finely streaked with 
dark lines, coarse-grained, bard, with a remarkably fibrous and cross- 
grained structure ; the fibres of successive concentric strata in the wood 
do not run parallel but at oblique angles to each other, so that when 
the wood is dressed the fibres appear interlaced; does not season well. 
Annual rings visible. Pores moderate-sized to large, often filled with 
resin ; each pore or group of pores in a patch of whitish tissue. Medullary 
rays uniform, moderately broad, straight, very prominent, joined by 
short white transverse lines, clearly visible on a radial section as 
numerous interrupted bands; the distance between the medullary rays 
equal to the transverse diameter of the pores. 

North-east moist and intermediate zones : Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Bias to 
Assam, eastern part of Central India, from the Gan^s to the Godaveri, extending 
westward to the longitude of Mandla, with an outlying patch on and around the 8an£ 
stone hiUs of the Pachmarhi Range. 

The wood of the M tree has concentric rings, which we at present assume to 
correspond to one year's growth. There are a few cases on record in which the wood of 
young trees (up to 15 years) has been found to have a number of rings corresponding 
to the age of the tree. But sufficient proof to sup^rt the assumption lias not yet been 
collected. Assuming, however, that the concentric rings are annual, the following 
information is available regarding the rate of growth of sal. 

In 1873 Mr. Fisher examined 40 s41 trees in the Pantan Reserve, E&mrup district, 
Assam : 5 trees of 6 feet in girth had, on an average, 10 rin^ per inch of radius ; 
20 trees of 4 feet 6 inches g^rUi had an average of 9*7 rings per men ; and 15 trees of 
8 feet girth had 11 rings per inch. The ring^ were counted on lengths of radius, from 
the centre, of 2*86, 5*73, 8*6 and 11 '5 inches respectively, corresponding to a girth of 
wood only of 18, 36, 54 and 72 inches. 

In 1874 he examined 32 trees in the Balipara Bieserve, Darrang district, Assam : 
10 trees of 1 foot 6 inches g^rth gave an average of 38 rings, or 13 ring^ per inch 
of radius ; 10 trees of 3 feet girth gave 61 rings, or 10*6 rings per inch of radius ; 
10 trees of 4 feet 6 inches girth gave 92 rings, or 10*7 rings per inch ; 1 tree of 
5 feet 7 inches girth gave 110 rings, or 10*3 rings per inch ; and 1 tree of 6 feet 
girth gave 122 rings, or 10*6 rings per inch of radius. 

In 1875 he examined 20 trees in the Sidli forests, Go&lpara district, 
Assam : 3 trees of 4 feet 6 inches girth gave an average of 89 rings, or 10*3 rings 
per inch radius ; and 17 trees of 3 feet girth gave 50 rings, or 8*8 rings per inch radius. 
The rings were counted in the same manner as in 1873. 

In 1876 he examined 11 trees in the same forests : 4 trees of 4 feet 6 inches ^^h 
gave 76 rings, or 8*8 rings per inch of radius ; 7 trees of 3 feet gii-th gave 51 nngs, 
or 8*8 rings per inch. 

In 1877 he examined 17 trees in the same forests : 1 tree 6 feet in girth gave 103 
rings or 9 rings per inch of radius ; 1 tree 4 feet 6 inches in girth gave 96 rings, or 11 
rings per inch of radius ; 13 trees of 3 feet in girth gave 51*5 rings, or 8*9 rings per 
inch 01 radius ; and 2 trees of 1 foot 6 inches girth gave 26 rings or 9*1 rings per inch. 

The rings were counted in the same manner in each case. The result of the detailed 
counting oi the rings was as follows : — 





•s 


Rinf^ counted on a length of 
radius from centre, correspond^ 


LOCIUTT. 


Number 
trees, 


iug to a girth (wood only) of 




18" 


36" 


54," 


72" 


PanUn (on the hill) 


22 


30 


66 


82 


115 


M (in the plsini) ...... 


18 


82 


66 


»6 


1-^6 


Balipan 

Sidlf, 1876 


82 


88 


61 


92 


116 


20 


28 


62 


88 


• •• 


„ 1876 


11 


26 


61 


76 


« ■• 


• 1877 


17 


26 


61 


72 


90 




120 


30 


66 


83 


112 



86 DTTEBOCAllPEiB. [ Skofea, 

On an average the number of rings per incli of radius is 10, and it will be noticed 
that the annual increments are exceedingly uniform. A tree grows :— 

up to 18 inches girth (wood only) in 30 years, 
from 18 to 36 „ „ „ in 26 „ 

„ 36 to 64 „ „ „ in 27 „ 

„ 64 to 72 „ „ „ in 29 „ 

In the Oudh forests a different result has been obtained. When the first proposals 
were made in 1863 to regulate the working of the forests of the Kheri division, the 
following was assumed as Qie mean rate of growth :— 

Girth 18 inches, age 16 years. 

»» 04 „ „ OU If 

M 72 » »» 80 „ 

Subsequent data seeming to indicate a somewhat slower rate, it was estimated in 
1868, in order to settle the number of trees to be cut over in 1868 and 1869, that a 
girth of 64 inches would be attained in 66 years, and a girth of 72 inches in 95 
years. 

In September 1869, Mr. Forrest examined 60 logs cut in the Newal Khar sub- 
division of the Kheri forests ; these logs had a mean girth of 6 feet 3 inches and gave 
on an average 4*79 rinffs per inch of radius. Again in 1877 a sal tree about 16 or 17 
years old was examined by Captain Wood, and at 1 foot from the base, where the ^rth 
was 1 foot 10 inches, it was found that an inch of radius contained 4*80 rings. 
Thus, supposing we take 6 rings to the inch as indicating the average rate of growth, 
the trees examined in Oudh would have attained a e irth of 6 feet in 57 years, which, 
it wHl b^ seen, is about one-half the time which uie trees examined by Mr. Fisher in 
the Duars required to attain the same size. 

In the Central Provinces the counting of rings has given a mean between Bengal 
and Oudh. In 1867, Captain Douglas examined 13 stumps in the Bijeragogarh 
forests; their mean girth at 17 inches from the ground was 5 feet 3 inches, and the 
average number of rings per inch of radius was 6*6. In 1874 Mr. Fernandez examined 
a single stump in the same forests, and 7*2 rin^s were counted per inch of radius. 
The mean of tne results of these countings is 6'86 nngs per inch, which would place 
the age of a tree 6 feet in girth at 78 years. Subsequent observations in the Ban jar 
Valley forest, Mandla district give a mean of 5 to 8 rings per inch and tend to 
confinn this rate of growth. 

The following cultivated trees of known age were measured by Mr. Brandis 
in 1863; 

Saharanpur, and Eastern Jumna Canal 13 years, girth 27 inches (average of 33 trees). 

M M » ^ >» »» 04r5 „ 

n ft f* "5 „ „ 79y m 

Calcutta • . . • . 26 „ » 69 „ (one tree). 

The weight of a cubic foot of seasoned wood is generally found to vary between 
60 and 60 1m. The average of the experiments recorded below is 59 lbs., but while 
Baker's experiments (85) give an average of 61*6 lbs., Brandis' experiments (114) give 
only 53*6 lbs. as the average. The average of the 13 specimens weighed in 1878, 
omitting the last, is 59 lbs., but this includes unseasoned or omy partially seasoned wood ; 
the average weight of the Garhwal (O 204) and Mandla (C 173)8pecimens, which were 
thoroughly seasoned, is 51 lbs. Clifford gives 66 lbs. as the weight of s41 when perfectly 
dry ; 64 to 56 lbs. may therefore be considered as the average weight of seasoned s41. 

The transverse strength has been tested by numerous experiments. The value of 
P as determined by Brandis, Baker and others, ranges from 648 to 939, the mean 
value being 790. llie following abstract shews the results of all the best experiments 
on this timber. 



Skorea. ] 



DIPTBROCARPE^. 



37 



fSxperiment by whom 
conducted. 


Year. 


Wood whence procured. 


No. of ex- 
periments. 


Site of bar. 


• 

.a 


Value of 
P. 










Ft. Ins. 


Ins. 






Brandis. 


> « < 




1864 


Bengal (Morung) 




28 


6 x 2 > 


c 2 


67 


806 


«* 










n 


»i » • • 




8 


6 2 


U 


66 


847 


M 










n 


M t» * • 




20 


2 1 


1 


60 


746 


W 










1865-66 


»l » • • 




11 


8 1 


1 


66 


010 


n 










n 


H n • • 




14 


2 1 


1 


40 


602 


m 










M 


„ (Durbhunga). 




13 


6 2 


2 


61 


708 


m 










n 


n » • • 




12 


6 2 


u 


64 


791 


M 










n 


>( H • • 




8 


8 1 


1 


66 


884 


Baker 










1829 


^ (Morung) 




31 


7 2 


2 


69 


778 


w 










n 


f> w • • 




64 


6 2 


2 


64 


799 


» 










n 


M f» • 




24 


8 1 


li 


t ■• 


803 


N 










•• 


» » • 




6 


7 2 


2 


• •• 


829 


ft 










»• 


Bengal 




9 


7 2 


2 


61 


717 


(• 










M 


fi • . • 




3 


s l\ 


1 


• • • 


868 


W 










M 


•f ... 




18 


2 1 


1 


• •• 


823 


It 










M 


Oorakhpur 




10 


6 2 


2 


62 


810 


t> 










n 


PillbWt . 




6 


7 2 


2 


62 


682 


Campbel 










1831 


Morung (seasoned) . 




4 


6 2 


2 


66 


870 


» 










M 


„ (unseasoned 


) . 


4 


6 2 


2 


66 


863 


»> 










» 


Gorakhpur „ 




1 


6 2 


2 


66 


884 


Skinner, 


No.] 


13S 






1862 


Northern India 




« « ■ 






65 


880 


Kjd 


• 








1831 


Morung . 




1 


2 1 


1 


54 


820 


Conningham 








18M 


Owalior . 




3 


2 1 


1 


66 


1,097 


WalHch . 








1 •• 


India and Nepal 




8 






47 


• «• 


Bmjthies 






1878 


Many locaUties (See list) 


13 






69 


• •• 



The following is a summary of Mr. Clifford's remarks about s&l in his Memoran- 
dum on the Timber of Bengal : 

The inherent qualities of s&l render it a yery difficult wood to season ; it warps 
and splits in drying, and even when thorooenly seasoned, it absorbs moisture with 
avidity in wet weather, increasing l-24th in oufk, and correspondingly in weight. 
During the process of seasoning it dries with great rapidity on the surface, while 
beneath it remains as wet as when first cut, and evaporation goes on afterwards with 
extreme slowness. The effect of this peculiarity is to cover the surface all over with 
superficial flaws from unequal shrinkage. With proper precautions, however, it can 
be made to dry slowly, and under these circumstances it has been found by numerous 
experiments that the ratio of drying is i of an inch annually all round the piece of 
wood. 841, when once thoroughly seasoned, stands almost without a rival, as a 
timber, for strength, elasticity and durability, which qualities it retains without being 
sensibly affected, for an immense length of time. 

Numerous varieties of sal timber are supposed to exist. Mr. Clifford, in the 
pamphlet above quoted, says : " There are two descriptions of sal brought to Calcutta ; 
they are known as * Morung ' and * Durbhunga;' one from the forests to the east of 
the Coosiy the other from the forests to the west. The Morung sal is the best ; it is 



88 



DIPTEBOCASPRfi. 



[ Siorea. 



very straight-gmined, clean and free from knots; it seasons more kindly, and is 
stronger than the Durbhungah 841 ; only a practised eye can distinguish one 841 from 
the other." Many of these supposed varieties, however, exist in imagination 
only, e,ff,, the two Buxa pieces E 3137 and E 3138, the Nepalese sawyers say that one 
is a softer and redder wood than the other, but we can distinguish no puch difference 
between them. 

S41 is the timber which in Northern India is the most extensively used. It is in 
constant request for piles, beams, planking and railing of bridges ; for beams, door 
and window-posts of houses ; for gun-carriages ; the body of carts (not the wheels, for 
which it is unsuited and for which sissti or even saj is better) ; and above all, for 
railway sleepers, the yearly consumption of which reaches some lakhs of cubic feet. 
It is used in the hills of Northern Bengal, where it is found, perhaps, of the largest size 
now available, for making canoes. Owing to its not being floatable, difficulty is 
experienced in most 841 forests in getting the timber out of the forests in log. The 
difficulty is, however, partially overcome by floating the logs either with the assistance 
of boats or with floats of bamboos or light woods, such as semul (Bombax 
malabaricum). 

When tapped, the tree exudes large quantities of a whitish, aromatic, transparent 
resin (Idl dhuna), which is collected and sold. It is used to caulk boats and ships and 
as incense. " In some places in the Upper Tista forests, large pieces, often 30 to 40 
cubic inches in size, are found in the ground at the foot of the trees." — Gamble^ Large 
extents of forest, chiefly in Central India, such as Ohota Nagpore, the Central Provinces 
and the country between the Mahanadi and Godavari, are often ruined by this practice 
of tapping the trees to obtain the resin. The seed is eaten by the Sonthals, especially 
in time of scarcity, it is roasted and is usually eaten mixed with the flowers of the 
Mohwa {Bcusia latifolia). 

Scarcely any tree of the Indian forests has such a power of natural reproduction as 
841. The seed ripens at the commencement of the rains ; and often germinating even 
while yet on the tree, the heavv seed is scattered around and at once produces a crop 
of seedling^. Without light, however, these seedlings soon die off, so that cuttingps in 
s41 forest where fire protection is assured, might be heavy. But, usually, scarcely 
have the seedlings reached one vear in age when they are destroyed by jungle fires, 
but so great is the vitality of the plant, that the roots of the stems destroyed again at 
once put out fresh shoots, and this happens often year after year, so that at the root of the 
tree a large hard ball of wood and bark is formed. With fire-protection, however, the 
regeneration of s41 forests is almost a certainty ; the seedlings in a few years kill 
down the grass and plants of slower srrowth which surround them, and form forests, 
often of very considerable extent, almost to the exclusion of other species of tree. 
The s41 tree coppices, especially when young, but not under all circumstuioes. 



O 204 

O 2990. 

O 873. 

O 388. 

O 1215. 

O 2980. 

of ^2^^- 

^11211. 

O 1213. 

O 1214. 

C 173. 

C 1235. 

E 497. 

E 702. 

E 2322. 

E 3137. 

E 3138. 

E 635. 

E 1440. 



Garhwal (1868) .... 
„ (1874) .... 
Ramganga Valley, Kumaun, 1,800 ft. 
Oudh 



91 



J 



t» 



» 



(section^of fire-damaged tree) 
(sapling sections) 






(sections of shoot) 

(butt ends) 
Mandla, C. P. (1871) . 
Gumsdr, Madras , 

Sukna Hills, Darjeeling, 1,500 ft. 
Tista Valley „ , 

Darjeeling Terai . 
Buxa Reserve, Western Ddars 



» 



»» 



Eastern Diiars, Assam 
Mishmi Hills (Griffith, 1836) 



(The identification of this last specimen is doubtful; 



11m. 

53 

59 
69 
60 
59 



••• 



49 
64 
58 
64 
54 
62 
61 
53 
47 



resin, and the medullary rays are finer and more numerous than in s41.) 



the pores are not filled with 



Skorea. ] diptebocarpks. 89 

4. S. obtnsa, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 306; Kurz i. 118. Vera. 
Thitj/a, Burm. 

A large tree. Bark \ inch thick, grej, with deep longitudinal 
fissares. Heartwood the colour of sal, very hard and durable. Pores 
moderate to large, often filled with resin ; each pore surrounded by a 
narrow white ring. Medullary rays moderately broad to broad, numerous, 
joined by short irregular transverse bars or lines of lighter coloured 
tissue. The wood of this tree is more even-grained than that of either 
sal or engyin. 

£d^ forests of Burma. 

Weight : according to Skinner, No. 115, 68 lbs. ; Brandis' Burma List of 1862, 

No. 17, gives 57 lbs. ; our specimens vary from 52 to 67 lbs., averaging 60 lbs. Skinner 

gives P = 730. The wood is much valued on account of its durabihty ; it is used for 

canoes and in building, and is valuable for tool-handles and planes. 

]b0. 

B 555. Prome, Burma 64 

B 556. „ „ 67 

B 2973. „ „ 52 

B 283. Burma (1867) 56 

6. S. Tninbuggaia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 617; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 306 ; 
Beddomexxvi; t. 5. Vatica Tumbuggaia, W. and A. Vern. Cangiij congo, 
tambugai, tamiagum, Tarn.; TAambd, googgilapu-karra, Tel.; Fa7i6oga, 
Mai. 

A large tree. Wood smooth^ harder than that of s^l^ but similar in 
stmcture. Medullary rays shorter and somewhat unequal. Concentric 
lines more numerous and more distinctly marked. 

Intermediate and south dry 7X)nes. Cuddapah and North Arcot Districts. 

Weight : Baker gives 68 lbs. ; Skinner, No. 133, 58 ; while our s^cimens give 67 lbs. 
Baker gives P varying from 902 to 996*; Skinner 980. This is also, probably. 
Skinner s No. 137 * Congoe' ; weight 64 lbs., P = 892. The wood is used for house- 
building, particularly for door frames and posts and for rafters. It gives a dammer, 
which is used as a substitute for pitch and for burning in temples. 

Ibi. 

D 1062. Cuddapah 66 

D 1078. North Arcot 68 

6. S. siamensis^ Miq. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 804. Pentacme siani' 
etuis f Kurz i. 119. Vern. Etigpn^ Burm. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark i inch tbick, dark grey, with deep 
vertical fissures. Heartwood very hard, very heavy and cross-grained ; 
in this respect similar to sal, which it also resembles in colour. Pores 
moderate-sized, rarely large, sometimes in groups and filled with resin, 
enclosed in narrow white rings and joined by fine, wavy, concentric 
lines. Medullary rays fine, numerous, equidistant. 

£n^ forests of Burma. 

Weight : Brandis' Burma List of 1862, No. 16, gives 55 lbs. ; our specimens 
average 54 lbs. The wood is much prized on account of its durability, it is used for 
house-building, bows and other purposes. It gives a red resin. 

lbs. 

B 2507. Burma (1862) 48 

B 3127. Kva-eng, Attaran Valley, Burma 69 

B 2d72. Prome, Burma 46 

4. HOPEA, Roxb. 

Large, glabrous or hoary tomentose, resinous trees. Eight species, of which 5 are 
South Indian and 3 Burmese. H, longtfolia, Dyer; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 309 (H.parvi' 



40 DiPTEROCABPB^. [ Hopea. 

flora, Beddome rxvii., in part) is a lai^e tree of Tinnevelly. JET. Wtahtiana, Wall. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 309 ; beddome t. 96. Vem. Kalhow, kiralboffhi, Kan. ; Kongy 
Tinnevelly, is a large tree of the Western Ghats often forming coppice woods and 

S 'elding a good timbKer. H. glabra, W. and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 309 {M. J^htiana, 
sddome t. 96, inpart), is a tree of South India ; and H, racophhxa. Dyer (E^ea sp., 
Beddome xxvii) is a tree of the Wynaad with hard, heavy, durahle timber. H. ohlongu 
folia. Dyer; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 309; Kurz i. 121, and R, Qriffithii, Kuiz i. 122; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 310, are trees of Tenasserim. 

Heartwood yellowish brown^ hard^ smoothj even-grained ; seasons 
well. 

1. H. Odorata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 609; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 808; 
Kurz i. 120. ff, eglandulosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 611. Vern. TAingan, 
Burm.; JRtmdd, And. 

A large evergreen tree. Bark i inch thiek^ dark, with deep longi- 
tudinal furrows. Wood yellow or yellowish brown, hard, close and even- 
grained. Pores moderate-sized and large, less numerous than in sal. 
Medullary rays short, moderately broad, with a few intermediate fine 
rays, very prominent, joined by numerous white transverse lines. The 
rays are visible on a radial section as long straight bands, giving the 
wood a beautifully mottled appearance. 

Eastern moist zone. Scattered in evergreen forests of British Bnrma and the 
Andaman Islands. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined hy the following 
experiments :— 

Weight. Value of P. 

Baker in 1889, 4 experimente with Tayoy wood 7' x 2" x 2" gave . 61 lbs. 839 

Skinner in 1862, No. 80, ... ... Bnrma „ „ . 46 „ 706 

Bennett in 1872, No. 6, „ „ Andaman m >f • 68 „ 737 

Wallich ... ... „ „ Martaban „ ... ... „ . 88 „ 

Brandls in 1862, No. 14» „ Bnrma „ h • 46 „ 

Bmythies in 1878, 8 „ „ „ and Andaman wood „ . 60 », 

Very durable, e.g., the specimens brought by Wallich from Tavov in 1828, which, 
though now 60 years old, are ^rfcctly sound and good. Boats made of it are said 
to last 20 years. It is the chief timber tree of Southern Tenasserim. It is used for 
house-building and canoes; also considered good for solid cart wheels. It gives a 
yellow resin, i^vhich, according to Major Protheroe, is used by the Andamanese, mixed 
with beeswax and red ochre, to make a wax used to fasten their spear and arrow- 
heads. 

Ihfl. 

B 282. Burma (1867) 44 

Jd Zo5* „ ff ••••.....M* 

B 546. Martaban 63 

B 2509. Burma (1862) 43 

B 2698. Tavoy (Wallich, 1828) 62 

B 2714. „ „ 49 

B 2716. „ „ „•....•.• 66 

B 611. Andaman Islands 61 

B 2201. „ „ (Major Ford, 1866) 64 

2. H. parviflora, Beddome t. 7. Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 308. Vern. Kiral 
boghif tirpu, Kan. ; Inibogam, Malabar. 

A large tree. Wood brown, hard and close-grained. Pores small and 
moderate-sized, numerous. Medullary rays moderately broad, prominent^ 
generally bent where they touch the pores, uniform and equidistant. 

Western moist zone. Malabar and South Kanara, up to 3,600 ft. 
Weight, 62 to 63 lbs. 



VuUria. ] diptkrocarpejb. 41 

The wood is of good qoality, though scarcely known ; it is valued in South Kanara 
for building temples and may be found useful for sleepers. 

IIm- 

W745. South Kanara 62 

W769. „ 63 

6. VATERIA, Linn. 

Only one species is indigenous in India, though fourteen are dvscribed from 
Ceylon. 

1. V. indica. Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 313 ; Roxb. FI. Ind. ii. 602. 
V. malabarica, Blume ; Beddome t. 84. The Piney Varnish or Indian 
Copal Tree. Veni. Piney maram, dkup maram, vallay iungiliam, 
iondrieam, Tamil; Dnpa maram, Mupa, paini, munda dknp, Kan.; 
Dmpada, Tel. ; Fajfani, paini mara, vella iondriiam, Mai. ; ffal, Cingh. 

A large evergreen tree^ bark whitish. Sapwood white with a tinge 
of red ; heartwood grey^ roughs moderately hard^ porous. Pores small and 
moderate-sized, often in groups. Medullary rays fine and broad, very 
prominent on all vertical sections, while on a radial section they appear 
as rough plates with white shining fibres between them. The dis- 
tance between the broad rays is generally greater than the transverse 
diameter of the pores. 

Western moist zone. Western Ghats from Kanara to Travancore, ascending to 
4.000ft 

Weight 411b8. per cubic feet. 

Wood not much in request, occasionally used for canoes, for co£Sns and the masts 
of native vessels. It gives an excellent varnish resembling copal. 

ibt. 

W 747. South Kanara 41 

W 1187. .. „ 41 

6. DOONA, Thwaites. 
A genus of Ceylon trees, 10 species. 

1. D. zeylanicay Thwaites Euum. 34; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 311 ; Bed- 
dome t. 97. Vern. Doon, Cingh. 

A large tree. Bark rough and cracked. HeaHwood the colour of 
8£1, moderately haixl. Pores large, often subdivided. Medullary rays 
fine, uniform and equidistant, the distance between the rays less than 
the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Central Provinces of Ceylon, up to 4,000ft 

Weight, according to A. Mendis, 29 lbs. Wood used for housebuilding. The tree 

gives a large quantity of colourless gum resin, which, dissolved in spirits of wine or 

turpentine, makes an excellent varnish. 

Ibii. 

No. 26, Ceylon Collection 29 



Order XYII. MALVACE^. 

An Older of which in India about 22 genera are found, mostly herbs or small under- 
shrubs, with ten genera of trees or large shrubs. Few of them are valuable for their 
timber, though the wood of Bombax malaharicum is extensivelv used for temporary 
constructions and boxes. Many are valuable for their fibres, and particularly Adanso' 
nia and Hibiscus. The Cotton Plant, Oossypium, belongs to this family, only one 
species of the genus, G. Stocksii, Mastert*, a straggling shrub of the limestone rocks on 
tae coast of Sind, being indigenous in India. 



42 MALVACE^. [Hibiscus. 

The t«n genera belong to two Tribes, viz. : — 

Tribe I. — Hibiscess . . . Decaschistia, Direll^tyles, Hibiscus 

and Thespesia. 
„ II. — BombacesB . . . Kydia, Adansonia, Bombax, Erioden" 

dron^ Cullenia and Durio. 

Decaschistia contains 2 shrubs of Southern India. Dicellostyles jujubifolia* 
Benth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 333 ; Gamble 10. Vem. KubindS, Nep. ; Dantaglar, Lepcha' 
is a small white-flowered tree of the hills of Sikkim and Bhutan. Adansonia 
digitata, ltmi\.\liooV.Y\. Ind. i. 348; Roxb. Fl. ind. iii. 164; Beddome xxix; 
Brandis 30, the Baobab Tree. Vern. Gorak imli. Hind.; Kalp briksh, Ajmere, 
Delhi ; Paparapulia, Tam., was introduced from tropical Africa and is now cultivated 
here and there, chiefly in South India and Bengal, but occasionally as far north as 
Gurgaon (see * Indian Forester,' Vol. iv. i. p. 102, for description of a tree at Tilpat, 
measuring 22 feet in girth and rising 50 feet to the first branch). Brandis mentions 
3 trees at Deogarh in the Central Provinces, respectively measuring 16, 22 and 40 feet 
in girth, and there are one or two good-sized trees at Calcutta and Barrack- 
pore. It is being experimentally planted at Calcutta and in the Sundarbans ; as, 
were it capable of easy cultivation, its rapid growth, valuable fibre and fruit would 
make the extension of its growth desirable ; as yet, however, it has not succeeded, 
Eriodendron anfrcuituosum, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 350 ; Beddome xxx. {E. arientale, 
St.eud. ; Kurz i. 131. Bombax pent'indrum, Roxb. FL Ind. iii. 165) the White 
Cotton ']'re\ Vem. Safed simal, senibal, hatian, katan. Hind. ; Shwet simul, Beng. ; 
Ilavam, Tam. ; Buruga, pur, kadami, Tel. ; Shamieula, Mar. ; Pania, Mai. ; Imbiil, 
Cingh., is a tall deciduous soft-wooded tree of India and Burma, often planted. Skinner, 
No. 67, gives its weight as 30 lbs., and P = 400. Cullenia excelsi, Wight; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 350; Beddome xxx. Vem. Malaikonjiy aini-pillao, Tam.; Kattu-bodde, 
Cingh., is a tall white-wooded tree of the Westem Gh4t8 and Ceylon, having a 
large globose, spiny fmit. Durio Zibethinus, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 361 ; Roxb. 
Fl Ind. iii. 399 ; Kurz i. 132. Vem. Duyin, Burm. ; Durian, Malay, is the well known 
and much prized fruit tree, yielding the Durian or Civet-Cat fruit. It is wild in 
South Tenasserim, but is cultivated as far north as Moulmein. 

Wood generally soft, a few species with small dark coloured heart- 
wood. Pnies moderate-sized to large. Medullary rays fine or mode- 
rately bro.id. Kydia cali/cina and Hibiscus syriacus have transverse 
bars across tiie rays. 

1. HIBISCUS, Medik. 

A genns of herbs, shrubs, climbers or small trees. The 9 Indian woody species 
consist of 2 small trvjes, 2 shrub«, 1 climber and 6 introduced garden shrubs. 
ff. fragrans, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 195. Vem. Kinurlur, Beng., is a small tree of 
Assam and Cachar. H.mdcrophyllus, Roxb.; Kurzi. 126 {H. setosus, Roxb. Fl. Ind, 
iii. 194) Vera. Kachia udal. kajtyapdia Beng. ; 5Ao, rfayftan, Magh ; Pc^frooit, Burm. 
(Weight, 27 to 28 lbs. per cubic foot, according to Wallich) a ^mall handsome, krge-leaved 
tree of Eastem Bengal, Chittagong and Burma, said by Kurz to have a rather heavy 
wood, and to give a good rope-maUing fibre. H. sea nd ens, J^oih. Fl. Ind. iii. 200; 
Kurz i. 127 ; Gamble 10, is a large climbitig shrab of Eastem Bengal from Sikkim 
to Chittagonff ; and ff. collinus, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 198. Vern. Kandagang, Tel., 
a large shrub of the Eastern Madras coast. H. rosa-sinensis, Linn., the Shoe 
Plant. Vern. Juwa, oru, Beng. ; Khouitgyan, Burm. with brilliant, large, red 
flowers ; H. tricmpis. Banks ; I£. tnutabi'lis, Linn. ; and H. syriacus, Linn. Vern. 
Chirhul, are all shrubs which have been introduced and are now cultivated in gardens. 

!• H-tiliaceus, Linn.; Hook Fl. Ind. i. 343; Roxb. PL lud. iii. 
192; Beddome xxix ; Kurz. i. 126. Vern. Bola, chelwa, Beng. ; Thengben, 
t'limhan, Burm. ; Btligobel, b-llipatfa^ Cin<»:h. 

Pores very numerous, small and moderate -si zed, often subdivided. 
Medullary rays fine and moderately broad, not very j)roininent. 



Coasts of India. Burma and Ceylon. 
. "Weijjht, 35 to 38 lbs. per cubic foot. 



Tif'jtpejfia, 1 maivace^. 43 

The wood is not used, except as fuel. If j^ives a fibre wliicli is very extensively 
used in Bengal for rough ropes. 

E 405. Sundarhans 35' 

No. 7. Ceylon Collection (marked Paritium tiliaccum) , . 38 

2. THESPESIA, Corr. * 

Two species. T. Lampas, Dalz. and Gibs. ; Hook. PI. Ind. i. 346 ; Kurz i. 
128; Gamhle 10 {Hibiscus Lampcu and tetraloeularis, Roxb. PL Ind. iii. 197, 198) 
Yem. Bonhapaskf Ass. (Wallich) ; Kondapatti, Tel., is a shrub found in most 
parte of India, whose wood, according to Eyd, weighs 29 lbs. and P = 407. 

1. T. popidneay Corr.; Hook. PI. Ind. i. 84»5; Beddome t. 63; 
Kurz i. 128. Hiditeus populneus, Willd.; Roxb. PL Ind. iii. 190. The 
Portia Tree or Tulip Tree. Vem. Parsipu, Hind.; ForesA, paras/k, 
Benof. ; Porii, purasa, portia, pursa, pursutig, puvarasam, Tam. ; Gan- 
^arajfa, Tel.; Bendi, Quz., Mar.; Sure^a, Cingh. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Sapwood soft ; wood pale reddish 
with small, dark coloured, hard heartwood. Pores moderate-sized, scanty, 
subdivided, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays fine, uniform, the 
distance between two rays generally equal to the transverse diameter of 
the pores. 

Coast forests of India, Burma and the Andaman Islands. Planted throughout 

Weight, ' Skinner, No. 130, and A. Mendis give 49 lbs. ; our specimens give 50 lbs. 
Skinner gives P = 716, and A. Mendis 708. 

Wo^ durable : it is used in South India for gun stocks, boats, cart and carriage 
makins^ and for furniture ; in Burma for carts and furniture. It yields a good fibre 
from the bark, and a yellow dye from the capsules. 

Ibt. 

C 1050. Gnzerat 50 

£ 2488. Calcutta 

B 2470. Andaman Islands (Kurz, 1866) 

No. 51. Salem Collection 53 

No. 28. Salem Collection (marked Eugenia cargophyllirfolia) . 48 

No. 80. Ceylon Collection . / 49 

8. KYDIA, Roxb. 

Besides the species described below, K. glabrescens. Mast. ; Hook. PI. Ind. i, 
348, is a tree of Bhutan and Assam. 

1. E. Cidycina, Boxb. ; Hook. PL Ind. i. 348 ; Beddome xxviii ; 
Brandis 29; Kurz i. 124; Gamble 10. K. calycina and fraterna, Roxb. 
PI. Ind. iii. 188, 189. Vern. Poia, pula, puli paiha, poidri, Hind.; 
Barranga, bAoti, C. P.; Kubind^, Nep. ; Sedangtaglar^ Lepcha ; Mahow, 
Mechi ; Boldobai, Giro ; Kopdsia, Uriya ; Poiri, pandiii, peddapolri, 
pedda kunji, Tel. ; Burui, bosAa, Gondi ; Bendi, Kan. ; Warung, Mar. ; 
Dwabote, Burm. 

A small tree. Bark i inch thick, grey, peels oflF in irregular flakes. 
Wood white, soft ; no heartwood. Annual rings marked by white con- 
centric lines. Pores scanty, moderate-sized, often oval and subdivided. 
Medullary rays short, fine to broad, numerous, joined by white trans- 
verse bars, and in this respect resembling Anonacea) ; on a radial section 
distinctly visible as long straight bands. 

Common in the forests of all parts of India and Burma, except the arid region. 
Qrowth fast, 4 to 8 rings per inch of radius. 



44 MALVACE-K. [ BombajT. 

Weight, 40 to 45 lbs. per cubic foot according to Brandis ; our specimens give 38 lbs. 

as an average. The wood is used for house- building, ploughs and oars, and for carving. 

The inner bark gives a fibre. 

lb«. 

C 1177. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 37 

3164. Saharanpur 45 

4. BOMBAX, Linn. 

1. B. malabaricum, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 840 ; Beddome t. 82 ; 
Brandis 31 ; Kurz i. 130; Gamble 10. B.hepiaphyllum, Cav.; Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. iii. 167. The Cotton Tree. Vern. Simbal, Hazara; S^ ir Ian, Snilej ; 
Semul, skembal, semur, pagun, somr, Hind.^ Ben^. ; Bouro, Uriya ; BolcAu, 
QAyo ; Sungli, Lepcha ; BUrga, butgu, buraga, Tel. ; Illavam, puld, Tarn. ; 
KatU'itnb4l, Cingh. ; Wallaiki, Gondi; Kalseori, Bhil ; Lapaing, Magh; 
Leipan, Burm. 

A yery large deeiduous tree^ with branches in whorls, spreading hori- 
zontally^ and stem with buttresses at base. Bark grey, when young with 
conical prickles with corky base, when old with long^ irregular, yertical 
cracks. Wood white when fresh cut^ turning dark on exposure, very 
soft, perishable ; no heartwood ; no annual rings. Pores scanty, yery 
large, often oval and divided into compartments. Medullary rays fine 
to broad, numerous^ not prominent. Pores prominent on a vertical 
section. 

Throughout India and Burma. 

Growt£ fast. Our specimens shew 3 to 7 rings, averaging 4| per inch of radius. 

Weight : 23 to 24 lbs. acoordmg to Brandis, For. Fl., 28 lbs. Burma List of 1862, 
No. 5 ; our specimens vary from 17 to 32 lbs. tJie average bein^ nearly 23 lbs., the 
Bengal and Assam specimens being lighter than those from the Cenbid Provinces. 
The value of P is between 642 and 697 (Cunningham). The wood is not durable, 
except under water, when it lasts tolerably well ; it is used for planking, packing cases 
and tea-boxes, toys, scabbards, fishing floats, coffins, and the lining of wells. In 
Bengal and Burma the trunk is often hollowed out to make canoes. It gives a brown 
gum used in native medicine, regarding which Captain Campbell says : " The collec- 
tion of Semul gum commences in March and is continued till June ; it sells in the 
Kumaun Bhabar at one anna per seer, and is used as a medicine ; it is not exported 
from Kumaun." The cotton which surrounds the seeds is employed to stuff pillows 
and quilts. 

Tne Semul tree seeds very freely every year, and seedlings oome up abundantly 

and grow veiy rapidly. It is easily reproduced by cuttings. 

lbs. 
jr 4DO. Ajmere . • . . • • • . . • ... 

C 201. Mandla, Central Provinces (1871) 32 

C 1117. Chanda „ „ 31 

E 679. Bamunpokri, DarjeeHng Teiai 23 

E 2323. „ „ „ 17 

£ 1232. Sibs^gar, Assam 28 

£ 1432. Assam 20 

£ 1961. Chittagong 21 

B 3117. Burma (1862) 24 

No. 14. Salem Collection . 20 

2. B. insigne, Wall. ; Hook. Fl Ind. i. 849 ; Kurz i. 180. Vern. 
Semnl, /hula, Beng.; Sailu, Magh. 

A large tree, trunk without prickles. Structure similar to that of 
B. malabaricnm, but pores smaller and more scanty. 
Chittagong, Burma and the Andaman Islands. 



StereuHa.'] stercui.iacej:. 45 

Weight, 31 Ibfl. per cabic foot. The wood is more durable than that of B. mala' 
baricum; the specimen from the Andamans had been ]2 years in Calcutta in the 
roQghy and was <mly slightly discoloured on being cut up. 

lbs. 

B 2215. Andaman Islands (M^or Ford, 1866) .... 31 



Order XVIII. STEECULIACE^. 

An Order containing 15 Indian genera of herbs, shrubs, climbers or trees. Of 
these genera, three are herbs or (Melkania) nndershrubs, and the rest shrubs, erect 
or diimnng, and trees. The Order is divided into 6 Tribes, viz, : — 

Tribe I.— Stercnlien Sterculia and Heritiera, 

„ II. — Helicterese Reevesia, Kleinhovia, Helideres 

and Pierospermum* 

„ IIL — BriolieneflB JSrioleBna, 

„ lY. — DombeyesB • • . . . Melhania, 
M y. — Hermannie» .... Melochia, 

„ YI. — Buettneries .... Abroma, Ouazuma, Buettneria 

and Lepttmychia, 

Of the genera not here described, Beevesia contains two small trees : B. Wdllichii, 
Br. and JS. vubeseetUt Mast ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 364; Gamble 11, of Sikkim and the 
yhmia Hills. Kleinkovia HospUa, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 364; Rozb. Fl. Ind. iii. 
141 ; Beddome xzxiii, is a handsome tree commonly cultivated in the hotter regions of 
India. Fine specimens may be seen in avenues in Calcutta. Melochia velutina, &ddome 
xxzY., is a small tree of Burma and the Malay Archipelago, cultivated elsewhere in 
India. Abrofna awuita, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 375 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 156 ; 
Gamble 11. Yem. t/llat kumal, Beng., is a large shrub or small tree of Sikkim and the 
Khasia Hills, cultivated in other parts and yiel<ung a strong, white fibre. Guazuma 
iomemiosa. Ennth ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 375 ; Beddome 1. 107 ; Kurz i. 149. Yern. Budrak- 
tha, Tel. ; Tkavnpuche, Tam., is an American tree often planted in avenues, having a light 
brown wood used in Southern India for fui-niture and packing cases. According to 
Skinner, No 77, its weight is 32 lbs. per cubic foot, and P = 596. Buettneria contains 
8 species of small trees and climbers ; and Leptonychia (under Tiliacese in Beddome), two 
shrubs of Burma and the Western Gh4t8. The Cocoa Plant, Theobroma Cacao, Linn. 
belongs to this family, and has been grown in some parts of India and in Ceylon. 

The genera of this family have little in common as regards the struc- 
ture of their wood. The species of Stercwlia have a verj soft and light 
wood, that of Heritiera being very hard and heavy, while the wood of 
Eriolana and Pierospermum is intermediate between the two. 

1. STERCULIA, Linn. 

In the Flora Indica 22 species of this genus are described. Among these, 13 out 
of the 14 species described by Kurz occur, and there are also 4 Burmese, chiefly Tavoy, 
species not occurring in Kurz : total 17 Burmese species. Nine species are described from 
the north-eastern moist zone, and eight from the western moist zone and Southern 
India. Three occur in North- West and Central India. 

8. fcBtidat Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 354; Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 165 ; Beddome xxxi; 
Kun i. 135. Yern. Jangli'badam, Hind.; Pind/ri, Tam.; Ourapu-badam, Tel.; 
Hlfonpyoo, letkop, Burma, is a large evergreen tree of South India and Burma, 
with a light wood and edible seeds. According to Skinner, No. 118, the weight is 28 
lbs. and P = 464. S. guttata, W. and A. ; Kozb. Fl. Ind. iii. 148 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
i. 355 Beddome 1. 105 ; Yern. Kawili, Tam. ; is a common tree of Southern India 
whose bark yields a valuable cordage. 8. Boxburghii, Wall. ( 8. laneeafolia, Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. iii. 150), is a tree of the hiBs of l?ikkim and Assam, ascending to 6,000 ft. 8. 
BalanghaSf Linn. ; Beddome xxxii. {8. an^usttfolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 148 ; Kurz i. 
138) Yern. Cavalumt Mai , is a moderate-sized tree of the western coast. 8, alata, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 152; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 360; Beddome xxxii. ; Kurz i. 134; Gamble 
11. Yern. Tula, Beng. ; Muslini, Nep. ; Dodeli, Kan. ; JSangkyow, Magh ; Letkop, 
Burm., is a tall tree of Northern and Eastern Bengal, South India and Burma. 



46 STEUCULiACEiB. [Sfercul/'a. 

The wood is gpenerally light, soft, often spongy, with Inrge pores and 
moderately broad or broad medullary rays, which are very prominent on 
a radial section. 

1. S. nrens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 145 ; Hook, f 1. Ind. i. 855 ; Beddome 
xxxii ; Brandis 3?J ; Kurz i. 135. Vern. GWii, ^iiiii,, ^ular, tabsi, Unnku, 
iarrai, Hind. ; Odla, hatchanda, Ass. ; Tabsu, Tel. ; Vellay putali, Tam. ; 
HiUiiffn, pinoh, Gondi ; Takliy Kurku ; Karat, kandol, gwira, Mar. ; 
£alru, Ajmere ; Kalauri, Panch Mehals. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark 4 inch thick, very smooth, white or 
greenish grey, exfoliating in large thin irregular plates. Wood very 
soft, reddisi) brown with an unpleasant smell, with li^rhter coloured sap- 
wood. Prominent and regular concentric lines, which may possibly 
be annual rings. Pores large, often oval and subdivided, frequently 
filled with gum. Medullary rays moderately broad, on a radial section 
promimnt as long, dark, undulating bands, giving the wood a mottled 
and reticulate appearance ; the distance between the rays is larger than 
the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Ganges eastwards, Southern India and Burma. 

Weight, about 42 lbs. per cubic foot; Kyd gives for Assam wood : Weight 18 lbs., 
P = 108, but it seems prooable that Kyd's specimen was not this, but 8. villosa. 

Wood used to make native guitars and toys. It yields a gum called *Katila or 
*Katira* The seeds are roasted and eaten by Gonds and Kurkus in the Central Pro- 
vinces. Its bark gives a good fibre, and fine specimens of it from Berar were sent to 
the Paris Exhibition of 1878 (C. 984 from Bairagarh Reserve, Melghat.) 

lbs. 

P 471. Ajmere 35 

P 3220 Nagpahar, Ajmere ^ 

C 1102. Ahin, Central Provinces 39 

D 1088. Madura, Madras 51 

2. S. villosa, Roxb. PI. Ind. iii. 153 ; Hook. PI. Ind. i. 855 ; Beddome 
xxxii; Brandis 32; Kurz i. 136; Gamble 10. Vern. Poshtoa, Sutlej ; 
Vdaly udar. Hind. ; Oul-bodla, guUkandar, massn, Punjab ; KatiAlyem, 
Lepcha; Kudar, baringa, Oondi; Buti^ Kurku; Omak, odela, salua, 
Ass. ; Udare, Giro; Vake nar, ami, ani-nar, Tam. ; Satnbeing, Magh. 

A moderate-sized tree. Bark grey or brown. Wood grey, very 
soft, spongy. Annual rings prominent. Pores large, often sub- 
divided. Medullary rays moderately broad, harder than the white 
spongy tissue between them, joined by numerous transverse bars. On a 
radial section the pores and medullary rays are distinctly visible, giving 
the wood a reticulate and mottled appearance. 

Sub- Himalayan tract from the Indus eastwai'ds; common in forests throughout 
India and Burma. 

Growth fast, 3 to 6 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 16 to 22 lbs. per cubic foot. 
Wood not used. ' The tree is valuable on account of its fibre, which is coarse but strong. 
It is made into ropes and coarse bags, and in Bengal, Burma and Souih India into ropes 
and breastbands for dragging timber. Specimens were sent to the Paris Exhibition of 
1878 from many provinces, but especially from Bengal and from Berar (C 986, for 
Bairagarh Beserve, Melghit). It gives a white pellucid g^um which exudes copiously 
from cuts in the bark. It coppices freely, and is extremely difficult to extirpate iu 
oleariiigs. 

Ibn. 

£ 2324. Sivoke, Daigeeling Terai 22 

£ 620. Bamunpokn, Darjeeling Terai 15 

W 847. South Kauura . 20 



Stercvlia.'] STEncuuACKJ5. 47 

3. S. COCcinea, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 151; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 357; 
Kurz i. 137 ; Gamble 11. Vern. Sitio udal, Nep. ; Kador, Lepcha. 

A small evergreen tree, with smooth, light grey bark. Wood grey, 
spongy, extremely soft. Structure similar to that of S, urens. Trans- 
verse bars distinct. 

Eastern Himalaya, ascending to 6,000 feet, Assam, Khasia Hills, hills of 
Barm a. 

Weij^ht, 17 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Bark used for the same purposes as that of S, villosa, but less commonljr. 

Ibfl. 
E 573. Khooklong Forest, Darjeeling Terai 17 

4. S. COlorata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 146; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 859; 
Beddome xxxii ; Bran(Hs34; Kurz i. 138; Gamble 11. Vern. Bodtda, 
walena^ samarri, Hind. ; Moola, Beng. ; Siito udal, phirphiri, omra^ Nep .; 
Kanhlyem, Lepcha; Bolazong^ Garo ; Khowieyy pinj, Berar; Bidi-koi, 
Bombay; KaraidfTe].; fFeUskaw, Bnrm, ; Berdd, And. 

A moderate-sized tree. Bark grey. Wood grey, very soft. Struc- 
ture similar to that of S. urens, but medullary rays broader and shorter, 
and transverse bars distinct. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards. Central and South India, Burma 

and the Andaman Islands. 

Growth fast, 3 to 4 rin?8 per inch of radius. Weight, 24 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Bark used in rope-makmg. Fine specimens of the fibre were sent from Berar to 

the Paris Exhibition of 1878 (C 985. Bairagarh Reserve, Melgh&t). 

lbs. 

£ 1394. Chittagong 24 

2. HERITIERA, Blume. 

Contains 3 Indian trees, of which 2 are here described. They have simple 
leaves, scaly beneath or silvery white. Besides the two here described, H, JFotnes, 
Buch.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 363. (H minor, lioxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 142; Kurz. i. 141) is a 
tree of Sylhet, Chittagong, Arracau and the deltas of the Ganges and Irrawaddy. 
It has a red brown, strong wood, weighing 66 lbs. per cubic foot, and used for boats, 
bridges and house-building. 

Heartwood red, very hard. Numerous transverse bars between the 
medullary rays. 

1. H. littoralis, Dryand. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 363 ; Roxb. PI. Ind. 
iii. 142; Beddome xxxiii.; Kurz i. 14(». Vern. Sunder, sundri, Beng.; 
Penglai'kanazOf Burm. ; Mawtdd, And. 

A small gregarious evergreen tree. Bark dark grey, with longi- 
tudinal cracks. Sapwood white ; heartwood dark red, very hard, close- 
grained. Pores moderate-sized to large, often oval and subdivided into 
compartments. Medullary rays uniform, moderately broad, short, 
wavy, with numerous, very fine, white, transverse bars; the distance 
between two rays being generally equal to the transverse diameter of 
the pores. 

Coasts and tidal forests of Bengal, the Peninsula, Burma and the Andaman 
Islands. 

Weight, as much as 104 lbs. when wet, according to Schlich. The weight of 
seasoned wood, as well as the value of P, have been determined by the fuU.Q'iiYcv^ 



48 



STERCULIACS^. 



[ Heriliera. 



experiments which shew that the weight may be tolerably correctly taken at 65 lbs. 
and the value of P at 850 : — 











• 








Experiment by whom 
made. 


Year. 


Wood whence procured. 


1^ 


Sixe of bar. 


• 


Valae of P. 












^ 












^ 


















Ft. in. in. 


lbs. 




Bnndifl . 




1864 


BmiRal 




6x2x2 


62 


860 


t» • • 




f> 


II . • • 






6x2 x\\ 


63 


927 


>» • • 




1866-6 


fi ... 






6x2x2 


65 


783 


— »» • * 




» 


If • • • 






3x1x1 


66 


1,288 


Skinner, No. 79 




1862 


Banna . 




• • • 




64 


81A 


Kyd 




1831 


Assam 






2x1x1 


67 


710 


Campbell 




I* 


Bengal (seasoned) 






6x2 X 2 


62-5 


1.038 


»• • • 




If 


„ (anseasoned) 
„ (5 yearn old) 






6x2x2 


68 


744 


Baker . . 




1829 






7x2x2 


64 


984 


n • • 




» 


„ (4 years old) 






6x2x2 


62 


859 


n • • 




t» 


ft M 






3 X li X 1 


• • • 


848 


M • • 




ft 


ff W 




10 


2x1x1 


• •• 


808 


tl • • 




If 


fl 1* 






7x2x2 


68 


883 


WaUich . . 




■*. 


India .... 








69 




Bmyt^iea '. 




1878 


Different places . , 








47 
66 





8andri wood is durable ; it is heavy and does not float, and is extremely tough. It is 
nsed for a great variety of purposes, such as beams, buggy shafts, planking, posits, 
furniture, nrewood ; but chiefly in boat-building, for which purpose it is very exten- 
sively used in Calcutta, and particularly in the Government Dockyard at Kidderpore. 
It is the chief timber of the Sundarbans forests. Its reproduction is most favourable. 
On all lands flooded by ordinary flood-tides, a new growtn of jungle springs up imme- 
diately ; but on land ordinarily above high-water mark, it only establishes itself by slow 
d^ees. It soon spreads itself on newly formed islands on the sea edge of the forests. 
" The roots of the Sundri do not penetrate deep into the ground, but spread laterally 
2 to 3 feet below the surface, sending out perpendicular tough shoots, which stand 
from 3 to 15 inches in height all round the parent stem ; and when there are many 
trees close together, walking through a Sundn forest is very much like finding one s 
way among a fine growth of inverted tent pegs." — Home, in " Bengal Forest Seport, 
18fB'74t paragraph 13" which, as well as Dr. Schlioh's article in the " Indian 
Forester,' Vol. i, p. 6, may be referred to for further details about SundrL 

The Sundri forests are generally veiy well stocked. Valuations made by Home in 
1873-74 gave, for the average amount of material per acre of Sundri forest, — 

Seedlings and saplings under 3 feet girth .... No. 2,487 
Threes above 3 feet girth „ 182 

lbs. 

E 401. Sundarbans 70 

xj Z91o. „ ...••«... oo 

B 3123. Burma (1862) 69 

B 517. Andaman Islands . 63 

B 2285. „ „ (1866) 68 

B 2226. ff ff ff .•..••• 53 

2. H. PapiliOy Beddome t. 218.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 363. Vera. 
Soundalay linnu, T4nnevelly. 

A very lofty tree. Wood red, very hard, stractare similar to that 
of H. littoraluy but pores less numeroas and 'smaller, and transverse 
bars more numerous and more prominent. 

Evergreen forests of the Western Qh&ts between Travancore and Tinnevelly. 
Weight, 63 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood used for building, oart poles and agricultural 
implements. 

lbs. 

D 1066. Tinnevelly 63 



Htfietere*.'] stbbcdliacks. 49 

8. HELICTERES, Linn, 

The genua contains, besides the common M, Isora, Linn., six other species, chiefly 
small shrabs of Northern and Eastern Bengal and Burma, H, elongata, WaU. ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. S65, and H, spicata, Colebr. ; Hook. FL Ind. i. 366, extending as far north 
as Sikkim. 

1. H. Isora, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 365 ; Eoxb. PI. Ind. Hi. 143; 
Beddoroe xxxiii ; Brandis 34 ; Kurz i. 14ii. Veru. Maror-phal, Jonkaphal, 
kap<ui, bhendu. Hind. ; Ii4ih, Godavari ; Aita, Gondi; Korubula, Kurku ; 
aniSri, Banswara ; Gubadarra, kavanckiy Tel. ; Kewan, mar adding, Bombay ; 
Tkoognaychay y Burm. 

A shrub with grey bark, wood white, soft. Pores numerous^ small^ 
often in radial lines. Medullary rays fine and very fine. 

Sab-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward, Bengal, South and Central India 
and Burma. 

Growth moderate, 10 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 35 lbs. per cubic foot The 
branches are used for fuel, fencing and thatching, and the bark yields a strong white 
fibre made into coarse cordage and canvas for gunny bagd (specimens from Berar sent 
to Pans Ezhibilion, 1878. C 987. Baixagarh Reserve, Melgh^t). The fruit is remark- 
able for its spirally twisted carpels ; it is used in native medicine. 

Ibf. 

C 2804. Melghit, Berar 36 

4. PTEROSPERMUM, Schreb. 

Twelve spe<*ies of this genus occur in India. Of these, two are found in North- 
West India, three in Sorth-East India, seven in Southern India and five in 
Burma. They are, most of them, trees with handsome flowers and generally oblique, 
leatheiy leaves. Three species are here described. Of the remainder, P. lancea^olium, 
Rozb. f 1. Ind. iii. 163 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i 368 ; Brandis 35 ; Kurz i. 146. Vem. Ban 
hallo, Beng., is a large tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards 
and of Eastern Bengal down to Chittagong. H, ffeyneanum, Wall., P. divers\folium, 
BL, P. retieulatum, W, and A., P. obtustfolium, Wight, P. glahresc.ens, W. and 
A., and P. rubiainosum, He^e ; Beddome t. 106. Vem. Kara toveray, Tinnevelly, 
are trees of S»outh India ; while P. dniMmomeum, Kurz i. 147, and Jr. javanieumt 
Jungh., are trees of Burma. 

Wood reddish, moderately hard. Pores small .and moderate-sized^ 
often in short radial lines. Medullary rays fine^ closely packed. 

1. P. acerifolimn, Willd.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 368; Roxb. PI. Ind. iii, 
158 ; Beddome xxxv ; Brandis 35 ; Kurz i. 145 ; Gamble 11. Vern. Kanaka 
ehampa, Mtis, "Beng.; Hafiipoila, Nep.; Gaii, Magh ; Toungpetwoon, Burm. 

A tall tree, with thin, grey, smooth bark. Sapwood white; heartwood 
soft to moderately hard, red. Pores scanty, small, oval or elongated, 
generally subdivided, visible on a longitudinal section. Medullary rays 
fine, very numerous, undulating, not prominent^ uniform and equi- 
distant. Innumerable very fine transverse lines. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards, Bengal, Chittagong and Bnmia. 
Often planted for ornament. 

Weight, our specimens average 47*5 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood somewhat resem- 
bling Thitka, is worthy of notice; it is sometimes used for plankinff in Bengal. Leaves 
used as plates and for packing tobacco in Northern Bengal. The down on the leaves 
is used for tinder and to stop bleeding in wounds. 

lbs. 

£ 593. Khookloong Forest, Darjeeling Terai 44 

E 3135. Sukna „ „ „ 48 

B 2510. Burma (1862) 51 



50 STERCULIACB^. [ Pierospermum. 

2. p. snberifolinm, Lam. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 367 ; Beddome xxxiv; 
K canescens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 162. Vera. JBaelo, Uriya; Zola^u, Tel.; 
Taddo, Tam. ; Velenge, Ciugh. 

A moderate-sized tree, wood light red, moderately hard ; structare the 
same as that of P. acerifolium. Medullary rays closely packed. 

Northeni Circars and Camatic. 

Weight, 36 to 40 lbs. Wood tough, used for building, carts and other purposes. 

Ibfl. 

C 1260. Gumsur 38 

C 1311. , 40 

No. 91. Ceylon Collection 86 

3. P. semi-sagittatxun, Ham. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 368 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
iii. 160 ; Brandis 35 ; Kurz i. 146. Vern. Nagyee, Barm.; Nwaleinbyeng, 
Magh. 

A moderate-sized tree with an irregularly shaped^ fluted stem and 
grey bark 1 to 2 inches thick. Wood reddish grey, moderately hard ; 
structure the same as that of P. acerifolium, but with more numerous 
pores and a few broader medullary rays. 

Chittagong and Burma ; sometimes planted in other parts of India. 
Growth moderately fast, 6 rings per mchof radius. Weight, 40 to 50 lbs. per cubic 
foot. Wood durable. 

Ib0. 

B 2511. Burma (1862) 40 

B 2706. Tavoy (WalUch, 1828) 50 

Similar in structure to this is B 1418, sent from Burma under the name of Hman, 
the chief difference between its wood and that of P. semi-^ctgittatum being that it 
is scented, smoother and has much smaller pores. 



5. ERIOLiENA, DC. 

species 
Eastern and Central Himalaya, three from Southern India and one from Burma. 



Contains six Indian species, one of which comes from Central India, two from the 

avi 
Besides the species here described, there are E. Stocksiit Hook, f . and Th., ; Hook. Fl. 



Ind. i. 370, a shrub ; E. quinquelocularis, Wight ; Beddome xxzv., a tree from 
Southern India ; and^. spectahilu. Planch. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 371, from the Himalaya. 

Heartwood hard^ reddish^ close-grained, mottled. Pores moderate, 
sized, in rings of soft tissue often arranged in concentric bands. 
Medullary rays moderately broad, uniform. 

1. E. WaUicllii, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 870. Erio/ana sp.. Gamble 
11. Vern. KubindS, Nep. 

A small tree, bark ^ inch thick, brown. Sapwood grey; heartwood 
reddish brown, hard, mottled. Pores moderate-sized, often subdivided, 
enclosed in irregular patches of soft tissue, and frequently arranged in 
concentric lines. Medullary rays moderately broad and very fine. 

Nepal and Sikkim Himalaya. 

Weight, 40 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood much esteemed by Nepalese. 

lbs. 

E 2326. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling 40 

2. E. Hookeriana, W. and A.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 870; Beddome 
XXXV ; Brandis ZQ. Vern. Nar-botku, Tel.; Arang, Berar; Kutki, 
bhonder, Gondi. 

A small tree. Bark grey. Wood light red. Annual rings marked 
by an almost continuous line of pores. Pores small and moderate-sized. 



Xriolana.'] stbrculiacsa. 51 

often subdivided, enclosed in rings of soft texture. Medullary rays 
moderate-sized, wavy. Structure similar to that of the wood of Kydia 
caljfcina, but transverse bars wanting. 

Central and Southern India. 

Growth moderate ; oar epecimen shews 10 rin^ per inch of radins. The bark 
gives a good fibre, and fine specimens were sent to Uie Faris Exhibition of 1878 from 
&erar (C 989. Bairagarh Beserve, Melghat). 

C 3791. Chanda, Central Provinces • . • • 



• • 



3. K CandoUei, Wall.; Hook. ¥1. Ind. i. S70; Kurz i. 148. 
Vem. Dwanee^ Burm. 

A deciduous tree^ with grey bark. Heartwood brick-red^ with orange 
and brown streaks^ old pieces, however, losing their bright colour ; hard, 
close-grained, shining, takes a beautiful polish, seasons well. Pores 
round, moderate-sized, in narrow rings of white tissue, prominent on a 
vertical section. Medullary rays numerous, white, prominent, fine and 
moderately broad. Annual rings marked by sharp concentric lines. 
Pores frequently arranged in concentric lines, and sometimes joined by 
narrow, wavy, concentric bands of soft tissue. 

Burma. 

Weight, according to Kurz 47, according to Brandis' experiments 48 lbs. ; our 
specimens average 51 lbs. According to Brandis' four experiments, made in 1864, 
with hEurs 3' X 1^ X 1" the value of P is = 1020, which shews great transverse strength. 
Wood used for gunstocks, paddles and rice pounders : it is very handsomely manced 
and 18 well worthy of attention. 

bi. 

B 286. Burma (1867) 41 

B 326. „ , 63 

B 1466. „ 64 

B 2612. „ (1862) 66 



E 1951 (45 lbs.) is a wood received from Chittagong under the name Mosm4, It 
is soft, reddish grey, with a small darker heartwood, splits and warps. Pores moderate- 
sized, subdivided often in short radial strings. Medullary rays short, moderately 
broad, joined by innumerable transverse bars. In structure the wood resembles 
that of JS. Candollei, but the specimens of leaves which accompanied the wood sent 
belonged to Brotonlowia elata, Roxb., a Tiliaceous tree. Tbe wood, however, has no 
resenu>lance to that of any of the latter family. 



Ordeb XIX. TILIACEJE. 

Contains 11 Indian genera. Of these, 9 are trees, shrubs or climbers, and 2, Cor- 
ekarus and THumfetta, herbs or undershrubs. The Order is divided into 4 Tribes, 
tfiz, :^ 

Tribe I.— *Brownlowie8B Brotonlowia, Fentace and 

JBenya, 

„ n. — Grewie® Grewia, Columbia^ Erino* 

carpus and Triumfetta. 

„ III. — ^Tiliese . Corchorus and JPlagio- 

pteron, 

I, IV.— Heteropetalae , Echinocarpns and Elao^ 

carpus. 



i% TILIACKJE. [ Penlace. 

Braumhwiea contains 8 species : B, elata, Boxb. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. L 881 ; Kurz i. 153 
(ffumea elata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 640.) Vem. Masjot, a lofty tree of tbe tidal 
forests of Chittagon^ and Tenasserim (see p. 51, under ErioUtna in Sterculiaceso 
No. E 1951) ; B. lanceola/a, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 381, of tbe tidal forests of the 
Snndarbans, Arraoan and Tenasserim, and B.peltata,3i}i, ; Kurz i. 153 of Tenasserim. 
Columbia includes two shrubs of Burma. Erinocarpus NimmoanuSf 6rah. ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 394 ; Beddome t. 110. Yem. Chowra, jangli hendi, Kan., is a fibrous- 
barked tree of the western coast, and Plag%*tpteron fragranSt Griff. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
i. 399, a climbing shrub of Mergui. To the genus Corckorus belongs tbe Jute Plant, C 
eapsularis, Linn. ; Vem. Pat, Beng., now extensively grown in and exported from 
Benfi^l : and other species, all of which yield fibres. Several species of Triun^fetta also 
yield fibres, tf. ^., y. angulata. Lam. (T. rkomboidea, ^Bcq.; Fl. Ind. i. 395) Vem. 
Chiktij Hind., of which fine specimens were sent from Berar to the Paris Exhibition 
(C. 988. Bairagarh Reserve, Melghat). lUia europaet, L., the Lime Tree or Linden 
of Europe, belongs to this Order. 

The wood of Tiliace© is marked by numerous^ uniformly distributed, 
small or moderate-sized pores, and fine, equidistant, medullary rays. 

1. PENTACE, Hassk. 

1. P. burmanica, Kurz; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 881; Kurz i. 154. 
Vern. TkUka, iatAifka, Burm. 

A very large, tall tree. Wood yellowish red, shining, soft, even- 
grained, takes a good polish. Pores moderate-sized, often oval and 
subdivided into compartments^ numerous, uniformly distributed. 
Medullary rays moderately broad, wavy, red, visible on a radial section, 
equidistant ; the distance between the rays generally equal to the trans- 
verse diameter of the pores. Annual rings visible. 

Burma. 

Growth rapid, 3 to 4 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 42 lbs. on an average. Now 
very largely used in Burma for boats, boxes and other purposes for which a light wood 
is required. Large quantities are annually exported, and though a few years ago the 
wood was quite unknown, it is now well luiown, even in European markets. 

lbs. 

B 281. Burma (1867) 42 

B 802. Tharrawaddi, Burma 41 

B 816. Rangoon , 43 

B 1386. Moulmein „ 41 

B 3119. Burma (1862) 42 



2. BERRY A, Roxb. 

1. B. Ammonillay Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 689 ; Hook. FL Ind. i. S8S ; 
Beddome t. 68; Kurz i. 156. The Trincomali Wood. Vera. Petwoon, 
Burra. ; Halmillila, Cingh. (whence tbe specific name). 

A large tree with thin bark. Heartwood dark red, very hard, close- 
grained, but apt to split; it has, even wben old, a smooth, rather damp 
feel. Pores small, oval, subdivided, enclosed in white patches, which are 
united by narrow undulating bands of soft tissue. Medullary rays 
prominent, numerous, uniform and equidistant ; the distance between the 
rays equal to the transverse diameter of the pores. 

South India, Burma and Ceylon. 



Berrfa.l 



TILIACBJB. 



68 



Hie Weight and TransTene strength have been determined by the following 
experiments : — 



Eipcriment bj whom 
condncted. 


Ye*r. 


Wood whence 
procured. 


Number 

of experi- 

menu. 


Siie of acantling 


Weight. 


Valaeof 
P. 


Bnndis 


18M 


Banna. 


7 


Ft. in. in. 
13 X 1 X 1 '^ 

(2 X 1 X 1 J 


84 


826 


M No. 8. . 


1882 


>f 


• •i 


* 


68-82 


• •t 


Pnekla. . . . 


• • • 


Myfiore. 


2 


2x1x1 


• •• 


971 


BkiniMr No. t8 . 


1882 


Ceylon. 


• • t 


Variona. 


60 


784 


„ No. 91 


•> 


>i 


• •• 


«• • 


88 


1,013 


Gat. Ezh., 186S . 


tt 


II 


• •• 


8 X U X U 


50 


822-1028 


Bftker .... 


1829 


n 


8 


8x2x2 


61 


700 


A. Mendit, No. 33 


••• 


>• 


• •• 


2x1x1 


48 


844 


SmjthiM . . . 

• 


1878 


Borma. 


6 




81 


••• 



Benson's Byttneriu, weighing 72 lbs., is probably this. The wood is very durable. 
No. B 2722 had been 50 years in Calcutta, and was perfectly sound and good on being 
eat into. It is used for carts, agricultural implements and spear-handlea, and in Madras 
for masdla boats, and is much esteemed for toughness and flexibility. 

Ibfl. 

B 288. Burma (1867) 62 

B 327. „ (1866) 61 

B 1420. Tbarrawaddi, Burma 65 

B 1452. Prome, Burma 65 

B 2722. Tavoy (Wallich, 1828) 63 

B 3118. Burma (1862) 58 

3. GREWIA, Linn. 

A large genus containing about 30 Indian trees and shrubs, distributed all over 
India, except in the inner arid Himalaya. G. oppositifolia is found as high up as 
6,000 feet m the Nortb-West Himalaya. There are 12 species in North- West and 
Central India, 8 in the North-East, 17 m South India and 10 in Burma. 

The genus contains 3 sections, of which the first, Grewia, contains the minority 
of species. The second, Omphacarpus, contains only one species O, calophylla 
Kurz i. 157 Vem. Jfayanbo, Burm., a small evergreen tree of the coast forests 
of the Andamans. The third Microcos contains two species : G, sinuata. Wall. 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 392; Kurz i. 158, a large shrub of the swamp forests of Burma; 
Bnd. O. Microcos, lAnn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 392; Kuni. 167 (O, ulmifolia, Roxh, 
Fl. Ind. ii. 591). Vern. Asicar, Beng. ; Tardh, iitigh ; Myat-ya, Burm.; Thayok, 
Arracan — Weight 51 lbs. (Brandis, 1862, No. 10), a small tree of Eastern Bengal, 
Chittagong, Burma and South India. In the section Orewia, besides those herein 
described, may be noticed: O. t^i/Zo^a, Willd. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 388 ; Brandis 39 Vern. 
Inzarra, pastuwanne, Fb. ; Dhohan, Ajmere ; Jalidar, kaskusri, thamther. Salt 
Range, a small shrub of the arid zone in Rajputana, the Punjab and Sind ; Q, sapida, 
Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii, 590 ; Houk. Fl. Ind. i. 387 ; Brandis 41 ; Gamble 12, a well known, 
smidl, yellow flowered undcrshrub of the Sub-Himalayan^orests, sending up yearly 
numerous shoots from a perennial root-stock ; and O. sclerophylla, Roxb. ; Brandis 39 ; 
Kurz i. 162 {J, scahrophylla, Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 584 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 387 ; Gamble 
12) Vem. Pkarsia, Kuraaun, a small shrub with white flowers and large leaves, of 
similar localities ; O. laviaata, Vahl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 389 ; Beddome xxxvii ; 
Brandis 42 ; Eurs i. 150 ; Gamble 12 (G, didyma, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 591) Vem. £at 



54 TiLiACBA. [ Grewia. 

bhewal, hkimul, kakki, Hind. ; Allpeyar, Tel. ; Dansagla, Lepcha, is a small tree 
of the outer Himalaya, from the Jumna eastwards, Assam, CentrtJand Southern India 
and Burma, recognized by its long, tapering, glabresoent leaves ; while O. abutilifolia, 
Juss. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 330; Beddome xxxvii (O, a^p^a, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 591) 
Yem. Pedda taraki, Tel., is a small tree found in Southern* India. Some species of 
Qrewia have edible fruits, and the wood of some is strong, tough and elastic. 

The wood of Grewia has small or moderate-sized pores, uniformly 
distributed, and numerous fine, rarely moderately broad medullary rays. 
The annual rings are generally marked. 

1. G. oppositifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 583; Hook. PI. Ind. i. 384; 
Brandis 537. Yevn, Dkamman,pAarwa,'Ph.; JSiul, biung, bahuly bhimaly 
bkengaly Hind. ; Bieul, Simla ; Pasluwanne, Afg. 

A moderate-sized tree, with grey bark. Wood white, with a small 
mass of irregularly-shaped heartwood, hard, giving out an exceedingly 
unpleasant odour, especially when fresh cut. Annual rings marked by 
white lines. Pores moderate-sized, very numerous, uniformly distributed. 
Medullary rays fine, white, wavy, very numerous. 

North-West Himalaja, from the Indus to Nepal, ascending to 6,0CX) feet. 

Growth moderate, 7 rinfs per inch of radius. Weight, 45 to 50 lbs. per cubic foot. 
The wood is used for oar-shafts, handles, bows, &c., and for most purposes for which 
elasticity and toughness are required. The bark gives a fibre which is much used in the 
Punjab for rope and paper-making, but is not durable. The tree is much lopped for 
feeding cattle during the winter. 

llM. 

H 100. Bhajji, Sunla, 4,000 feet 45 

H 164. SainJ, „ 3,000 „ 60 

2. Q. populifolia, yahl.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 885 ; Brandis 38. Vern. 
Oangierj Ph. ; GangOj Sind ; Gangerun, Bajputana. 

A small shrub, with grey bark. Wood yellow, hard, close-grained. 
Annual rings marked by an almost continuous line of slightly larger 
pores. Pores small, numerous, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays 
very fine, white, wavy, very numerous. 

Arid zone, in the Punjab, Sind and Rajpntana. 

Growth very slow. The wood is used for walking sticks and the fruit is eaten. 

P 3228. Nagpahar, Ajmere 

3. G. tiliSBfolia, Vahl.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 886; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
587; Beddome t. 108; Brandis 41; Kurz i. 161. Vern. FAarsa, 
dhamin, Hind.; Khesla, iastil, Gondi; DAamni, Kurku; Charachi, 
tharrdy Tel. ; Dkamono, Uriya ; TAadsal, batala, Kan. ; Damnai, 
Bhil; JDaman, Mar.; Sadaciu, Mai.; Damiune, Ciugh. 

A moderate-sized tree. Bark i inch thick, grey on young trees, 
dark brown on old trees. Sapwood white ; heartwood small, brown, 
close-grained, hard. Annual rings visible. Pores moderate-sized, 
numerous, uniformly distributed ; a continuous belt of pores in the 
spring wood ; autumn wood harder. Medullary rays fine, prominent on 
a radial section, giving a handsome silver grain ; the distance between 
the rays equal to the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna to Nepal, ascending to 4,000 feet ; Central 
and South India. 

Growth moderate, about 6 rings per inch of radius. Weight, according to Skinner 
No. 75, 34 lbs. ; Brandis says 30 to 40 lbs.; the average of those examined gave 48 lbs. 
Skinner's experiments in South India gave P = 666. Used for shafts, shoulder poles, 
masts, oars and all purposes for which elasticity, strength and toughness are required. 



Grewia, ] 



TIUACBJB. 



55 



The frait is eaten and the inner hark made into cordage. Fine specimens of this were 
sent from Berar for the Paris Exhibition of 1878. (0. 983. Bairagarh Beserve, 

Melgh&t.) 

lbs. 
C 188. Mandla, Central Provinces (1871) 48 



C 1169. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 

C 2767. Moharli Beserve, Central Provinces 

C 2766. Melgh&t, Berar 

C 1253. Gumsdr, Madras 

No. 17. Ceylon Collection 



i. 886; 



46 
53 

••• 
49 
44 

Beddome xzxvii; 



4. G. salvifolia, Heyne ; Hook. PI. Ind. 
BrandiB 43. Vern. BalAer, nikkUbekkar, gargaSy Pb. ; Saras, Ajmere ; 
Jdraj Circars. 

A small tree,, with dark-coloured bark. Wood yellow, heartwood 
orange-brown, hard, close-grained, structure similar to that of (?• 
tilia/olia, but medullary rays more numerous and pores smaller. Annual 
rings well marked by a line of larger pores. 

Pnnjah, Sind, Central Provinces and Southern India. 
Growth slow. Fruit small, edihle. 

P 3227. Nagpahar, Ajmere m. 

P 3237. €K)ran Hills, Ajmere 

5. G. vestita. Wall. ; Brandis 40 ; Gamble 12. 0, elaatica, Royle; 
Kurz i. 160. G. asialica, Linn. var. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 887. Yern. 
Farriy pAalwa, dAamman, Pb. ; PAarsia, dkamun, bimla, Hind. ; Poto 
dAamun, Palamow ; Sealposra, Nep. ; Kunmng, Lepcha ; Pintayau, Burm. 

A small tree, with grey or brown bark. Wood greyish white, hard 
and close-grained. Annual rings wavy. Pores moderate-sized. Medul- 
lary rays fine and moderately broad; numerous, prominently marked on a 
radial section, and giving the wood a beautiful silver grain. 

8ub-Himalayan tract from the Indus eastwards, Bengal, Central India and 
Burma. 

Growth moderately slow, 6 to 7 rings per inch of radius. Weight, our specimens 

give an average of 48 lbs. per cubic foot ; Brandis says 50 lbs. Wood tough and elastic, 

used for shoulder poles, bow0, spear handles, &c. Splits well, and is sometimes used 

for shingles. The branches are lopped for fodder. 

Ibf. 

E 651. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai 43 

£ 2325. f$ ti ....... 51 

6 3120. Burma (1862) 51 

6. 0. asiatica, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 886; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 686; 
Beddome xxxvii. ; Brandis 40; Kurz i. 16L Vern. FAalsa, Kind. ; 
DAamni, Ajmere. 

A small tree. Bark rough, grey. "Wood yellowish white, structure 
similar to that of G. vesiita. 

Wild in Central India and Rajputana. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. 
Bark used in rope-making. 

P 470. Ajmere •« 

P 3218. Nagpahar, Ajmere «• 

P 3235. Goran Hills, Ajmere 

7. 0. mtdtiflora, Juss., Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 888; Gamble 12. G. 9epu 
aria, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 589. ; Brandis 42. Yern. Fansaura, Hind.^ 
Beng. ; Nilay, Nep. 

A shrub or small tree. Bark brown. Wood white, soft, similar in 
Btrueture to that of G. oppositi/olia, but with smaller pores. 



66 TILIACEJB. [ Orewia. 

Outer Himalaya from Nepal eastwards, asoending to 4,000 feet, Khasia Hilbi. 
Used Id Bengal for making liec^s, for which it is very usefuL 

Ibi. 

E 2327. Sivoke, Darjeeling Terai 42 

8. 0. pilosa. Lam. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 888 ; Brandis 39. 0. carpifiu 
folia^ Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 587. Vern. Posangni^ Ajmere. 

A shrub with four-angled stem and brown bark. Wood yellowish 
white, hard, divided into triangular wedges proceeding from the centre 
towards the four corners and sides, the annual rings in the wedges towards 
the corners marked by large pores, those towards the sides by a white line 
and a few moderately large pores. Pores in the rest of the wood small. 
Medullary rays fine, white, numerous. 

Plains of the North- West, Central and South India. 

P 3230. Nagpahar, Ajmere ...» 

P 3256. Goran Hills, Ajmere .... 

4. ECHINOCARPUS, Blume. 

Contains 5 large trees of the forests of the north-east and east moist zone in 
Sikkim, Bhutan, Assam, the Ehasia Hills and Burma. E. sterculiaceiM, Bth. ; Hook. 
M. Ind. i. 400 ; Gamble 12. Vern. Banj, Nep. ; Thabola, Magh, is a very large tree of 
the Sikkim Terai, Chittagong and Burma, with a deeply buttressed trunk and large fruit 
covered with long needle-like spines. JS, tomentosus, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 400 ; 
Gamble 12. Yem, Kaktay, Nep. ; Taksor, Lepcha, is a lar^e tree of the Sikkim Hills 
from 2,000 to 4,000 feet. S. Murex, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 399, is a large tree of the 
Khasia Hills and Burma {E Skfun, Bl. ; Kurz i. 162) ; and JE, assamicus Bth. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 399. Vern. Jahha hingori. Ass., a tree of Upper Assam, whose 
wood, according to Mr. Mann, is used for planking. 

1. E, dasycarpnSy Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 400 ; Gamble 12. Vern. 
Gobria, Nep. 

A large tree. Bark dark grey. Wood greyish brown, soft. Pores 
small. Medullary rays fine and moderately broad, closely packed, 
straight, prominent on a radial section. 

Eastern HimaUya, 5,000 to 7,000 feet. (Hooker, in Fl. Ind., says: " Sikkim at 2,000 
feet," but I have never seen it below 6,000 feet. — «/". S. O.) 

Weight, 32 lbs. per cubic foot. Used for planking, for tea-boxes and to make 

charcoal. It is in considerable demand in Darjeeling. The tree is very handsome, as 

it has showy clusters of yellow-white flowers, capitular fruit, with short close-set spines, 

black seeds with a red arillus, and drooping branches. It flowers and seeds ireely 

each year, and seedlings come up well. 

Ibfl. 

E. 694. Chuttockpur, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet 32 



E. 1289 sent from Cachar under the name ' Sitarjai* has a similar structure, but 
the pores are larger. This is probably E, tiliaceus of Mr. G. Mann's Assam Lists 
(Phul hingori, Ass. ; Sitarsaaz, Cachar), Assam Forest Reports, 1874-75 and 1875-76. 
Said by Mr. Mann to be used for planks and beams wnere not exposed to changes 
of weather. 

5. EL^OCARPUS, Linn. 

A large genus of trees, chiefly found in the moister parts of India ; 25 species are 
found in India, of which iJie distribution is : — 

North- Western India . • 1 

North-Eastern India 14 

Burma 17 

Central India 1 

Southern India 14 



EUtoearpHs, ] tiliaceje. 67 

The gennB is divided into three sections : 

Section I. Oanitrus contains S, Oanitrus, Koxh. Fl. Ind. ii. 692 ; Hook. Fl. 

Ind. i. 400 ; Beddome xxxvii. ; Brandis 43 ; Knrz i. 168. Yem. 
Budrak, Hind., a large tree of North-Eastern and Central India, 
the hard tuhercled nuts of which are polished and made into rosaries 
and bracelets. 

Section II. Dicer a contains, besides the two species described below : E, serratus, 

Linn. Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 401. Beddome xxxviii. Yem. Jalpai^ 
Beng. ; Perinkdrd, Kan. ; Wtralu, Cineh., a tree, with edible fruit, 
of Bengal, the North-East Himalaya and the Western Coast (Weight, 
33 lbs., Wallich); E floribvndus, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 401; 
Kurz i. 167 of Eastern Bengal and Burma ; E, ohlongus, Gaertn. ; 
Beddome xxxviii. Yem. Bikki^ Nilgiris, of Southern India, with 
a strong, white, tough wood ; and several other less common species. 

Section III. Monocera contains E, tuberculatus, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 594 ; Beddome 

t. 113 ; Yem. Rudrah, Hind., a large tree of Southern India, whose 
nuts are used in the same way as those of E. Ganitrus; E. ruqosue, 
Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 596 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 405 ; Knrz i. 166 ; Gamble 
13. Yem. Nandiki, Nep., of the Eastern Himalaya, Chittagong and 
Burma; E. ferrugineus, Wight; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 406; Beddome 
t. 112, a common tree of the Nilgiris ; and E. Varunua, Ham. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 407 ; Kurz i. 165. Yem. Tuttealy, saul kuri. 
Ass., of the Himalaya from Kumann to Sikkim, Aagftm^ Sylhet 
and Chittagong ; besides other species. 

The fpecies of EliBocarpus have usually handsome flowers with laciniate petals, 
and the mits of most species resemble an olive and are eaten. 

1. E. robustUB, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 402 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 697 ; 
Kurz i. 169; Gamble 13. Yem, Ja/pai, Sjlhet; Bepari, batracAiy'Hef. ; 
ChekiOf Magh ; TaumagyeCy Burm. 

An evergreen tree. Wood white, shining, soft, even-grained. Annual 
rings marked by a prominent line. Pores moderate-sized, uniformly 
distributed, generally oval or elongated, subdivided. Medullary rays 
fine and very fine, closely packed, visible as long narrow bands on a 
radial section. 

Eastern Himalaya ascending to 2,000 feet, Ehasia Hills, Eastern Bengal, Chitta- 
gong, Burma and Andaman Islands. 

Growth moderate. Weight, 38 lbs. per cubic foot. 

lb*. 
E 681. Ehookloong Forest, Darjeeling Tend 88 

2. E. lanceSBfolins, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 598; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 402; 
Kurz i. 167; Gamble 13. Yem, BAadras, batracAi, 'Neip, ; SAepkyew, 
Lepcha; Sakalang, Ass. 

A large tree. Wood soft, light brown. Pores small, in short strings 
of 2 to 5. Medullary rays extremely numerous, fine and very fine, 
appearing as narrow plates on a radial section. 

Eastern Himalaya from 6,000 to 8,000 feet, Kha^ia Hills, Sylhet and Tenasserim. 
Growth moderate, 8 rings per inch of radins. Weight 41 lbs. Used for honse- 
building, tea-boxes and charcoal. Fmit edible. 

Ibt. 
E 858. Bangbul, Darjeeling, 7,000 feet 41 



Oeder XX. LINEJE. 

A small Order containing 4 genera of Indian trees or shmbs. The only one of any 
importance is Erythroxyhm, Beinwardtia contains 2 small yellow flowered nnder- 
■hraba of the Himalaya, Eastern Bengal and the Western Gh4t8\ ^ugouia M>)%tax^ 



58 UNBJK. [ Eryihroxj/lon^ 

Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 413. is a rambling leafy shrub of Southern India; and 
Ixonanthes khasiana, Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 416. a small tree of the Ehasia 
Hills. Many species give a strong fibre. IJinum usitatUsimum is the flax plant ; 
cultivated in India for its fibre and oil. 

1. ERYTHROXYLON, Linn. 

Contains four Indian species. Besides the one described, JE, JETunthianum, Wall. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 414 ; Kurz i. 171, is a shrub of Eastern Bengal, the Ehasia Hills and 
Burma, above 3,000 feet elevation ; and £, hurmanicum, Griff. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 414 ; 
Eurz i. 171, a tree of Burma and the Andaman Islands. 

The Coca or Spadic Plant of Peru, well known as a powerful stimulant of the 
nervous system, is the E, Coca, 

1. E. monogyntuny Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 449; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 414; 
Kurz i. 171. E. indicnmf Beddome t. 81. Sethia indica, DC. Prodr. i. 576. 
Bastard Sandal. Vem. Devadar&y Tarn. ; Adivi gerenta, Tel. 

A small tree. Sapwood white; heartwood dark brown, with a 
pleasant resinous smelly very hard^ takes a beautiful polish. Pores very 
small^ very numerous. Medullary rays short, very fine, uniformly 
distributed. 

South India and Ceylon. 
Weight, 56 to 67 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Usea as a substitute for sandalwood. The wood gives an oil used as a preservative 
for native boats. 

Ibfl. 

D 1083. North Aroot 66 

D 1091. Madura 66 

D 2027. Mysore 67 



Ordbb XXI. MALPiaHIACEJE. 

An Order which is represented in India merely by two genera of climbing or 
straggling shrubs. Hiptage Madahlota, Gaertn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 418 ; firandis 
44; Surz i. 173; Gamble 13. (Qaertnera racemosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 3G8) Vem. 
Kampti, madmaltif Hind. ; Endra, chopar, benkar, khumb, Pb. ; Shempati, Nep. ; 
Haladwail, Mar. ; Madubuluta, hQn^.^ is a common climbing shrub of most parts 
of India and Hurma ; H, candicans. Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 419; Kurz i. 174. 
Vem. TouTigsooJcapan, Burm. ; and H. obtusifolia, DC. ; Kurz i. 173 are respectively 
a large shrub and a climber of Burma; iJ. acuminata. Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 419, 
is a bushy shrub of the Khasia Hills ; and S, parvifolia, W. and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
i. 419, a shrub of Southern India and Ceylon: making 6 species. Aspidopterys 
contains 7 climbers, chiefly of the Himalaya, Southern India and Burma, but none 
of any special interest. 



Order XXII. aEBANIACEJE. 

A large Order, chiefly containiug herbaceous plants, such as Geranium, Oxalis and 
Impatient. Only one genus, Averrhoa, contains trees, and these introduced: A, 
Carambola, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 439 ; Kozb. Fl. Ind. ii. 460 ; Beddome xxxiz. ; 
Brandis 46 ; Kurz i. 177 ; Gamble 13. Vem. Kamaranga, Hind. ; Kamrang, Beng. ; 
Soungyah, Burm , is a small tree which is commonly cultivated in India and Burma 
for its fruit, which is eaten stewed or made into preserves. Home says it is used in 
the Sundarbans for building purposes and furniture. Skinner, No. 18, gives its weight 
as 40 lbs. per cubic foot, and 712 for the value of P; Wallich gives its weight at 39 lbs. 
A. Bilimbi, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 439 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 451 ; Beddome t. 117. 
Vem. Bilimbi, bhimbu, anvalla. Hind., is a small tree cultivated and often found 
run wild in India. It has an acid fruit, which is pickled or prenerved in sugar, and the 
juice is used in removing iron stains from linen. 



Evodia, ] RUTAC2iK. 69 



Order XXIII. RUTACRffi. 

A large Order, containing however few trees of any size, bat generally shrubs or 
climbers, which are aromatic with gland-dotted leaves. 
The Order is divided into 4 Tribes, viz. : — 

Tribe I. — ButesB .... Only herbs such as the garden Rue, 

and the Bonninghausenia, bo 
common in Himalayan forests. 

„ II. — ^Xanthoxylese • . • Evodia, Melicope and ^an» 

thoxylum, 

„ III. — Toddaliese «... Toddalia, Aeronychia and 

Skimmia, 

„ lY.— Aurantieae «... Glycosmis, Micromelum, Murraya, 

Clausena, Tnipkctsia, Limonia 
Luvunffa, Paramiffnya, Atalan, 
tia. Citrus, Feronia and Aegle* 

Melicope contains two shrubs : If. indica, Wight ; Hook. FI. Ind. i. 492, Beddome 
xl., of the higher ranges of the Nilgiri Hills ; and Sf, Helferiy Hook, f ., of the Andaman 
Islands and Tenasserim. Acronychia laurifolia, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 498 ; Kurz 
i. 184; Gramble 14 (^. pedunculata, DC; Beddome xlii.) Vern. Paowlay, Nep. ; 
JLoajam, Ass., is a small tree of the Sikkim Himalaya, Kbasia Hills, Assam, 
Chittagong. South India and Burma. Glycosmis pentaphylla, Correa ; Hook. Fl. Ind, 
i. 499; Beddome xliii. ; Brandis 49; luirz i. 186; Gamble 14. Yem. Ban-nimhu, 
potaliy pilru potala, girgitti. Hind.; Kirmira, Bombay; Taushouk, Burm., is a 
common evergreen shrub, with very variable leaves and fruits, found in most part of 
India. Micromeluih contains 2 species : ilf. puhescens, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 5dl ; 
Beddome xliii. ; Kurz i. 186; Gamble 14. Yem. Lasmani, Nep.; Eambrong, Lepoha; 
Tanyenghpo, Burm., is a small tree of the Eastern Himalaya, Assam, Eastern Bengal, 
South India and Burma, with a rather heavy, close-grained, yellowish white wood ; and 
M. hirsuium,0\\^.\ Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 502; Kurz. i 187., a small Burmese shrub. 
Clausena contains 9 species, chiefly shrubs, the chief of which are C. pentaphylla, 
DC. ; Brandis 49. Yern. Rattanjote, surjmukhaj teyrur. Hind., a deciduous shrub 
of the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna to Nepal ; and C. Wtlldenovii, W. and 
A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 506 ; Beddome xliv. ; Gamble 15. Yern. Mor kurangi, Kaders ; 
Madanay, Nep. ; Terhilnyok, sidemnyok, Lepcha, a small tree of the Sikkim 
Himalaya, Western Ghats and Ceylon. Triphasia trifoliata, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
L 507 ; Kurz i. 192, is a small spinous garden shrub of South India and Burma. 
Limonia contains 4 shrubs of India and Burma, of which L, acidissima, Linn.; 
Hook. Fl Ind. i. 507 ; Beddome xlv ; Brandis 47 ; Kurz i. 192 (X. crenulata, Boxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 381) Yem. Beli, Hind. ; Tor^ela^a, Tel. ; Kawat, Mar. ; Theehaya-zHf 
Burm. a spinous shrub of dry hills in various parts of India, with a hard close- 
grained wood, is the most common. Luvunga has 2 climbing shrubs, one of Eastern 
Bengal and Burma, the other of Southern India. Paramignya, has 5 shrubs or climbers 
of Eastern Bengal and Burma, of which the most common is P. monophylla, 
Wight; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 510; Kurz i. 193; Gamble 15. Yern. Natkanta, Nep.; 
Jhunokt Lepcha, an erect or climbing shrub extending from Sikkim down to Tenas- 
serim. Citrus contains 3 well-known fruit trees — C Aurantium, Linn. Yem. Narangi, 
naringi, Hind. ; Kumla nehu, Beng. ; Suntala, Nep. ; Kitchli, Tarn. ; Kittali, Tel., 
the Orange, cultivated in most parts of India, but especially m Sikkim and Sylhet 
(Skinner. No. 48, gives W. = 49, P = 717); C medica, Linn., the Citron, Lemon and 
Lime, cultivated all over India ; and C decumana, Wild., the Shaddock or Pumelo. 

The Riitacea have a very uniform structure. The wood is close and 
even-grained, generally white, with a yellowish tinge. The pores are small^ 
uniformly distributed, with a tendency to form radial lines. The medul- 
lary rays are fine, uniform and equidistant. The wood of Skimmia is 
anomalous, being distinguished by extremely small pores, arranged in 
oblique wavy tails, and by very fine, very numerous medullary rays. The 
wood of most species is marked by white concentric lines, which are 
generally at unequal distances and often run into each other. 



60 RUTACEiB. t Bvodia. 

1. EVODIA, Forat. 

Contains 6 species of Indian small trees or shmbs. JB, vitictTia, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. i. 489 ; Kurz ; i. 179, is a small tree of Tenasserim ; E. rutacarpa, Hook. f. and 
Th., a small tree of the inner valleys of Sikkim, between 7,000 and 10,000 feet ; and J£, 
meliisfolia, Btb., a small tree of Assam. 

1. E. fraxmifolia, Hook. f. ; Hook. PI. lud. i. 490 ; Gamble 13. 
Vern. Kanukpa, Nep. ; KanH, Lepcha. 

A small tree. Bark smooth, lio^ht grey, ^ inch thick. Wood 
white, soft. Pores small, often subdivided, numerous near the inner 
edge of each annual ring. Medullary rays short, moderately broad. 

Eastern Himalaya in Sikkim, between 4,000 and 7,000 feet, Ebasia Hills from 
3,01:0 to 6,000 feet. 

Growth fast, 4 to 6 rings per inch of radins. Weight, 21 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood 
used only for posts of huts. It comes up commonly in second growth forest, and the 
leaves, flowers and fruit wben bruised, have a disagreeable aromatic smell. 

lbs. 

E 3101. Darjeeling, 7,000 feet 21 

2. E. Boxbnrgllianay Beuth.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 487 ; Kurz i. 180. 
JE. tripAy/la, Beddome xli. Fagara friphylla, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 416. 
Xanthoxylum triphyllum, Thwaites Enum. 69. V6rn. Nebede, lunu- 
anienda, Cingh. 

A small tree. Wood greyish brown, moderately hard. Por»*s small, 
uniformly distributed. Medullary rays short, distant, fine to moderately 
broad. 

Khasia Hills, Soutb India and Ceylon, Tenasserim and the Andaman Islands. 

Weight, 51 lbs., according to A. Mendis. 

lbs. 

No, 60. Ceylon Collection 51 



B 1979 collected by Kurz in the Andamans in 1866 and marked JS. triphylla, 
DC. (Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 488; Kurz i. 180), has a soft pale red wood, with moderate- 
sized, oval, elongated and subdivided pores, and very fine and closely packed 
medullary rays. 

2. XANTHOXYLUM, Linn. 

A genus containing 10 small, rarely large trees or straggling or climbing shrubs, 
most of them of very little importance. Besides the one described : 20, acaniho- 
podium, DC; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 493; Kurz i. 181; Gamble 14. Vern. Bogay timur, 
X^ep., is a small tree of the outer Himalaya from Kumaun to Sikkim and the Khasia 
Hills, ascending to 7,000 feet ; X, Shetsa, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 495, Beddome xli. 
{Fagara Rhetsa ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 417) Vern. Bhetsd mdn, Tel. ; Sessal, Mar. ; 
Itattu kina, Biitgh. is a large tree of the Western and Eastern Gh&ts of South India ; 
and X. Budrunga, DC. ; Hook. ?1. Ind. i. 495 ; Kurz i. 182. Vern. Borjonali, Ass. ; 
Mayaning, Burm., is a tree of Eastern Bengal, Chittagong and Burma, with a rather 
heavy, soil, yellowish white, close-grained wood. The rest are shrubs or climbers. 

1 X. alatnm, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 768 ; Hook. PI. Ind. i. 493 ; 
Beddome xlii. ; Brandis 47 ; Gamble 14. Vern. Timbur, (imur, tezmal, 
durmur, Hind. ; Balay limur, Nep. ; Sungru, Lepcha. 

A shrub or small tree. Bark corky, young stems with thick conical 
prickles with a corky base. Wood close-o^rained, yellow. Pores small^ 
often in radial lines, not uniformly distributed ; belts with numerous 
pores often alternating with belts with scanty pores. Medullary rays 
fine, short, very numerous. 

Outer Himalaya from the Indus to Bhutan, ascending to 7,000 feet, Ehasia Hilla. 



Xanthoxjjflum, ] rutace^. 61 

Wood used for walking sticks, the branches for making tooth-brushes. Fruit 
used as a remedy for tooUi-ache, as a condiment and to purify water. The whole 

plant has a strong aromatic unpleasant smeU. 

Iba. 

H 107. Bhajji, Simla, 4,000 feet 46 

E 2329. Tukdah, Darjeeling, 5,0C0 feet .34 

3. TODDALIA, Juss. 

Contains two species : one the rambling, sarmentose shrub here described ; the other 
T. hilocularisj W. and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 497 Beddome xliii., a handsome tree 
of the Western Qh4ts, always unarmed and reaching 3 feet in girth. 

1. T. acoleatay Fers.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 497; Beddome xlii ; 
Braodis 46; Kurz i. 188; Gamble 14. Scopolia aciileata^ Sm. ; Roxb. 
Fl. lud. i. 616. Vern. Kanj\ Hind. ; Dahan, lahan, liajputana; Meinkara 
Nep. ; Saphijirik^ Lepeha; Milkaranai, Tarn. ; KondakasAinda, Tel. 

A large scandeut shrub; the branches covered with prickles. Wood 
porous^ yellowish white, soft. Pores moderate-sized, very numeroas, 
often subdivided, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays very fine, 
uniform and equidistant. 

Outer Himalaya from Eumaun eastwards, Khasia Hills and Western Gh&ts, ascend- 
ing to 7,000 feet. 

The root bark gives a yellow dye and a bitter and aromatic tonic, used by natives 
in some parts of the country as a remedy for fever. (Bidie,) 

£2855. Tukdah, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet 

4. SKIMMIA, Thunb. 

1. S. Lanreola, Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 499; Brandis 50; 
Gamble 14. Vern. iVI?r, darru, Pb. ; Nehtr^ gurlpata^ Kumaun; CAum^ 
lani, Nep. ; Timdurnyok, Lepeha. 

An extremely aromatic shrub. Bark thin, bluish grey. Wood white, 
soft, with distinct, white, concentric lines which may possibly be annual 
rings ; has an aromatic scent when fresh cut. Pores extremely small, 
in narrow, irregularly bent lines. Medullary rays fine, numerous. 

Himalaya from the Indus to Bhutan, from 5,000 to 11,000 feet, Afghanistan. 
Weight, 42 lbs. per cubic foot. The leaves are eaten in the Himalaya in curries. 

ite. 

H 2846. Mahasu, Simla, 8,000 feet 

E 2330. Tukdah, DarjeeHng, 5,000 feet 42 

6. MURRAYA, Linn. 

Besides the species described, 3f. Kanigii, Spr. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 503 ; Beddome 
xliv ; Bi-andis 48 ; Kurz i. 190 ; Gamble 14, ( Bergera Konigii, Linn. ; Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 375) Vern. Gandla, gandi, bowala, Pb. ;. Marri, katnim. Hind. ; Barsanga^ 
Beng. ; Chanangi, Hyderabad ; Karejtak, kari-vepa, Tel. ; Kamwejpilaj Tam., is a 
vaM. tree of the outer Himalaya from the Ravi to Assam, Bengal, South India and 
Bunna, whose leaves are used for flavouring curries. The wood is close, even-grained, 
hard and durable, and is used for agricultuial implements. 

1. M. exotica, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 502 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
874; Beddome xliv.; Brandis 48; Kurz i. 190; Gamble 14. Vern. 
MarcAula^jutif Hind.; Kamini, Beng.; Naga golunga, Tel.; JRaket-berdr, 
Gondi; Simali, "ife^. ;SAifzem, Lepeha; Makay^ Barm.; MacAalla, And. 

A shrub or small tree, with thin grey bark. Wood light yellow, 
close-grained^ very hard^ apt to crack. Pores very small, sometimes 



62 nuTACEJ?. [Murra^a, 

in short radial lines. Medullary rays fine, veiy numerous. Sharp, 
white, concentric lines, which frequently run into each other. 

Outer Himalaya from the Jumna to Assam ascending to 4,500 feet, Behar, South 
India, Burma and the Andaman Islands. 

Weight, 62 lbs. per cubic foot is the average of our specimens ; Wallich gives 61 lbs. 

The wood, resembles boxwood and has been tried for wood-enffraviug, for which it 
seems suitable if well seasoned ; it is also used for handles of implements. It is 
often planted for ornament, and is sometimes called " Satinwood " at Port Blair. 

lbs. 

B 3195. Andaman Islands (Home, 1874, No. 24) 63 

B 519. Andaman Islands '. . .62 

No. 26. Ceylon Collection 61 

5. ATALANTIA, Correa. 

Contains 5 small trees of South India and Burma. A, racemosa,W, B,nd. A.; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 512 ; Beddome xlvi, is a small tree 6f South India and Ceylon ; 
A. caudata. Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 513, a shrub of the Khasia Hills ; and A. 
macrophylla, Kurz i. 195, an evergreen tree of the coast forests of the Andamans. 

1. A. monophylla, Conea; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 511; Beddome xlvi.; 
Kurz i. 195. Vern. Arawi nim, Tel. ; KatyalUy Tarn. ; Makhnr^ Mar. 

"Wood yellow, very hard and close-grained. Pores very small ; in 
groups or short radial lines. Medullary rays very fine, numerous ; the 
distance between the rays greater than the transverse diameter of the 
pores. Numerous white concentric lines at varying distances. 

Eastern Bengal, Southern India and Ceylon. 

Weight, 65 11^. per cubic foot, liecommended by Kurz as a substitute for box- 
wood. 

Ib6. 

No. 10. Salem Collection 65 

2. A. missionis, Oliv. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 513; Beddome xlvi. Limo- 
nia missionis, Wall. ; Thwaites Enum. 45. Vern. Pamduru, Cingh. 

Wood yellowish white, moderately hard, close-grained. Annual rings 
marked hy a white line and a belt of more numerous pores. Pores 
small, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays fine, wavy, very numerous, 
uniform, not equidistant. 

South India and Ceylon. 

Weight, 48 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood is used for furniture and cabinet work, 

it is sometimes variegated. 

lbs. 

No. 66. Ceylon Collection 48 

7. FERONIA, Correa. 

1. F. Elephantum, Correa; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 516; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 411; Beddome t. 121 ; Brandis 56; Kurz i. 198; Gamble 15. The 
Wood Apple. Vern. Silin, iait, kat-bil, Hind.; Kath-bel, Beng.; Fallanga, 
vela, kamtf Tam. ; Velagd, elaka, yellanga, Tel. ; Bilwar, Kan. ; Kawat, 
Mar. ; Hman^ Burm. 

A large tree. Bark dark grey or nearly black. Wood yellowish 
white, hard. Annual rings distinctly marked by a white line. Pores 
small, in short radial lines, joined by short, narrow, white, concentric 
bands. Medullary rays short, white, prominent, fine and moderately 
broad, very numerous, not straight. Structure similar to that of Aigle 
Marmelos and Crafava religiosa. 



Feronia. ] RUTACEiE. 63 

Sub-Himalayan forests from the Ravi eastwards, Bengal, South India, Chanda 
district in the Central Provinces. 

Weight, 60 lbs. per cubic foot, according to Skinner, No. 74 ; 49 according to Cun- 
ningham. Value of P. 623 (Cunningham) ; 645 (Skinner). The wood is used for 
house- building, naves of wheels, oil-crushers and agricultural implements. It gives 
a gum similar to gum arable. The pulp of the fruit is acid and is made into jelly. 



E 2487. Calcutta 



• • • • • • • • ...< 



8. AEGLE, Correa. 

1. A. Marmelos, Conea; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 516; Roxb. FI. Ind, 579; 
Beddome t. 161 ; Brandis 57 ; Kurz i. 198 ; Gamble 15. The Bael Tree. 
Verii. -B//, Hind. ; Beta, Beng. ; Mahaka, Gon^i ; Belay'KuTkxi; Filva, 
Tam. ; Maredu, paiir, marat, Tel.; Bilapairi, Kan. ; OkshU, Burm. 

A small tree, bark J inch thick, outer substance soft, grey, exfoliating 
in irregular flakes. Wood yellowish white, hard, with a strong aromatic 
scent when fresh cut ; no heartwood, not durable, readily eaten by insects. 
Pores small, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays wavy, fine, short, 
white, numerous, uniform and equidistant. Annual rings marked by 
distinct lines, and often by a continuous belt of pores. In some cases the 
pores are more numerous in the autumn wood. 

Sub-Himalayan forests from the Jbelam eastwards. Central and South India, 
Burma. 

Weight, 40 to 50 lbs. (Brandis) ; WalUch gives 49 ; our specimens average 67 lbs. 
The tree is not often cut, as it is chiefly valued for its fruit, the pulp of which is 
used medicinally in diarrhoea and dysentery, as a sherbet and as a conserve, keeping 
well when dry. The wood is used in construction, for the pestles of oil and sugar- 
mills, naves and other parts of carts, and for agricultural implements. 

lbs. 
P 441. Ajmere .............. 

O 248. Garhwal (1868) 67 

O 268. „ „ 60 

C 1176. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 62 

C 2786. Melghat, Berar 62 

E 2486. Calcutta 

E 638. Goalpara, Assam 63 

B 664. Prome, Burma 60 

The structure of CratcBva religiosa is very similar to this, but the wood is much 
softer, and the pores are enclosed in patches of soft tissue. 



Ohder XXIV. SIMAEUBE^. 

Contains eight genera of Indian trees or shrubs, almost always with bitter bark. 
They belong to 2 Tribes, viz,,-^ 

Tribe I. — Simarubeae Ailanthus, Samadera, Picratma, 

Brucea, Eur y com a and Suriana. 
„ II. — Picranmieae .... Harrisonia and Balanites, 

Harrisonia Bennettiij Hook. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 619 ; Kurz i. 203. Vem. 
Tapooben, Burm., is a small spinous tree of Burma. Brucea contains two bitter 
shrubs: B. sumatrana, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 449; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 621, of Assam, 
Tenasserim and the Andaman Islands ; and B, mollis^ Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 521 ; 
Gamble 16, of Sikkim, Bhutan, Sylhet and Burma, ascending to 6,000 feet. Eurycoma 
longifolia. Jack ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 62 ; Kurz i. 202, is a small tree of Tenasserim 
and the Andaman Islands, with a bitter bark which, in the Malay Archipelago, is used 
as a febrifuge. Suriana maritima, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 622 ; W. and A. Prodr. 
361 (Surianece), is a sea-side shrub with thick velvetv branches and yellow flowers. 
Quassia wood is the produce of Quanta amara, a tree of the West Indies. 



64 SIM ARUBEiB. [ Jtlanlius 

Wood white, soft (moderately hard in Balanites) ; no heartwood. 
Pores moderate-sized. Medullary rays moderately broad to very broad. 

1. AILANTHUS, Desf. 

Besides the two species described, A. glandulota, Desf., is a lofty tree, indigenoas 
in Japan, but occasionally planted both in Earope and in Northern India. It grows 
rapidly, throwing np abundant root suckers, and has for that reason been employed in 
plantations made to clothe barren stony hills in the south of France. It is also often 
employed as an avenue tree, and is cultivated in gardens. 

1. A- malabarica, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 518 ; Beddome t. 122 ; 
Brandis 58 ; Kurz i. 200. Vern. Peru, Tam., Tel. ; Dh'Ap, baga-dh'&p, 
gogul'dhip, Kan.; Maliipdl, Anamalais; Kambaln, loalbiling, Cingh. 

A large deciduous tree, with thick, rough bark. Wood white, very 
soft and spongy. Pores large, scanty, subdivided. Medullary rays 
short, moderately broad, the distance between the rays being larger 
than the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Western Gh&ts, rare in Pegu. Often planted in South India for ornament. 
Weight, 23 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood not used. The tree gives a gam resin 
which is used medicinally, especially in dysentery. For Mr. Brooghton's report on 
an analysis of it see Beddome t. 122. 

lU. 
W 746. South Eanara 23 

2. A. excelsa, DC; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 518 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 450; 
Beddome xlix; Brandis 58. Vern. ^r&a, MeywsLT ; MaAa ruii. Hind., 
Mar. ; Peru, pee, Tam. ; Pedu, pey, pedda, Tel. ; Oormi-kawat, Uriya. 

A large tree. Wood soft, white. Structure similar to that of A. 
malaharica. 

Central and Southern India. Often planted. 

Weight, 28 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood used to make floats for fishing, sword handles, 

spear sheaths and catamarans. The bark is aromatic and is used as a febrifuge and 

tonic. 

Ibi. 
C 2784. Melghat, Berar 

No. 4. Salem Collection 28 

2. SAMADERA, Qaertn. 

2. S. indica, Gaertn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 519 ; Thwaites Enum. 70; 
Beddome xlix ; Kurz i. 200. Vern. Samadara, Cingh. ; Kathai, Burm. 

A small tree. Wood light yellow, soft, no heartwood. Pores small ; 
scanty. Medullary rays very fine, uniform, closely packed. 

South India and Ceylon. 

Weight, 26 lbs. per cubic foot. The bark is used as a febrif age. 

lbs. 
No. 76. Ceylon Collection 26 

3. PICRASMA, Bl. 

B 1977. collected by Kurz in the Andamans in 1866 and marked 
P.javanica, Bl. Vern. Thityooben, Burm., has a soft, white wood. Pores 
small, uniformly distributed, joined by fine, concentric lines. Medullary 
rays short and fine. Weight, 27 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Besides this species, P. nepalensis, Benn. is a small tree.of Nepal and the Khasia 
Hilhirand P. qwunoidei^ Benn. ; Hook. FL Ind. i. 620 ; Brandis 69, Yem. TiUhai^ 



Pierawia, ] siMARUBEiE. 65 

Htkuy hala, Pb. ; Charanai, Hind., is a tall shrnb of the oater Himalaya from the 
Chenab to Nepal, occasionall j ascending to 8,000 feet, with a bitter bark, which is used 
as a snbetitate for quassia. 

4. BALANITES, Delile. 

1. B. Boxbnrghii, Planch. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i« 522 ; Brandis 59 ; Kurz 
i. 204. B. iBgyptica, Delile; Beddome I. Ximenia agypiiacay Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 253. Yern. Hingu, ingua, kingol^ hingoia. Hind.; OarraA, Oondi; 
Gari, ringri, Tel. ; Nanjunda, Tarn. ; Hingan, Mar. 

A small tree, with grey bark, i inch thick. Wood yellowish white, 
moderately hard, no heartwood, no annual rings. Pores small or 
moderate-sized, distributed in irregular bands and groups. MeduUanr 
rays short, very broad ; on a radial section visible as narrow plates, with 
a few fine ones intervening. 

Drier parts of India and Burma. 

Weight, 48 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood used for walking sticks and for fuel. From 
the seecf a fixed oil \a expressed. The seeds, bark and leaves are used in native 
medicine, and the kernel of the fruit, filled with gunpowder, in fireworks. 

lb*. 

P 450. Aimere 48 

C 1171. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces •#. 



Obdbb XXV. OCHNACEjE. 

Contains two genera, Oekna and Oomj^kia, comprising glabrous trees and shrubs. 
Ochna is described below. Gompkia contains two small trees : G. angusiifolia, Yahl. : 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 526 ; Beddome li., a small tree of the Western Ghra ; and G, suma- 
irama, Jack, of the sea-coast of Tenasserim. 

Wood red or brown ; grain close, but twisted. Pores small or very 
small^ uniformly distributed. Medullary rays moderately broad. 

I. OCHNA, Linn. 

Besides the three species described, O. pumila. Ham., is a small undershrub of the 
8ub-Himalayan tract, principally in s41 forests, with a perennial underground stem 
throwiuff up annually, after the jungle fires, stems 2 to 3 feet high, bearing handsome 
yellow flowers. 

1. 0. squarrOBay Linn. : Hook, Fl. Ind. i. 523 ; Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
643; Bedoome 1. ; Brandis 60. Vern. Sunarij yerra-juvi, Tel.; liarole, 
mudah, Kan. ; Komari, Uriya. 

A shrub or small tree. Wood reddish brown, moderately hard, close- 
grained. Pores very small, very numerous, between the moderately 
broad, but not very prominent medullary rays, which are clearly visible 
on a radial section. 

Bengal, Burma and South India. 

Weight, 61 lbs. per cubic foot. 

lU. 

C 1305. Grumstir. ...•••••. 51 

2. B. 1978 collected by Kurz in 1866 in the Andaman Islands and 
marked 0. andamanica, Kurz, has a red, hard wood, with the medullary 
rays prominent on a radial section, similar in structure to that of 
0. squarrosa. Weight, 58 lbs. per cubic foot. 

I 



66 ocuskCKM. [OcAna. 

3, 0. Wallichii, Planch ; Hook. Fl. lud. 524 ; Kurz i. 205. Vern. 
Today aA, Burm. 

A deciduous tree. Wood light brown, hard, close-grained. Pores 
small, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays fine and moderately broad, 
prominent on a radial section. 

Burma. 

Weight, 64 lbs. per cubic foot. lbs. 

B 3132. Burma (1862) 64 



Ordbe XXVI. BUESEEACE^. 

Contains seven genera of Indian trees, often resinous. They all belong to the 
Tribe Burserea, viz,: JProiium, Bostcellia, Garuga, Bahamodendron, Bursera, 
Canarium and Filicium, Prof turn contains two South Indian trees : P. caudatum, 
W. and A.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 630; Beddome t 126. Yem, Konda mamidi, Tel.; 
Kilevay, niluve, Tarn. ; Konda mdvuy Kan., a deciduous tree with green bark, often 
used for planting in avenues ; and F. pubescens, W. and A , a small ti-ee, resembling 
the former species. 

Wood marked by fine distant medullary rays, and small or moderate- 
sized^ uniformly distributed pores. 

1. BOSWELLIA, Roxb. 

1. B. thurifera, Colebr.; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 383 ; Beddome Hi.; 
Brandis 61. B, serrata, Roxb. ; Hook. Fl Ind. i. 528. B. glabra, 
Roxb.; Beddome t. 124. Vern. Salhe, salei, sdlgd, Hind.; Guggar, 
diimsal, Kumaon ; Salla, bor-salei, ganga, Gondi ; Luban, salai, Beng. ; 
Kungli, gUgulu, kundriiam, morada. Tarn. ; Anduiu, anduga, parangi, 
Tel.; Chittu, Kan. 

A moderate-sized, often gregarious tree. Bark \ inch thick, yellow, 
sometimes greenish yellow, exfoliating in small, hard, irregular flakes 
and thin plates of much larger size. Wood rough, white when fresh-cut, 
darkening on exposure, moderately hard. Pores moderate-sized, often 
subdivided. Medullary rays fine and moderate ; on a radial section 
distinctly visible as long narrow plates. 

Intermediate, northern and s<)uthem dry zones, Sub-Himalayan tract from the 
Sutlej to Nepal, drier forests of Central and Southern India. 

Weight, 30 to 36 lbs. per cubic foot (Brandis) ; our specimens give 32 lbs. Wood not 
durable, but it has been reported that 6 sleepers made of it and soaked for some time 
in a tank filled with the leaves of Bahera (Terminalia bellericaj and water and put 
down in June 1876 on the Holkar and Neemuch State Railway are still perfectly 
sound and sood. (Indore Forest lieport, 1876-77, quoted in Indian AgricuUurist of 
May 1878.) It is used for fuel and for making cnarooal, which in Nimar is used 
for iron smelting. From wounds and cracks m the bark it gives a transparent, 
fragrant, green resin, having an agreeable scent when burnt. It is used medicinally 
as a diaphoretic and astringent, to make ointment for sores, and as incense {Labanu, 
kundur, kundura, kundrtkam), but is not the true frankincense, which is the produce 
of a tree of the Somali country and Arabia. (Bird wood in Linn. Trans, xxvii, 
p. 146. Cooke's Beport on the Gums, Itesins, Oleo-resins and Eesinons Products in 
the India Museum, p. 81, 1874.) 

Ibg. 

P 3216. Nagpahar, Ajmere ^ 

C 1112. Ahin Reserve, Central Provinces 36 

C 2780. Melgh4t Forest, Ferar 28 

2. GARUQA, Roxb. 
1. Q. pinnata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 400 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 528 ; 



Gartiga, ] BtJRSERACEiB. 67 

Beddome t. 118; Brandis 62; Kurz i. 207; Gamble 15. Vern. 

Rharpaty katula, kilmira, mrofa, Pb. ; GAogar,kaiiar, Hind. ; Gurja, Banda; 

Knkafy kaikray ghunja, mahdruf^ C. P. ; Jum, k/iarpat, nil bhadi, Beng. ; 

Mohiy Uriya; Gia, Mechi ; Dabdabbi, Nep. ; Maldit^ Lepcha; Gendeli poma, 

Ass. ; Chitompay Giro ; Mroung-shuhayM.2ig\i ; Garuga,gdrgdy Tel ; Gupni, 

kekra, Gondi; Kekkeday Kurku ; Karre vembuy Tain.; Kurui, Mar.; 

Ckinyoky Burm. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark 1 ineb thick, soft, red inside, grey or 

brown outside, exfoliating in large irregularly shaped scales ; sapwood 

large, heartwood reddish, moderately hard. Pores large, not numerous. 

Medullary rays short, moderately broad ; on a radial section visible 

as narrow horizontal plates. 

Sub-Himalayan forests from the Jumna eastwards, Central and South India, 
Chittagong, Burma. 

Weight, according to Brandis, No. 45, 62 lbs. per cubic foot. The specimens here 
examined varied from 39 to 46 lbs., giving an average of 40 lbs. This is, very likely, 
Wallich's Jeeah, 36 lbs. The wood is not durable, but it seasons well. It is used 
occasionally for house-building and for fuel. The bark is used for tanning and the leaves 
for fodder. It exudes copiously a clear gum of no value. The fruit is sometimes eaten. 

Ibfl. 

O 225. Garhwal (1868) 39 

O 346. Gorakhpur (1868) 39 

C 1107. Chanda, Central Provinces 39 

E 648. Darjeeling Terai 39 

E 1389. Chittagong 46 

B 812. Burma , . . 39 

8. BALSAMODENDRON, Kunth. 

Contains four species of balsamiferous, often spinj shrubs or trees. Besides 
B. Mukul, Hook., described below, it contains B. pubescens, Stocks; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
L 529 ; Brandis 65. Vern. Bayi, bai, Beluch., a small tree of Beluchistan and the 
hills separating that country from Sind, as far south as Karachi. It yields a small 
onantitj of tasteless, inodorous, brittle gum, almost entirely soluble in water. 
B. Ber/yi, Amott ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 529 ; Brandis 65 ; Beddome t. 126, is a tree of 
the forests on the east side of the Nilgiris, cultivated as a hedge plant. It is very 
fragrant and gives a gum-resin. B, Boxburahiiy Am. Vern. Chigala, Beng., is a 
small tree of Eastern Bengal and Assam. The drug called ' Myrrh ' is the ffom- 
reeinoos exudation of BaUamodendron Myrrha, Ehrenb., a small tree of Arabia and the 
African coast of the Bed Sea. 

1. B. Mukul, Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 529 ; Brandis 64. Vern. Gigaly Sindi. 

A small tree^ bark greenish yellow, peeling off in long thin, shining 

paper-like scrolls. Wood soft, white. Pores small. Medallary rays finei 

short. 

Arid zone, Sind, Kattywar, Rajputana, Khandesh. 

Weieht, 20 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood not used. The tree yields a gum called 
' Gngal or Indian Bdellium, which is obtained from incisions made in the bark, and is 

used in native medicine and for preparing an ointment for bad ulcers. 

lbs. 

P 448. Ajmere 

P 2919. Bajputana 20 

P 3238. Dewair, Ajmere 



..« 



4. BURSERA, Linn. 

1. B. serrata, Colebr. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 530 ; Brandis 61; Kurz i« 
208. Vern. Murtenga, Ass. ; TAadee-ben, Burm. 

A large evergreen tree. Wood hard, sapwood light brown, heart- 
wood red, close-grained. Pores small^ uniformly distributed. Medoi- 



68 BURSBRACKiE. [BufBera. 

lary rays fine^ red ; on a radial section distinctly visible as narrow dark 
bands. 

Eagtern moifit zone, Bengal, Aflsam, ChiUagong and Burma. 

Weight, 46 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood good for furniture. 

lb*. 

B 313. Burma (1867) 46 

B 2226. Andamans (similar in structuie, but wood lighter and softer) 37 

6. CANABIUM, Linn. 

Contains 4 large resinous trees of Southern India, Eastern Bengal and Burma. 
C, strictum, Roxb. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 634 ; Beddome 1. 128, is the Black Dammer Tree, 
Vem. Karapu han^iliam, Tarn. ; Manda dkup, Kan. ; Thelli, Mai., a tall tree of 
Southern India, givmg a brilliant black gum used medicinally and for other purposes 
(for Mr. Broughton's analysis of it, see Beddome under 1. 128). C euphyllum, Kurz, 
i. 208 and C coccineo'braeteatum, Eurz, L 209 are large trees of the Andaman Islands. 

1. C. bengalense. Boxb. FI. Ind. iii. 1S6; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 5S4; 
Kurz i. 209 ; Gamble 15. Yern. Ooguldkiipf Nep. ; Natockpa, Lepcha ; 
Tekreng, Gixo ; Biyangy dhuna, Ass. 

A tall tree with straight cylindrical stem. Bark light coloured^ 
hard^ thin^ rough with horizontal wrinkles. Wood shining, white when 
fresh cut^ turning grey on exposure, soft, even-grained, does not warp, 
but decays readily. Pores scanty, large, often oval and subdivided, 
prominent on a vertical section. Medullary rays fine, white ; on a 
radial section distinctly visible, giving the wood a mottled appearance. 

Eastern moist zone, eastern Himalaya, Bengal and Burma. 

Weight, 28 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood is much esteemed in Bengal for tea- 
boxes, and it is al^ used for shingles. The tree yields a resin which is used as 

incense ; it is clear, amber-coloured and brittle. 

ibt. 
E 703. Great BangCt Valley, Daijeeling, 3,500 feet . .28 

6. PILICIUM, Thwaites. 

1. F. decipiens, Thwaites Enum. 69 ; Beddome t. 129; Hook. FI. 
Ind. i. 589. Vern. Kaiu puveroiy Tam. ; PeAimbia, Cingh. 

A tree with elegant fern-like leaves. Heartwood red, moderately 
hard. Pores small, in groups or short radial lines. Medullary rays fine, 
numerous, at unequal distances. 

Western Gh&ts up to 4,600 feet, Ceylon. 

Weighty 68 lbs. per cubic foot (A. Mendis). Wood strong, valuable for building. 

ibt. 
No. 70. Ceylon Collection 08 



Order XXYII. MELIACEJE. 

An Order containing about 20 trees or shrubs, chiefly of the moist zones. 
The Order is divided into 4 Tribes, viz, : — 

Tribe I. — Meliea 7\trraa, Naregamia, Munronia, 

Melia and Cijpadessa. 

„ IL — Trichiliefld Dysoxylum, Chtsochetan, Sando* 

ricum, A gl aia, Zaruium, 
Amooray Waltura, Seynea, 
Beddomea, and Carapa. 

m. — Swieteniesa Soymidct, Ckickrassia, and 

Swietenia. 
9$ lY.—Cedielefd Chloroxylon and Cedr^la. 



Melia. ] MBLIACK^. 69 

Of these 20 genera, 10 are described here. The remaining 10 are of much less 
importance. I'urraa virens, Linn., T. villosa, Benn., and Naregamia alata^ 
W. and A., are shrubs of Southern India; Munronia Wiallichif, Wight, is a shrub 
of the Eastern Himalaya and the Nilgiris ; Cipadessa fruticosa, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. i. 646 (Mallea Rothii, Adr. Juss. ; Beddome liy. Ekehergia indica, Boxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 392). Vem. Nal bild. Hind. ; Chendbera, purudona, Tel., is a small 
tree of the western coast, used for fuel. Chitocheton contains 3 evergreen trees : 
C. grandiflorus, Kurz i. 216. Vem. Tkitkatong, Burm., with a pale brown, rather 
heavy, hs^ and close-grained wood, and C. dvsoxyUfblius^ Kurz i. 216, are from 
Burma; while C. paniculatus, Hiem. ; Hook. Fi. Ind. L 562; Kurz i. 216. (Guarea 
paniculata, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 242) Yem. Kalikoura, Sylhet, is a tree of the Khasia 
Hills and Eastern Bengal. Aglaia contains about 10 species, chiefly Burmese or 
East Himal^an trees, among which A, JRoxburghiaiui, W. and A. ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. i. 656 ; Beddome t. 130, a large tree of the Western Gh4t8, with a strong useful 
timber; and A. edulis, A. Gray; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 666; Gamble 16. (Milnea 
edulU, Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 637.) Vem. Laii mahwa, Nep. ; Sinakadang, Lepcha ; 
Chimi, Sylhet, a tree of Northern and Eastern Bengal with edible fruity are chiefly 
noticeable. Lantium anamallayanum, Beddome t. 131, is a handsome tree of 
the Western Gh4ts. Seynea trijuga, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 390 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 
666; Brandis 70; Guuble 16 fJS, affinis, Juss.; Beddome t. 134. Walsura 
trijuga, Eurz i. 225) Yem. YakiMhi, akhaterwa, Nep. ; Limbara, Mai*., is a 
tree of the Outer Himalaya and Sub-Himalayan tract from the Ganges eastwards, the 
Khasia HiUs, South Inaia and Burma. Beddomea contains two species : B. indica. 
Hook, f ., a large shrub, and B. simplic\folia, Beddome t. 136, a tree of the Western 
Ghiits. Most of the MeliacesB give a good timber, and some of the species are among 
the most important of Indian forest trees. 

Wood red (yellow in Chloroxylon^ dark reddish brown in Soymida), 
Heartwood generally hard and dark colonred^ not distinct in Cedrela, 
in several species of Melia and Dysoxylon, Pores varying in size^ often 
subdivided^ always prominent on a vertical section. Medullary rays 
fine^ numerous and sharply marked in Chloroxylon, Sandoricum and 
Melia; broader and often less prominent in the other genera. Con- 
centric bands of softer texture in Amoora Rohiiuka and fFalsura robusta. 

1. MELT A, Linn. 

Besides the three species, the wood of which is here described, M, exceUa, Jack ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 644 ; Eurz i. 212 ; and M. birmanica, Kurz i. 213. Yem. Ihu'ta^ma" 
kha, Burm., are evergreen trees of Burma. 

The wood of M. dubia and 3f . Azedarach resemble that of Cedrela 
in structure^ but differs in having fine and numerous medullary rays. 
M. indica has a distinct heartwood^ which is hard and close-grained^ 
but the pores and medullary rays are similar to those of the two species 
first named. 

1. M. indicay Brandis For. Fl. 67. M. Azadirachta, Linn. ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 544; Koxb. FL Ind. ii. 394; Beddome t. 13 (14 by mistake); 
Kurz i. 212. The Neem or Margosa Tree. Vem. Azad-daraikt, neb^ 
Pers. ; Nim, Hind.; Betain, Kumaon; Agas, Valsimow ; Limbo , C.P.; 
Kohumba, Guz. ; Nimuri, Sindi; Veypam, Tam.; Yapa, y^p^t iaruka, 
vimpa, Tel. ; Limb, nimbay, Mar. ; Bevina, b(vu, Aeb-bevu, Kan. ; TAimbaU' 
ta^ma-kka, Burm. 

A large tree. Bark grey^ with numerous scattered tubercles. Sapwood 
grey; heartwood red^ very hard. Annual rings doubtful: the wood 
shews alternating bands with numerous and with fewer pores; also 
white concentric lines, whether these are annual rings is a matter for 
further enquiry. Pores moderate-sized and large, oflen oval and sub- 
divided; visible on a vertical section. Medullary rays fine^ numerous 



70 MKUACKiE. [ Melia. 

white, prominent, bent outwards where they touch the pores ; the distance 
between the rays less than the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Planted and self-sown throughout the greater part of India and Burma. 
The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following 
eiperiments : — 

Weight. Value of P. 
Puckle in 1859, three experiments, with bars 2' x 1" X 1*, found 49 lbs. 639 

Skinner in 1862, No. 19 „ 60 „ 720 

Cunningham in 1854, two expcrunents, with bars 2' X 1" X V, „ 62 „ 687 
Fowke in Catalogue, South Kensington Museum, 1859 . „ 46 „ 316 

Wallich „ 46 „ ... 

Smythies in 1878, the mean of our three specimens . . „ 63 „ .^ 

The wood is used for the construction of carts, in ship-building and for making agricul- 
tural implements, and in South India for furniture. It is held sacred by Hindus, and idols 
are made of it. The bark is bitter and is used as a febrifuge. The leaves are made 
into a poultice for ulcere. The gum is clear, amber-coloured and used as a stimulant. 
The seeds are employed to kill insects and for washing the hair. The fruit gives a fixed, 
acrid, bitter, yellow-coloured oil which is used to burn, but smokes badly in burning : it 
is also used in medicine as an antiseptic and anthelmintic. 

P 463. Ajmere (sapwood) 4B 

D 1063. Salem, Madras , . 63 

No. 11. Salem Collection 69 

2. M. Azedarach, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 644; Boxb. FI. Ind. ii. 
895 (also M. sempervirens, Sw.) ; Beddome 1. 14 (13 by mistake) ; Brandis 
68 ; Kurz i. 212 ; Gamble 1 6. The Persian Lilac, Bastard Cedar or Bead 
Tree. Vern. Chein, kachein, Sutlej; I^reky bakain, bakdyan, betain, deikna, 
bakarja, UmAry Maka limbo, malla nim, muAliy C.V,; £akaini,Nep,; 
Mallay vembu, Tam.; Taraka vepa, makdnimy Tel.; Bevu, chik bhu, 
Kan. ; Ta-ma-kka, Burm. ^ 

A tree with smooth grey bark. Sapwood yellowish white ; heartwood 
soft, red. Annual rin<2fs marked by a broad belt of large pores, the 
outer part of each annual ring containing a few smaller-sized pores which 
are joined by irregular, wavy, concentric bands of soft tissue. Medullary 
rays moderately broad ; visible on a radial section as long rough plates. 
Pores \ery prominent on a longitudinal section. 

Commonly cultivated throughout India, and believed to be indigenous in the outer 
Himalaya, Siwalik tract and the hills of Beluchistan. 

Growth rapid, 3 to 4 rings per inch of radius; it coppices freely. Weight, 30 lbs. 
according to okinner. No. 92 ; our specimens give an average of 38 lbs. Skinner gives 
the value of P at 696. 

Wood used for furniture. Beddome, Brandis and Eurz all say it warps and splits, 
but Mr. Halsej of Madhopdr writes to say that it is equally useful either green or 
seasoned. Our specimens split onlv very slightly, and we are inclined to think it is 
better than it has been supposed to be. The wooa is very handsomely marked and 
polishes well. The bark is extremely bitter and is employed as an anthelmintic. The 
fruit yields an oil, and the nuts are frequently strung as beads. The leaves and pulp 

of the fruit are used in native medicine. 

ibg. 

P 146. Sainj, Giri Valley, Punjab 38 

P 946. Lahore, Punjab 35 

P 1201. Madhopur, Punjab 40 

3. M. dubia, Cav. ; Hook. FI. Ind. i. 545. if. composita, Willd. ; 
Beddome t. 12; Brandis 69; Gamble 16. Jf. iuperba and M. robusta, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 896-7. Vern. Eisir^ limbarra, nimbarra, Bombay; 
Lapshi, Nep. ; Dingkurlong, Khasia Hills; Mallay vembu, Tam.; BSvu, 
btita bivUf kdd bivu, Kan. 



Melia.] MKLiACE^. 71 

A large deciduous tree, with smooth, dark-brown bark. Sapwood 
grey; heartwood reddish white, soft. Pores large, generally round, 
visible on a vertical 8ectii»n. Medullary rays whit^, fine, scanty, pro- 
minent on a radial section. The structure resembles that of Toon, but 
all the pores are of the same size and the wood is softer. The annual 
rings are marked by more numerous, but not larger pores. 

Eastern Himalaya, South India, Ceylon and Burma. 

Growth rapid ; 2 to 3 rings per inch of radius in the Madras specimen ; that from 
Bengal was moderate, 7 rings per inch. Roxburgh says that a tree of M, rohusta 
grown in the Calcutta Botanic Gardens from Malabar seed produced in 7 years, trees 
46 feet high, with a girth of 44 inches at 4 feet from the ground, which is equivalent 
to about 1 ring per inch of radius. Also that another, of M, superba, from seed sent 
by Dr. Berry from Sunda, reached in 6 years a height of 40 to 60 feet with a girth 
of 48 inches. Weight, 26 to 33 lbs. per cubic foot ; used for building in South India. 
The wood will probably be found useful for tea-boxes and similar purposes, and the 
tree should be cultivated on account of its rapid growth. 

llM. 

E 706. Great Rangit Valley, Darjeeling 33 

D 1093. Madura, Madras 26 

No. 49. Ceylon Collection 26 



B 607 (28 lbs.) sent from the Andamans under the name of Barringtonia speciosa, 
Vem. Kjfaigyee, Burm. ; Doddd, And., has a wood in every respect similar to that of 
If, dubta, but that tree has not yet been reported from the Andaman Islands. 

2. DYSOXYLUM, Blume. 

Besides the three species here described, the following occur in India : 2>. grande, 
Hiem ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 647, a tree of Sylhet ; D, pollens, Hiem ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i! 
648, a tree of Sikkim and the Khasia Hills ; D, malaharicum, Bedd. ; Hook. FL 
Ind. i. 648. (Dtfsoxylum sp., Beddome liv.). Vem. Forapd, Kaders; and D. Bed' 
domeif Hiem ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 648, trees of Southern Inaia. The leaves of several 
species give out a strong odour of garlic ; the leaves are compound, with oblique often 
laree l^ets, and the capsules are generally large, containing large brightly coloured 
seeds. 

Wood reddish^ rough, moderately hard. Pores prominent on a verti- 
cal section, moderate sized to large, often subdivided. 

1. D. binectarifenun. Hook, f.- Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 546; Knrz i. 
215; Gamble 16. D. macrocarpum, Bl.; Beddome liv, t. 150. Gnarea 
bineciarifera, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 240. Yevni. Kaiongzu^lie^hiii Rangu 
rata, Cacbar ; Borogolodhara, Ass. 

A large evergreen tree. Wood reddish-grey, rough and close- 
grained, hard. Pores large and moderate-sized, often subdivided. Medul- 
lary rays modt-rately broad, red, wavy, irregularly distributed; the 
distance between the rays generally larger than the transverse diameter 
of the pores. 

Sikkim ascending to 2,000 feet, Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong and the Western 
Gh4t8. 

Weight, our specimens give 44 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood worthy of notice. 
Kyd (Guarea Ootodhara, Ham.) gives 40*5 and P = 290. 

E 644. Ehyrbani Forest, Darjeeling Terai 44 

2. D. procenun, Hiem; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 547; Kurz i. 214. 
Veru. Dingori, govorpoug^ota (Wall.), Ass. 

An evergreen tree. Wood bright red, moderately hard. Pores large. 



7^ MELIACE2B. [ Dt/iOX^Ium. 

often oval and subdivided, prominent on a vertical section. Medallarv 
rays fine, numerous, wavy, not prominent; the distance between the 
rays generally equal to the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Assam, Ehasia Hills and Cachar to Pejni and Tenasserim. 

Kyd {Ouarea Qohara, Ham.) gives weight 47 lbs., P = 617 ; our specimens weigh 
from 37 to 40 lbs. It is a handsome wood, well deserving of more extensive notice. 
It is said by Hamilton to be used for canoes. 

E 631. Eastern Ddars 40 

E 1434. Assam 37 

B 2484 f441b8.), B 2250 (40 lbs.) and B 2256 (31 lbs.) from the Andaman Islands 
(1866) have been put under this species on account of their structure, although JDytoxy- 
lum has not been described from the Andamans. 

3. D. Hamiltonii, Hiern; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 518; Gamble 16. 
Vern. Bauripial, Nep. ; Oendelli poma, bosuniyapoma (Wall.), Ass.; 
Bola»hin, Gdro. 

A large evergreen tree. Wood red, hard, close-grained. Pores 
moderate-sized, subdivided. Medullary rays fine, uniform and equidis- 
tant ; the distance between the rays greater than the transverse diameter 
of the pores. 

Darjeeling Terai, Assam and Sjlhet. 

Growth moderate, 6 rings per inch of radius. Eyd (Quarea Alliaria, Ham.) 
gives weight 40*5 lbs., P = 523 ; our specimens average 40 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood 
used in ^sam for boats and planks, said not to be durable. 

Hamilton says it is used tor canoes. 

Iba. 

E 1259. Tezpur, Assam 47 

£ 2189. Nowgong, Assam 36 

8. SANDORICUM, Cav. 

1. S. indicnin, Cav. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 558 ; Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. 892 ; 
Beddome Iv. ; Kurz i. 217. Vern. ThiUo, Burm. 

An evergreen tree with grey, not very rough, bark. Sapwood grey ; 

heartwood red, moderately hard, close-grained, takes a beautiful polish. 

Pores small, oval and subdivided. Medullary rays fine, undulating, not 

prominent ; marked on a radial section as long narrow bands, giving the 

wood a beautifully mottled appearance. 

Burma, introduced in Southern India. 

Weight, our specimen gives 36 lbs. per cubic foot; Wallich, No. 175, gave 28 lbs. 
Used for carts and boat-bmlding. 

lb*. 

B 804. Burma 36 

4. AMOORA, Roxb. 

Besides the tliree we have described below: A, CkUtoffonga, Hiern; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. i. 559 (Aalaia Chittaatmga, Miq. ; Kurz i. 218) Vern. Thitpasaing, Magh; 
is a large tree oi the North-East Himalaya and Eastern Bengal down to Chitts^gong and 
Arracan, whose wood is largely used in Chittagonff ; A, iawii, Bth. and Hook. f. 
Beddome t. 133. Vern. Burumb, Bombay, is a troe of the Bombay and Kanara Gh&ts ; 
A. decandraj Hiern ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 662 ; Gamble 16, is a tree of Sikkim and Nepal, 
from 2,000 to 6,000 fb. ; and A. canarana, Bth. and Hook, f., a tree of the Western 
6h4tB. 

Wood hard, close-grained, red, with a darker coloured heartwood. 
Pores small to large, often subdivided, visible or prominent on a vertical 
section. In. A. EoAUuia the pores are joined by wavy concentric bands 
of soft texture. 



Jmoora, ] mbliack£. 73 

1. A. Rohitnka, W. and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 569 ; Beddome t. 
132; Brandis 69; Kurz i. 220; Gamble 16. Andersonia Rohiluka, 
Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. 213. Vern. SoAiluia, Sans.; Harin harra, harin 
ikanay Hind. ; Sohdga^ Oudb ; Tikta-raj, pi^raj, Beng. ; Bandriphal, 
Nep. ; TangarAJif Lepcha ; Lola amari, amora amari, Ass. ; Okhioungza, 
okhyang, Magh.; Chem-maram Mai. ; Thiineey Burm. 

An evergreen tree with thin grey bark. Wood reddish^ close and 

even-grained, hard. Pores small and moderate-sized. Medullary rays 

moderately broad^ uniform and equidistant^ distinctly visible on a radial 

section. Pores joined by reddish, soft, wavy, concentric lines. The 

concentric bands in this species are remarkable, as they are absent from 

the two other species here described* 

Ondh, Assam, Northern and Eastern Bengal, Western Ghats and Burma. 
Average weight, 4C'6 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Wood good, but little used, in Chitta^ong canoes are sometimes made of it. In 
Bengal an oil is expressed from the seeds. 

O 1362. Gonda, Oudh 42 

E 2331. Mangwa, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet 36 

E 1261. Tezpur, Assam 39 

E 711. Chittagong 45 

2. A. CUCullatay Roxb.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 560; Beddome Iv. ; 
Kurz i. 221. Andersonia cttcullata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 212. Vern. Amur, 
latmi, natmiy Beng. ; Thitneey Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree, with thin grey bark. Wood red, 
hard, close-grained, but apt to split. Pores small and moderate-sized. 
Medullary rays very fine, uniform, very numerous. 

Coasts of Bengal and Burma. 

Weight, 44 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood used for posts and other purposes in Lower 
Bengal, and for firewood in the Sundarbans. 

lbs. 
E 414. Sundarbans 44 

3. A. SpectabiliSy Miq. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 561 ; Kurz i. 221. Vern. 
Jmari, Ass. 

An evergreen tree. Wood red, hard, close-grained. Pores moderate- 
sized and large, often oval and subdivided, distinctly visible on a longi- 
tudinal section. Medullary rays fine, uniform, equidistant, prominent on 
a radial section, the distance between them less than the traverse 
diameter of the pores. 

Eastern moist zone. Assam and Burma. 

Average weight, 48*5 lbs. Wood durable ; takes a good polish. Used for boat-building 
and furniture in Assam. This is probably Kyd's Ouarea (Amari)^ Weight, 47 lbs. 
P = 792. 

E 1255. Tezpur, Assam • 49 

£ 2192. Nowgong, Assam 48 

5. WALSURA, Roxb. 

B 1986 18 a specimen collected by Kurz in the Andaman Islands in 
1866, marked WaUura rohnsta, Roxb. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 565 ; Kurz. i. 
223. Vern. Upphingy Sylhet ; Gyophoy Uouhmayhay Burm. Wood light 
red, very bard. Pores small, joined by numerous, prominent, wavy, 
concentric lines. Medullary rays very fine, numerous. Weight, 63 lbs. 
per cubic foot. 

K 



74 MEUACEiB. [ Walsura. 

Six other species of this renos occur in India : W. tmhulata, Hiem. ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. i. 663, is a tree of Sikkim and the Ehasia Hills ; W. temata, Roxb., occars in 
the Circars and northern part of Madras ; W, piseidia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 389 ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 663 ; Beddome Ivi. Vern. WaUura, Tam. ; Wallurti, Tel., is a small tree 
of Sonth India with good wood and bark used to poison fish ; W. villosa, Wall. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 564 ; Kurz. i. 223. Yem. Cf^obo, Bnxin. and W , pu beseens, Eurz, are 
evergreen trees of Banna ; while W. hypoleuca, Kurz i. 224 and W'. oxyearpa, Eurz L 
224 occnr in the Andaman Islands. 

6. CARAPA, Aubl. 

1. C. moluccensis, Lam.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 567; Beddome t. 186. 
C obovaia, Bl. ; Kurz i. 226. Xylocarpus Granalum, Kbn. Vera. PosAur, 
dhundul, Beug. ; Kandalanga^ Tam. ; Pinla^foung^ Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Bark thin, grey, peeling off in 
regular flakes. Wood white^ turning red on exposure^ hard. Pores 
small^ often in short radial lines. Medullary rays prominent^ moderately 
broad, numerous, uniform and equidistant. Annual rings distinctly 
marked by a continuous line of pores. 

Coasts of Bengal, Malabar, Burma and Ceylon. 

Growth moderate, 6*6 rings per inch of radius. Weight, our specimens give 41 lbs. ; 
Brandis, No. 24, Burma List, 1862, gives 47 lbs. ; Widlich 47 lbs. Used in Burma for 
house posts, handles of tools and wheel spokes. Gives a clear, brown, brittle resin. 
The fruit yields an oil used for burning and for the hair. 

llM. 

E 402. Sundarbans 41 

B 2514. Burma (1862) 42 

B 2239. Andamans (1866) . . . 41 

7. SWIETENIA, Linn, 

1. S. Mahagoni, Linn. ; Brandis 70. The Mahogany Tree. 

A large evergreen tree. Heartwood reddish brown^ seasons and 
works well^ hard. Annual rings marked by a continuous line of pores. 
Pores moderate-sized, scanty, uniformly distributed, subdivided. 
Medullary rays very shorty very numerous^ moderately broad, uniform 
and equidistant. 

Jamaica and Central America. 

Cultivated in Bengal and as far north as Saharanpur. The tree was introduced 
into the Botanic Gardens at Calcutta in 1795 (plants from the West Indies), and 
idthough it was largel;^ propagated bv layers, no further new introductions 
were probahly made unnl 1865, when about 8,000 seeds were sown in Calcutta 
by Dr. T. ^derson. A number of these seeds did not succeed, but in the end 
460 plants were procured, three-fourths of which were planted in the Mohur- 
gong Forest in the Darjeeling Terai, and the remainder at Calcutta. The plant- 
ation at Mohurgong was a failure, but the growth of mahogany at the Calcutta 
Botanic Gardens, and at other places in Bengal to whidi it was distributed, 
has been very satisfactory. The experiment is now being continued, both in 
Bengal and in Burma, and in time it may be hoped that the tree will be cultivated 
successfully as an adjunct to teak. In a report submitted to Government by 
Dr. T. Anderson, of 27th December 1866, he states that 3 trees presumably 
73 years of age gave, at 4 feet from the ground, girths of 14 feet 3 inches, 12 feet 3 inches 
and 13 feet respectively, equivalent to a growth of 3*11 rings per inch of radius. In the 
ereat cyclone of 1864 a number of the trees originally introduced in 1795 were blown 
down ; they had then, most of them, attained 12 feet in girth at 4 feet from the ground, 
and logs cut from them sold at 4} to 5 annas per superficial foot one inch tMck, or 
at about Bs. 3*6 per cubic foot. 



Swieteuia. ] uelijlcem. 75 

The following measurements of Saharanpnr trees are taken from an article in the 
Indian AgriculturUt, of the 1st June 1876 :— 

Trees planted in 1827-28 measured in May 1873, at 3 feet from ground : — 

No. 1 . . .90 inohes. \ 

„ 2 . . . 77 „ / Height, 80 to 100 feet 

„ 3 . . • 72 „ V Average girth, 88 

„ 4 . . . 101 „ C inches. 

„ 5 . . . 101 „ ; 

Trees planted ia 1839 measured in May 1873, at 3 feet from ground : — 

No. 1 . • .67 inches. '\ Height, 65 feet. 
„ 2 . . 40 „ j „ 60 „ 

Trees planted in 1842-43 measured in May 1873, at 3 feet from gpround : — 

No. 1 . . .40 inches. *) 
„ 2 . . . 33 „ > Height, 60 to 70 feet 

„ 3 . . 24 „ ; 

The first five vary from 3 to 4 rings per inch of radius, averaging 3*41 rings. 
„ second pair „ „ 4 to 6 „ „ „ „ 478 „ 

„ third three „ „ 6 to 8 „ „ „ „ 609 „ 

from which it would seem that the growth gets faster as the trees eet older. As the 
1^7-28 and 1839 trees were from plants sent up from Calcutta, ue age has been 
taken at 47 and 36 years respectively, the 1842-43 plants were from seedlings, and were 
consequently 30 years c^d. Taking the Calcutta and Saharanpur trees together, we 
have a mean growth of 4*94 rings per inch of radius as the mean of 13 trees, or an 
age of 68 years corresponding to a girth of 6 feet. The growth in Calcutta is much 
faster than this, as the Calcutta average gave 36 years corresponding to a girth of 
6 feet. 

The weight of Mahogany varies much. Tredgold gives for Honduras wood 
36 lbs. and for Spanish Mahogany 63 lbs,, and Fowke gives 62 lbs. as the weight of 
Jamaica mahoganv. Our specimen cut from one of the trees destroyed in the 1864 
cyclone gave 46 lbs. Tredgold gives for the value of P. for Honduras wood 637, 
for Spanish Mahogany 425 ; Fowke gives for Jamaica wood 646. Laslett's experi- 
ments give the following results : — 

Weight. Yaloe of P. 
Cuba Mahogany, 6 experiments, bars 7' X 2^ X 2^ (6 

&et between suppoits) 48 lbs. 642 

Honduras Mahogany, 6 experiments, bars 7' X 2*^ 

X ^' (6 feet between supports) . . • . 41 „ 601 
Mexican Mahogany, 6 experiments, bars 7'x2^ 

X 2^ (6 feet between supports) . . • • 42 „ 687 

In Europe the wood is, perhaps, used more extensively than any other for furniture*; 
it is also used in ship-building. On account of its rapid growth and the great value 
of its wood, the tree should be grown whenever practicable in the tropi(»l regions of 
India. In the Calcutta market it fetches from 6^ to 8 annas per superficial foot of 
planking one inch thick ; and in London from 4o^. to Is. 6d, 

The difBculty in propagating Mahogany in India arises mainly from the want of 
seeds. In the Saharanpur gardens the trees, as stated above, have never seeded. As 
far as it is now known, one or two trees in private gardens near Barrackpore, and two 
or three trees belonging to Government on the Barrackpore road, have been seeding 
occasionally for many years past. One tree in the Barrackpore Park, and an ola. 
damaged and gnarl^ tree in the Calcutta Botanic Gardens, which, however, was 
blown down in the cyclone of 1864, have also seeded, but not freely. Whenever these 
trees did seed, the seeds have been regularly collected and sown. 

All attempts to propagate the Mahogany by cuttings have failed. It has, how- 
ever, been propagated to a considerable extent by means of layers, and trees raised 
from layers are believed to be much more likely to produce seed early than seedlings ; 
but from their tendency to form low branching bushes, it is feared that they will 
not yield much valuable timber. It has, therefore, been found necessary to depend 
upon the West Indies for supplies of seed as ^et and for some years past supplies 
have been received and the seedlings regularly cUstributed, chiefly in Bengal. 

IbB. 

£ 1361. Calcutta Botanic Gardens 45 



^ .* 



76 HXLiACBiB. [ Soymida. 

8. SOYMIDA, Adr. Juss. 

1. S. febrifuga, Adr. Juss.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 567; Beddome t. 
8 ; Brandis 71 ; Kurz i. 228. Swieteniafebnfuga, Willd. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 398. Indian Red Wood. Vern. Rohan, Hind. ; Rohina, Beng. ; Shetn, 
wond, Tarn, j Sumi, Tel.; Soian, Urija; Soimi, Gondi; Roi/ta, Bhil. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark I to 4 inch thick, bluish grey or 
dark brown. Sapwood small, whitish ; heartwood extremely hard and 
close-grained, reddish black, very durable. Pores moderate-sized, 
scanty. Mednllary rays modf*rately broad, distinctly visible on a radial 
section as dark, shining, horizontal plates. Numerous fine, concentric 
lines of lighter colour, often closely packed and forming broader bands. 

Central India and Dekkan. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 117, and Fowke, 66 lbs. ; R. Thompson gives 71, 
and Bombay specimens fl^ve 76 ; Wallich (Swietenia febr\fuga) 55 lbs. ; our specimens 

five an average of 73'5 lbs. According to Skinner's experiments, the value of P is 1024, 
owke gives 626. The wood is durable. Skinner says that a piece taken out of the 
workshop at Fort Saint George, which had been erected in 1803 and pulled down in 1859, 
stood 1,232 lbs. without breaking a scantling .3' x l^^^X IJ.'' It is not much attacked 
by white ants. It k used for construction, well- work, ploughshares and oil-mills. 
The bark is bitter, and is used as a febrifuge and in diarrhoea aiKl dysentery. 

Ibfl. 

194. Majidla, Central Provinces, 1871 73 

C 1123. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 72 

C 1240. Gumsiir, Madras .74 

D 2113. Mysore 76 

9. CHICKRASSIA, Adr. Juss. 

Besides these ipeoies, Kurz describes C. velutina, Soemer. Vern. Timmak, as 
occurring in Pegu. 

1. C. tabulaiiSy Adr. Juss. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 568; Beddome t. 9 ; 
Brandis 78 ; Kurz i. 227. Swielenia Ciiekrassa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 399. 
Chittagong Wood. Yern. CAiirassi, Beug. ; Boga poma, Ass.; Aglay, 
agal, eleuiharay. Tarn. ; Madagari vembu, Tel. ; Ganti malic, Salem ; Bal^ 
mara, Kan. ; Pabba, Mar. ; Main, Hyderabad ; Saiphra, sey barasi, Magh ; 
Chegarasi Chakma; YimmaA, yengma. Barm. ; Arrodah, And. 

A large tree. Bark readish brown, deeply cracked. Heartwood 
hard, varying from yellowish brown to reddish brown, with a beautiful 
satin lustre, seasons and works well ; sapwood of a lighter colour. Pores 
moderate-sized, often oval and subdivided, isolated, uniformly distributed. 
Medullary rays fine, uniform, mostly equidistant, slightly undulating ; 
the distance between the rays generally equal to the transverse diameter 
of the pores. Annual rings distinctly marked by a sharp line. 

Eastern Bengal, Assam, Chittagong, Burma and South India. 

Growth, moderate, 8*6 rmgs per inch of radios. Weight, according to Skinner, 
No. 46, 42 lbs. ; our specimeos give an average of 45'6 lbs. Skinner's experiments 
give P=614. The wood is used for furniture and for carving. The bark is a 
powerful astringent, and the flowers give a red or yellow dye. 

lbs 

E 1260. Tezptir, Assam 40 

E 2197. Nowgong, Assam 45 

E 1401. Chittagong 49 

W 764. South Eanara 43 

W1218. North Kanara 44 

B 2516. Burma (1862) 52 






Cklorori/lon.^ meliace^b, 77 

10. CHLOROXYLON, DC. 

1. C. Swietenia, DC; Hook. Fl. Ind, i. 569; Beddome t. 11; 
Brandis 74. Swietenia Chloroxylon, Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. 400. Satin Wood. 
Vern. Behra, g^Ty<*i hehru^ biAri, C. P. ; Mududad, Tam. ; Billu, bilgu^ 
Tel. ; Burns, j)urusA, Tam. ; BeAru, Uriya; Halda, iAeria, Mar.; HuragalUf 
Mysore; Burute, mal burnte, C'mgh, 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark ^ inch thick^ soft^ spongy^ 
light grey or yellow. Wood very hard^ yellowish brown, the inner wood 
of a darker colour, but no distinct heartwood, with a beautiful satiny 
lustre, seasons well. Annual rings distinct. Pores very small. Me- 
dullary rays fine, uniform and equidistant, very numerous, distinctly 
visible on a radial section as shining irregularly-shaped plates; the 
distance between the rays is greater than the transverse diameter of 
the pores. 

Central and South India and Ceylon. 

Growth slow, 16 rings per inch of radius. The following experiments have been 
made to determine the weight and transverse strength : — 

Wdgbt. Vmlue of P. 
Baker, in 1829, with Madras wood, 3 experiments, 

with bars 6' X 2^ X 2" . . . . . found 65 lbs. 744 
A. Mendis, No. 8, with Ceylon wood, with bars 

2- X r X r . „ 66 „ 1,042 

A. Mendis, No. 62, with Ceylon wood, with bars 

2'xl*'x 1* , 67 „ 604 

8kinner, No. 47, with Madras wood . . . „ 60 „ 870 

Puckle (Balfour, p. 317) with West Mysore wood, 

3 experiments, with bara 2' X 1" X 1" . , „ 812 

The Catalogue of the Paris Exhibition, 1862, 

Central Provinces wood, with bars 3' X li" X 1 J'', „ 61 „ 620 to 1,069 

WaUich, No. 187. with Ceylon wood . . . „ 61 

Smythies in 1878 found the avei-age of our speoimeus to 

give 67 

The wood is used for agricultural implements, cart building, furniture and picture 
frames. In Madras it is prized for ploughs and oil-mills, and is found to stand well 
under water. It has been tried as a substitute for boxwood in engraving, but has not 
been found suitable ; it is however good for turning. It is imported into England for 
cabinet work and the backs of brushes. 

ib«. 
C 1163. Ahiri, Central Provinces 54 

C 1412. Seoni, Central Provinces .49 

C 2742. Jamui, Berar 52 

C 1239. Gumsur, Madras 56 

C 1304, „ 56 

D 1069. North Arcot 61 

No. 20. 8alem Collection 61 

No 62 1 ^®^^^° Collection 56 

11. CEDRELA, Linn. 

Besides the)<e two species, Eurz gives C. multijuga, Eurz L 228. Yem. T}>ung du'tna, 
as a large, rather rare, evergreen tree of Pegu. 

Wood lights soft^ red ; no heartwood. Annual rings marked by a 
continuous belt of larger pores. Pores prominent on a vertical section. 
Medullary rays distant. 

L C. Toona, Roxb. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 568 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 1. 635 ; 
Beddome t. 10 ; Brandis 72 ; Kurz i. 228 ; Gamble 16. The Toon Tree. 



•• ••• 



>» ... 



78 



MBLIACKS. 



[ Cedrela. 



Vern. Tan, iuni. Urn, maha nim, Hind. ; Tuni, tun, lud, Beng. ; Malia limbu, 
Uriya; Mahlun, Satpuras; Drawi, Pb. ; Tint, bobich, labshi, Nep.; Simal, 
Lepclia ; Poma, henduri poma, Ass. ; Suit, mdli, Salem ; Kal kilingi, Nil- 
giris ; Sandani vembu, Tinneveliy ; Tundu, kempu gandagheri, Kan. ; Nog^j 
belandi, Coorg; Deodari, kdruk, Mar.; Chikado, Ueetkado, Magh; 
SAuruzbed, Chakma; TAitkado, Burm. 

A large tree. Bark thin^ dark grey or reddish brown^ exfoliating when 
old in irregular woody scales. Wood brick-red^ soft^ shining^ even but 
open-grained^ fragrant, seasons readily, does not split nor warp. Annual 
rings distinctly marked by a belt of large and numerous pores. Pores fre- 
quently double or subdivided, unequally distributed, scanty in the autumn 
wood, somewhat unequal in size, prominent on a vertical section ; those 
in the spring wood larger. Medullary rays red, fiue and moderately 
broadj uniform ; the distance between the rays generally equal to the 
transverse diameter of the pores. 

Sub-Himalayan forests, Bengal, Burma, South India ; ascending in the North- West 
Himalaya to 3,000 feet, in Sikkim to 7,000 feet 

Growth rapid : Brandis says that in 1863 he measured the following trees on the 
Eastern Jumna Canal near Saharanpur : — 

Age 30 years, girth 58 inches, mean of 6 trees. 
» 35 „ „ 86 „ „ 5 M • 

This would give a growth of 2^ to 3 rings per inch of radius, which is very fast. 
Our specimens shew a growth varying from 3 to 9 rings per inch of radius, shewing 
that some have come from fast-grown trees, while others have had only a moderate 
growth. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following 
experiments : — 









"Si 








Experiment by n 
oondoctod. 


rhom Year. 


Wood whenoe 
proeoxed. 


If 


Sise of bar. 


1 


Yalne of P. 










^ 












Ft. is. in. 






Clifford 


186S 


Bengal . • 


•«■ 


6x2x2 


84 


860 


Campbell 




. 1S31 


Momng . 


1 


6x2x2 


86 


488 (nnseasoned). 


Kyd . . . 




1831 


Aaaam 


2 


2x1x1 


83 


466 


Cunnlnghun 




. . 1864 


Owalior . 


2 


2x1x1 


84 


641 


Skinner, No. 46 . 




1861 


Travanoore . 


• «• 


• •• 


81 


660 


Bftker . 




. . . 1820 


Chittagong . 


8 


6x2x2 


40 


660 


Fowke . 




1868 


• •• 


• •• 


•••••• 


86 


420 


Braodie, No. 26 




1862 


Borma . 


• •• 




28 




B. Thompson 




1868 


Central Pro- 


• •• 




36 








▼inoes. 










Wallleb, Nos. 38 and 4( 


) 


Assam A India 


2 




84 




Hamilton 


1 % • • •• 


• •• 


• • • 




86 




Smythiefl 


1878 


Different pro- 
Tinces. 


17 




86 





The wocd is durable and is not eaten by white ants ; it is highly valued and univer- 
sally used for furniture of all kinds, and is also employed for door panels and carving. 
From Burma it is exported under the name of * Moulmein Cedar,' and as such is 
known in the English market. It there fetches about Bs. 65 per ton, the cost of 
cutting and delivery being Rs. 44, according to Migor Seaton. In North- We«t ludia 
it is used for furniture, carvings and other purposes. In Bengal and Assam it is the 
chief wood for makine tea-boxes, but is getting scarce on account of the heavy demand. 
The Bhutias use it tor shingles and for wooa carving, they also hollow it out for rice 
pounders. It is, or rather used to be, for very large trees are now rather scarce, hol- 
lowed out for dug-out canoes in Bengal and Assam. In Beneal, Assam and Burma 
it grows to a very large size, trees 20 feet girth with a height of 80 to 100 feet of 
clear stem being not uncommon in forests which have been only little worked like 
those in Dumsong and in some parts of the Chittagong HiU Tnurts. At page 91 of 



Cedrela. ] hbliacejb. 79 

the * Indian Forester/ Vol. i., the cuhic contents of 4 trees in the Reyang Valley, 
Darjeeling, are given as 211, 376, 720 and 400 cuhic feet respectively; the third of 
these had a mean girth of 12 feet and a length of 80 feet, while the second hsd a girth 
of 20 feet. It is easily propagated from seed, but the seeds being very small and light, 
the seed-beds must be sheltered till the seedlings have well come on. It also coppces 
freely. The leaves are used to feed cattle, and the flowers yield a red or yellow dye 
((Ttf/iMtrt). The bark is astringent and gives a resinous gum, it is also used as a 
febrifuge. 

Iba. 
P 1191. Madhopur, Punjab 36 

H 8. Simla, Punjab 37 

H 6. Sirmur, Puigab 

O 214. Garhwal,1868 36 

C 177. Mandla, Central Provinces, 1871 37 

E 360. Tukdah, Darjeeline, 6,000 ft. . . 34 

E2333. Darjeeling, 6,000 ft 34 

£ 666. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai 30 

E2332. Sukna, Darjeeling, 2,000 ft 36 

E 640. Kdmrup, Assam 44 

E 1266. Tezpur, Assam 34 

£ 1229. Sibs^gar, Assam 31 

E 712. Chitt^ong 

D 1064. Salem, Madras 39 

W 763. South Kanara 29 

B 272. Burma, 1867 36 

B 803. Tharrawaddi, Burma 38 

No. 18. Salem Collection 35 

No. 19. „ „ (marked Ckickrassia tabularis) . . .37 

2. C. serrata, Royle; Brandis 73; Kurz 1. 229. C. Toana, Roxb.; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 568 (in part). Vern. Drawi, dalli, ddl, dauri, khishing, 
khinamy N. W. Him. 

A tree. Bark dark grey, \ inch thick, with regnlar longitudinal fur- 
rows. Heartwood light-red, even, but open -grained, fragrant. Annual 
rings distinctly marked by broad belts of numerous large pores. Pores 
often double or divided into three compartments, unequal in size, and 
unequally distributed, very prominent on a vertical section, scanty and 
small in autumn wood, large and very numerous in spring wood. 
Medullary rays fine and moderately broad. 

North -West Himalaya up to 8,000 ft. 

Growth moderate, 10 rings per inch of radius, consequently slower than that of 
Toon. 

Average weight, 31 Ihs. per cuhic foot. Wood used for many purposes about Simla, 
also for the hoops of sieves and for bridges. The shoots and leaves are lopped for 
cattle fodder. 

Iba. 

H 3181. Diingagalli, Hazara, 6,000 ft 

H 920. Hazara, Puniah, 6,000 ft 38 

H 897. Murree, Puniah, 7.000 fl 29 

H 782. SaUn, Chamba, 6,000 ft 28 

H 26. Matiyina, Simla, 7,000 ft 31 

H 430. Deoban, Jaunsar, 6,600 ft. 30 



B 606, sent from the Andaman Islands under the name of Diospyros undulaia^ 
Yem. Thikado, Burm. ; Pddd, And., has a reddish, moderately hard, even-grained wood 
which seasons well. Pores large, scanty, often subdivided; very prominent on a 
vertical section. Medullary rajs numerous, fine, uniform ; the distance between the 
rays many times less than the transverse diameter of the pores. It evidently beloDgs 
to Meliacea, but cannot at present be identified. 



Ml) olacine.t:. l^Clax. 



Order XXVIII. CHAILLETIACEiE. 

An Onlor containing one Indian p^enas, Ckailletia, with three ipecies : C ^ehm 
wiofWfjr, IIiMik. f. ; I look. FI. |Ind. i. 570 ; Beddome Hx. ; Kurz i. 2SK) {Moaeurrm 
orfoHioitirs i Koxb. FI. Ind. ii. 60.) Yern. Moakurra, Beng., is a small tree o£ Eastern 
iVnpil, South India and Burma; C Helfvriana, Kurz; and C. Umgipetala^ Tam 
(C mticritpctala, Turcz; Kurz i. 231), are evergreen shrubs of TenasseriiiL 



Order XXIX. QLACIlfEiB. 

An Order which i*ontain8 al)i>ut 10 or 20 genera of Indian trees/shmhs or climben* 
inchiding about '10 hikvicr. Tlicy arc chiefly found in the moist zones of Eastern 
IVngnl, Ihinna and ttio Western Ghats. But little is known of the qnidities and 
u>c«t of their woihI. 

The Onlcr i« dividtnl into •! TriboH, viz. — 

Tribo I. — Olui'on? Ximenia, Olax, Erythropalum^ 

Strombotia, Anacolosa and 
Sckopjia. 

.. Il.~0pilien> Cansjera^ LepumuruB and 

Opilia, 

„ III.— Icoi'inea^ GompJkamlra, Apodiftes, Map- 

via, DaphniphyUoptU and 
l^h lehocafymtui, 

„ lY,— Phytwrcnea* . . . • Pkjftocreme, Mufmelia, Sareom 

itiffmot Xatsiatum and lodes. 

Xim^mia niiirrtViTNii, AVtlld. : lKx>k. FI. Ind. i. 574; Boxb. FI. Ind. iL 252; Kun 
i. itt. Yeni. riMnrcAni, Tel.; Pinhjift^er, Bumi.. is a strangling shxnb of Soath 
India. Tenasserini and the And.iman». 'with a voUow wood said by Bozborgh to be 




Himalaya, 

H *.'.**, K**icm IVniTiil and Bunna. Sfn^tHhufitt ivntains 2Iaigetrees: S, javanica, 
¥9. ; 1Kx>k. FI. Ind. i. «^rt^ : Kur? i. £W of Tenas#orim. and 5. ceyf arnica, Qardn. ; 
lV^v.^^n)o i^ 1^7. of the ^Vl^tonl i.ih.A?». Am^if^tva inolnuesfoor trees: A. demn/lora, 
Y^Imxh^ I- I*v<. of the AnauiaUi Hills; A. iiicaidt*. Mast.; Hook. FL Ind. i. 680, 
«>f iS^ Khas'.a HUU: A. <?'-*jf?;iif. Ma^^t. : and J./niArnf/d.Ean L235,of Tenasserim 
«>d T>>c A^*'.*2:**-*. S«-i i-?.i/"*\v'M»*. Wall ; IKx^k. FI. Ind. L SSh is a small tree 
i-i N^psI ar.i :he KKasU liV;l$ ; and C^. jt*h wiViAr. WalL of Assam, tlie Ehasia Hills 

aai ;^*.ywt. 

l^T«]r->^M J|^l/^?fi ii:ro^.*n: lUvk. FI. Ind. i. 5^: Bhuadis 75; Beddome 
v^Hxix. ; Kr.rf i. 2^7 ,;;nder TJ\TW0i:«»*.'vsr^ v <■''-' *^\i»dem*^ RosK FI. Ind. i. 411), is a 
lar£« etvTcrvvn v<lr.'.b:r)C «hn:b of lV.dh. Si^thera India and Burma. Lepumums 



/.•„-*n •■.:>»*. M*s; ; H.vk FI lr.d. i. 5S3: OamUe 18 "£. syirewins^ Knn 
-. ^> .:t\1<7 :>«:.:»''. aa'.y * :< a siuaV. ;;^v of the XoRk-tSasI Himalaya and 
Kjfc*t^rr. lVr.c»". (^^-V? .t«/%r.?.v.}, Ro\K FI- Inl. u. S7: Hook. FL IndT i. 683 ; 
Ro.^-c:,'' .X . Kirs •' 3^^ V^rr.. K.r.V* h*».j, Tci^ » a *0Mslml akidb or small tree 
:i SkVitV. Itj^v* arvl lV.*.rr:*. 

(V iwwy.r'-m'^v. t'v:\* Ars: :tr.x ^'::::>. Indian VNisss ©, «nll*m. Wall. ; and 
C-. vt/'fmi^'^.lT'^ W-jf'r.; ; Kv..'..*v.v A*!.: wV.i> 3 spwMk G* j wn f i ana. Wall.; 
?: /i^M^ >f **: . »T?c: <• r. /i.«:.' ".-. Was: . aV. x;T*d*r : » Misaara*in Knri i. 339.340, 
,w^.t" *r. 7.'"-.JLv<».-r.*. A-^K"'9-.* Srt ^.rffKr^?, W^ckl: B^UMSe t. 1<|L\ is a tree of 
:>v W.^^^ v;>jits. yr\' A - 1 -'.:».-» .v, Kurs i 23^ a IMP ^ tW Andaman Islands. 
Jk/-//H/s A-rrA.r* 4 *>v;>t •?."•. S.v:\ Irsdia. .V.^iMiifak HWn: Beddome 1. 141, 
Sf^-rjc A-W--VV. .•.- :V > i— < y'i'.-Kwi't-mws %fi<imnmrywm^ Miq. in Eon L 



,'^ :'v ^•..■^>:> ..: \* • ■ : ; «.c.— ^ *r .-. :^.- *. * >s*c ««« oa Sf«H:<«l ji^w- o«rt a i^nantitT of 
•r'.^> *:Jfc^r c.vvi t,r .1-.- 1 "u: . ;,.h >; .j.-^*;* oC ;uwviM»viRT<«aMa^ Of Jfif«e/M, 



Otax. ] OLACINlLfi# 81 

there are two climbing shrubs: M. Kleinii, Meissn., of Assam; and M, dentata, 
Beddome, of the Anamalai Hills. SarcoHigma and lodes contain also climbing 
shrubs of little interest. Natsiatum herpeticum. Ham'. ; Hook. Fl. Ind^ i. 596 ; 
Kurz i. 242 ; Gamble 18. Vem. Sunffoo, Lepcha, is a common climber throughout 
Eastern Bengal and Banna. 

1« OLAX> Linn. 

Contains six species, of which, besides the one described, one is found in Southern 
India, O. Wightiana, Wall. ; Beddome Ix. ; one, O. acKminatci, Wall., in Eastern 
Bengal ; two in Chittagong and Tenasserim ; and one, O. noMO^ Wall. ; Brandis 75, 
in the yalleys of the North- West Himalaya. 

L Q, scandenSy Boxb. Fl. lod. i. 163; Hook. FI. Ind. i. 575; 
Brandis 75 ; Kurz i. 233. Vern. Bkeniani, Hind. ; Koiosru, 
Beng.; Kurpodnr, mnrki mall€, iuria-vepa, Tel.; Harduli, urcAirri, 
Mar. ; Lailoo, Burm. 

A large rambling shrub, sometimes a climber. Bark grey, \ inch 
thick. Wood porous, yellowish white, soft. Pores numerous, large and 
moderately sized, uniformly distributed, often oval. Medullary rays 
fine, numerous, not prominent. 

Suh-Himalajan tract in Kumaun, Behar, Central and South India, Burma. 
Weight, 38 fhs. per cuhic foot. The fruit is used in Haz&rih£gh for making sherhet. 

Ibt. 
C 1184. Ahiri Beserve, Central Provinces .... t • 40 
€ ^62. Moharli „ „ „ 36 

2. DAPHNIPHYLLOPSIS, Kurz. 

1. D. capitata, Kurz in Journal As. Soc. Calc, 1875, p. 201 ; For. 
Fl. B. Burma i. 240; Gamble 18. Ilex daphniphylloides, Kurz; Hook. 
Fl. Ind, i. 606. Vern. Kalay, cAilauni, Nep. ; TumbrUng, Lepeha. 

A large tree. Wood grey, soft, even-grained. Pores small, often 
in short radial lines between the fine and very numerous straight 
medullary rays. 

Forests of the Sikkim Himalaya aboYO 5,000 feet, and of Martaban between 4,000. 

and 6,000 feet 

Weight, 39 lbs. per cabic foot 

Used for house-building and other purpo6es about Darjeeling. 

lbs. 

£ 695. Chuttockpur, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet 39 



OrdbbXXX. ILICINEJE. 

An Order containing only one Indian genus. 

1. ILEX, Linn. 

A genus of 21 Indian species, of which 11 are found in the Eastern Himalaya and 
Khasia Hills, 3 in the North-West Himalaya, 6 in Burma, and 4 in South India. 
The following list is taken from the Flora Indica, pp. 598 to 606 :— 

1. J. insignis. Hook. f. Sikkim, IflQO feet 

2. J. rftpyrena, Wall Himalaya, Simla to Sikkim, 

3. J. odorata. Ham » Simla to Nepal. 

4. I. malabarica, Beddome Western Qh&ts. 

5. /. Walkeri, Wight and Arn. ; Beddome Ixii. . n » 






82 



ILICINBJ;. 



I lUx. 



6. I. denticulata. Wall . 

7. /. tketBfolia, Wall. . 

8. /. embelioidesy Hook, f . 

9. /. GrifftthU, Hook. f. 

10. L Thomsoni, Hook. f. 

11. /. iiUricata, Hook. f. 



Beddome Ixii. 



12. LfragilU, Hook. £ . 

13. t, venulosa, Hook, f . 

14. I, OardTteriana, Wight ; 

15. /. WigkUana, Wall. . 

16. /. exceUa^ Wall. 

17. /. Qodajam, Colebr. . 



18. /. sulcata. Wall. (/. Godajam, Kurz i. 

part) 

19. L macrophylla, Wall. ; Kurz i. 246 . 

20. /. cvmosa, ol. ; Kurz i. 246 

21. I. Wallichii, Hook. f. ; Kurz i. 246 . 



245, 



Weatern Ghdts. 

Sikkim, Kha8ia,Tenauerim. 

Khasia Hills. 

Assam, Sylhet. 

Eastern Himalaya, Khasia. 

Eastern Nepal and Sikkim, 

10,000 to 11,000 feet. 
Eastern Himalaya, Khasia. 
Khasia Hills. 
Nilgiris. 



»» 



Himalaya, Khasia. 
Eastern Sub-Himalaya, 
Burma. 

Tenasserim. 

»• 

*» 
» 



J. excelsa, Wall. ; Hook. FL Ind. i. 603 (/. exsulca. Wall. ; Brandis 76). Vem. 
Tfimarif Hind., is a small evergreen tree of the outer Himalaya and Siwalik tract 
extending eastwards to Assam and the Khasia Hills. /. odorata. Ham. ; Brandis 77f 
is an evergreen tree of the outer Himalaya from the Sutlej to Sikkim, ascending to 
6,000 feet. L Qodajam, Colebr. ; Kurz i. 245 ; Gamble 18. Vem. Tirsam, Ass., is a 
good-sized tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract from Nepal eastwards. /. denticulata. 
Wall. ; Beddome 1. 142, with a good timber, which is said not to warp nor crack, is found 
in the Nilgiris and Anamalai Hills. /. Wightiana, Wall. Yern. Horralu, Nilgiris, 
has a pale yellow wood useful for building and for bowls and platters. The European 
Holly is /. Aqu\folium, Linn., while the Mat^ or Paraguay Tea is made from the 
leaves of /. paraguayenHs, 

Pores small^ arranged in radial lines or irregular elongated patches. 
Medullary rays of two classes^ fine and broad^ prominent on a vertical 
section, and generally darker coloured than the fibrous tissue^ giving the 
wood a mottled appearance. 

1. I. dipyrena. Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 599 ; Brandis 76 ; Gamble 
18. Yern. Shangala, kandlar, ialiicAo, diusa, dodru, drAnda, Ph.; 
Kaula, karapui, mvnasi, guhima, Nep. ; Kandara, kadera, kateru, Simla. 

A small evergreen tree. Bark dark, rough. Wood white, hard, close- 
grained. Pores extremely small, in long irregular wavy radial lines. 
Medullary rays shorty moderately broad to broad, prominent on a radial 
section, giving the wood a mottled appearance. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Bhutan, above 5,000 feet. 
Weight, 4^5 lbs. per cubic foot. 

H 21. Matiy&na, Simla, 7,000 feet 

2. I. thesBfolia, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. I 601. /. gauUheriafolia, 
Kurz i. 245. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Wood white, soft, close-grained, 
with white concentric lines, which seem to correspond to annual rings. 
Pores very small and numerous. Medullary rays very fine and broad ; 
the latter short, scanty, prominent, giving the wood on a vertical section 
a beautifully reticulate appearance. 



lb«. 
46 



Darjeeling and Khasia Hills and Tenasserim. 
Weight, 39 lbs. per cubic foot. 



lb*. 



£ 692. Chuttockpor, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet 39 



litX. ] ILICIME^. 83 

3. I. insigniSy Hook, f.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 599; Gamble 18. Vcrn. 
Lasuni, Nep. 

A small evergreen tree, with smooth grey bark. Wood white, soft, 
close-grained. Pores very small, numerous, often in radial lines. 
Medullary rays very fine and broad, the latter longer than in /. thet^folia, 
prominent on a radial section, giving the wood a mottled appearance. 

Darjeeling, above 6,000 feet. 

Weight, 40 lbs. In winter it has clusters of briglit red berries like common holly, 
and is used for similar purposes of decoration. 

IbR. 

£ 355. Gumpahar Forest, Daijeeling, 7,000 feet .... 40 



H 256, from the Garhwal Hills, is a specimen sent by Mr. R. Thomp- 
son in 1 868. It has been much eaten by insects, but shews a structure 
similar to that of /. inaignis. We refer it to /. odorata. Ham. Weight, 
32 lbs. per cubic foot. 



Ordbr XXXI. CELASTBINEJE. 

An Order of trees, shrubs and climbers, sometimes thorny, and recognised by the 
flowers having a conspicuous disk. It contains 13 genera, 4 of which are found 
in North-West India, and the remainder in the Eastern and Western moist zones. 

The Order is divided into 2 Tribes, the first being subdivided into 3. These are — 

Tribe I.— Celastreae 

Sub-Tribe I. — Euonymeae . Euonymu^, Q Ivptopetalum, 

Microtropis, Lophopetalum 
and Pleurostylia, 
„ II.— Celastreae . . . Celastrus, Gymnosporia and 

Kurrimia. 
„ III. — EleeodendresB . . Elceodendron, 

Tribe II. — Hippocratea Hipfocratea, Salacia and 

Siphonodon, 

Olyptopetalum contains 3 shrubs or small trees, of which O, zeylanieum, Thw. 
and O. grand^flarum, Beddome Ixv., are large shrubs of the Western 6h4t8; and Q. 
Mcleroearpum (Euonymus tclerocarpus, Kurz i. 250), with a white, close-grained 
wood, of the Pegu Toma. Microtropis contains 7 species, of which 4 occur in Southern 
India, 3 in Burma, and 2 in the Eastern Himalaya and Eastern Bengal. The chief 
species is If. discolor, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 614; Kurz i. 251; Gamble 18. 
{Euomgmiu garcinifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 628) Vern. Su^Hm, Lepcha; Mori, 
Sylhet. Pleurostylia Wightii, W. and A., Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 617, is a small tree 
of Southern India. Kurrimia contains 3 trees, of which K. paniculata. Wall.; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 622 (Trochisandra indica, Beddome t. 120), is a handsome tree of 
the Anamalai Hills, said to yield a good timber, and K. pulcherrima. Wall. ( JT. robusta, 
KurzL 253) Vern. Kwaydouk, Burm., an evergreen tree of Burma with a brown, 
heavy, close-grained wood. Rippocratea contains 6 species of climbing shrubs, of 
which two, M, indica, Willd. Vern. Kurzati, Bombay; and H, arhorea, Koxb. 
Fl. Ind. i. 167 ; Brandis 83. Vern. Katha-paharia, Beng., reach to Northern India. 
Salacia contains also 14 species of climbing shrubn, of which 8 occur in Burma and 6 in 
South India: ir\n!iQ Siphonodon ceUistrineus, Griff., Hook. Fl. lud. i, 629 ; -Kurz i. 254. 
Yem. Myoukopshit, is an evergreen tree of Burma, with a pale yellowish heavy wood* 

Wood even-grained, not very hard; generally without heartwood 
(except ElaodenJdron) . Pores uniformly distributed, very or. exti*emely 
small. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. 



-X 



84 CELASTBiNE^. [ Euonymus. 

1. EUONYMUS, Linn. 

A genus of about 24 Indian spedes, of which many are merely small shrubs or 
climbers. About 11 occur in the Eastern Himalaya, Assam and Eastern Beng^, 5 in 
the North- West Himalaya, 6 in Burma and 7 in South India. Among them, 
JS. crenulatus. Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 608 ; Beddome 1. 144, of the Nilgiris, and E. 
glaber, Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 628; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 609 ; Kurz i. 248, of Chitt«^ong and 
iBurma, may be mentioned as most important. £. echinatus, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
i. 611 ; Brandis 80 ; Gamble 18, is a small climbing or epiphytic shrub of the Hima- 
laya firom the Jhelum to Sikkim nt 7,000 to 12,000 feet. The wood ol some species may 
be worth tiying as a substitute for boxwood. 

Wood compact^ even-grained, white. Pores very or extremely 
small. Medullary rays very fine and very numerous. 

The first four species here described are common in the North- West Himalaya, and 
may thus be distinguished :^> 

Leaves inembranons ( ^^^ ^f^fj «"* ' • • f ^'^; . 

i „ Slightly cut . . . . JS, Hamuton%anu9m 

Leaves coriaceous ( ^^^ ^f5 sharply serrate . . ^. pjndulus. 
^^^^ C „ short, obtusely serrate . . E, ttngens. 

1. E. laceros^ Ham. ; Brandis 78. K grandifloruB, Wall. ; Hook, Fl. 
Ind. i. 608. Vem. Siki, paliali, papar, tanchtr, dudhapdr, hancku, 
pashj mara, c/nian, rangchuly kioch, Punjab ; Gule, gnii, Simla. 

A small deciduous tree with smooth grey bark. Wood white, 
moderately hard, exceedingly compact, close and even-grained. Annual 
rings visible, but not very distinct. Pores extremely small, barely 
visible under the lens. Medullary rays extremely fine. 

Himalaya, from the Indus te Sikkim, between 6,000 and 11,000 &et. 
Weight, 48 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood used for carving. The seeds are strung as 
beads in Bassahir and used for necklaces. 

lbs 

H 67. Nagkanda, Sunla, 9,000 feet 48* 

H 2883. „ „ „ 46 

H 3011. „ „ „ 49 

H 3187. Dungagalli, Hazara, 8,000 feet 

2. E. Hamiltonianns, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 612; Brandis 78. 
jE. iUropurpurens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 627. Vem. Siii, singi, dual, 
watal, papaty rithu, randi, braAmdni, bancAor, iarun, skiock, aidhera, naga^ 
Pb. j Agniuny agnu, Kumaun. 

A large deciduous shrub, or small or occasionally moderate-sized tree. 
Bark thick, grey, corky, with deep irregular fissures. Wood white, 
with a slight yellow tinge, soft, close-grained. Annual rings marked 
by a narrow belt of firm wood with fewer pores. 

Outer Himalaya, from the Indus to Bhutan, Khasia Hills, from 4,000 to 8,000 feet. 

Weight, 35 lbs. Wood used for carding into spoons. 

Ibf. 
H 3173. Dungagalli, Hazara, 8^000 feet . 
H 919. Hazara, Punjab, 8,000 feet 
H 172. Murree, Punjab (1866), 7,000 feet 
H 778. Kalatop Forest, Punjab, 7,000 feet 

H 3012* ] ^^'^^^ Simla, 9,000 feet ". 



36 

... 
34 

44 



3. £• pendnlnSy Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 612 j Brandis 79. Yern, 
Chopra, pincha, garufy Hniu, N.«W. P. 



Euonymus, ] celastrine^. 85 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree with grey, rather corky bark, 
\ inch thick. Wood white, moderately hard, compact, with a light red 
tinge, very close and even-grained. Annual rings marked by an almost 
continuous line of pores. Pores very small, very numerous. Medullary 
rays extremely fine, very numerous. 

Himalaya, from the Jhelum to Nepal, between 2,500 and 7,600 feet. 
Weight, 36 to 41 lbs. per cubic foot. 

lbs. 

H 86. The Glen, Simla, 6,000 feet 35 

H 2837. » » » >i »» 41 

4. E. tingens. Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 610; Brandis 79. Vern. 
Kungkuy N.-W, P. ; Neivar, iasuri, Nepal ; Ciopra, mer mahaul, Simla. 

A small evergreen tree with dark, rather corky outside and yellow 
inner bark. The structure and appearance of the wood are the same as in 
Euanymu9 lacerus, except that the wood of this species has a slightly 
reddish tinge. 

Himalaya, from the Sutlej to Nepal, between 6,500 and 10,000 feet. 
Weight, 47 lbs. per cubic foot. This is easily recognised from the other 3 species 
by its large flowers with pretty brown markings on the petals. 

lbs. 

H 32. Madhan, Simla, 7,000 feet 48* 

H 2844. Mahasa, Simla, 8,000 feet ...... 46 

H 2881. Nagkauda, Simla, 8,000 feet 

5* E. theafolins, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 612; Gamble 18. 
A shrub with wood of structure similar to the rest, but the medullary 
rays are somewhat broader and the annual rings more distinct. 

E 3308. Bangbul, Darjeeling, 7,500 feet. 

2. LOPHOPETALUM, Wight. 

A genns containing 7 species of Indian trees, of which 6 are Barmese, 1 from 
Northern and Eastern Bengal, and 1 from Sonth India. Z.Jimbriatum, Wight, is a 
tall cylindrical-stemmed tree of the valleys of the Sikkim Himalaya^ Sylhet and T^ias- 
serim; and L.Jhribundum, Wight, is a tree of Tenasserim. 

Wood light, soft to moderately hard, even-grained, somewhat shin- 
ing. Pores small to moderate-sized. Medullary rays very fine, very 
numerous, traversed by concentric bands of softer texture. 

1. L, littoralCy Kurz i. 255. Kokoona liUoralis, Lawson ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 617. Vern. Moondein, Burm. 

A tree. Wood grey, moderately hard, even-grained. Pores small 
and moderate-sized, often oval and subdivided. Medullary rays very fine^ 
uniform and equidistant, very numerous ; the distance between the rays 
much less than the transverse diameter of the pores. Medullary rays 
traversed by numerous parallel, concentric, wavy lines, which have the 
appearance of interrupting the rays, thus forming a succession of wavy^ 
concentric bands. 

Pe^ and Tenasserim. 

Weight, on an average, 35 lbs. per cubic foot. 

lbs. 

B 278. Burma (1867) 27 

B 2513. „ (1862) 36 

B 2300. Andaman Islands (18CG) 41 



86 CRLASTKiNEJR. [ Lophopetalum. 

2. L. Wightiananiy Am.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 615, ; Beddome t. 145. 
Vern. Bolpale, Kan. 

A large evergreen tree. Wood reddish grey, moderately hard, close- 
grained, structure similar to that of L. litiorale. Pores somewhat 
laro^er, and less numerous. Medullary rays prominent on a radial 
section. 

Western coast from the Eonkan to Cape Comorin. 

Weight, 28 to 29 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood b much esteemed in South Kanara 
where it is used for house-building. 

Ibe. 

W 723. South Kanara 29* 

W 863. „ „ 28 

3. L. Wallichii, Kurz i. 255 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 615. Vern. Mong^ 
iainp, moondein, Burm. 

To this species we refer B 1947 (81 lbs.) sent from Tavoy under the 
name Kanazo-ta-loo, Burm., and B 2248 sent in 1866 from the Andamans 
under the name of Toung-hmai/o, The structure is similar to that of 
L. littorale, but the pores are more scanty, moderate-sized and arranged 
in short radial lines. Medullary rays less numerous, slightly broader, 
and not of uniform width. 

The wood is moderately hard ; it is recommended by Kurz for furniture. It is said 
by Major Ford to be used in the Andamans for writing-boards, and the bark, root and 
fruit as a febrifuge. 

3. CELASTRUS, Linn. 

This genus includes 2 of the senera of the Flora Indica, Celastrus and Gymno' 
gporia ; of the former 4, of the latter Id, species are described. Tlie 4 species of the 
section Celastrus contain, besides C. paniculatus, common to most parts of India, 3 
scandent shrubs of Sikkim, Assam and Eastern Bengal. The species of the section 
Oymnoswyria are chiefly erect shrubs, often thorny, chiefly of the Eastern Himalaya 
and the Western Ghats. The only species of interest are those here described. 

Wood close-and even*grained. Pores small or very small. Medul- 
lary rays very fine and very numerous. Most species have concentric 
bands of soft tissue. This does not include (7. panieulalus, which has 
the structure of a climber. 

1. C. paniculatus, Willd. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 617 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 
621; Brandis 82; Gamble 18. Vern. Mdl kakni, Oudh, Kumaun ; 
Kakundan, rangul, wairangur, C. P. ; Kanguni, Bombay; Ruglim, Lepcha. 

A scandent shrub, with yellow, corky bark. Wood pinkish yellow, 
soft. Annual rings distinctly marked by very large pores in the spring 
wood, which diminish in size, and are small in the autumn wood. Medul- 
lary rays very broad. 

Outer Himalaya from the Jheltim to Assam aaoending to 4»000 feet, 'Eastern 
Bengal, Behar, South India and Burma. 

The seeds give an oil, which is used medicinally, as are also the leaves. 

lbs. 

E 2334. Tukdah, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet 51 

2. C. spinosns^ Royle; Brandis 80. Oymnosparia JRoyleana, Wall.; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 620. Vern. l^am/^ Trans-Indus; Kandu, iandidri, 
jpatakif lei, p/itipari, badlo, kadewar, Pb. ; Kura, bagriwdla darim, gwdla 
darim, N.-W. P. 



Celadnii, ] celastrine^. 87 

A thorny shrub, with thin, grrey, corky bark. Wood lemon -coloured, 
hard and close-grained, with numerous white, concentric bands. Pores 
very small. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. It cuts like 
boxwood, for which it may become a substitute. 

Outer North-West Himalaya. ^ 

Weight, 49 Ibe. The wood deserves attention as possibly suitable for carving and 

engraving. 

lbs. 

P 913. Salt Range, Punjab 49 

P 2932. Suni, Simla, 3,000 feet 49 

3. C. senegalensiSy Lam. ; Beddome Ixvi. ; Brandis 81 ; Kurz i. 252. 
C. mofitana, Koxb. Fl. Ind. i. 620. Oymnosporia mofUana, Lawson; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 621. Vern. SAerawane, Trans-Indus ; Taliar, dajkar, 
mareila, kingaro^ khardi, Pb. ; Baikal, gajachinniy C. P. ; Mdl kangoni, 
Bombay; Danta, babur, Gondi; Dhatti, Bhil; £Aaratti, yekal, "SAtkr. ; 
Danti, darUdusi, pedda chintu, Tel. 

A tall spinescent shrub. Bark ^ inch thick, grey, with longitudinal 
cracks, exfoliating in small scales. Wood pinkish white, soft but close- 
grained; no heartwood; no annual rings. Pores small, numerous, 
uniformly distributed. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. 
Faint concentric bands. 

Northern dry and intermediate zones. North-West India, ascending to 4,000 feet. 
Central India and the drier parts of the Peninsula. 

Weight, 46 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood durable, but not used. The leaves are used 
for fodder, and the branches as dunnage for the roofs of houses. 

lbs. 
C 1162. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 

C 2752. Moh&rli „ „ „ 46 

4. EliJEODENDRON, Jacq. fil. 

1. E. Bozbnrghii, W. and A.; Beddome t. 148; Brandis 82; 
Gamble 19. E. glaucum, Pers. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 623 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 
638. Neerija dichotoma, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 646. Vern. Mirandu,padriiin^ 
iakra, janwa, Ph.; Bakra, sAauria, chauli, daberi, mdmri, N.-W. P. ; 
CAauri, metkur, Oudh ; Chiki/eng, Lepcha ; Jamrdn, kala mukha, roAi, 
C. P. ; BAakka, nimr, Gondi; Niru, Kurku; Aran, iamruj, Mar. ; Bata 
karasy Bhil ; Karkava, irkuli, seltipa, siri, Tam. ; Nirija, neradi, botanskam, 
kanemis, bootigi,Tel. ; BAutraksAi, Hyderabad; Nerrelu, Cingh, 

A tree. Bark ^ inch thick, grey, often blackish, exfoliating in 4- 
sided very small scales. Wood moderately hard, even- and close-grained, 
works and polishes well, light brown, often with a red tinge ; the outer 
wood white, but no distinct sapwood ,* no annual rings. Numerous, wavy^^ 
concentric, lighter-coloured bands. Pores small, numerous. Medullary 
rays fine, very numerous, visible on a radial section. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Ravi eastwards. Central and South India. 

Weight, 40 to 60 Ihs. (brandis) ; 46 (Skinner and Fowke) ; 63 (R. Thompson) ; 40 
(C. P. List); our specimens give an average of 63 lbs. Skinner, No. 66, gives 
P = 613; Fowke P = 611. 

The wood is often beautifully curled and flaked ; it is used for cabinet work, combs 
and picture frames. The root is said to be a specific against snake-bite, and the bark 
is used in native medicine, said to be a vunilent poison. 



^l-ih 



88 CKLASTRiNE-S. [ UlaodendfOH. 

lbs, 

O 235. Garbwal (1868) 56 

O 2991. „ (1874) 48 

C 183. Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) 50 

G 1182. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 55 

C 2781. Melghdt, Berar 49 

E 2335. Bamunpokri, Dar)>ling Terai 57 

No. 63. Ceylon Collection . 56 



Order XXXII. BHAMNEJE. 

Contains twelve Indian genera, of which six are climbing or straggling shrubs 
and the remainder shrubs or small trees. The Order is subdivided into tour Tribes :— > 

Tribe I. — Ventilagineae . .. . VeiUilago and Smythea. 
„ II. — ZizyphesB .... Zizypkus and Berchemia, 
„ in. — Bhamneffi .... Shamnus, JToveiUa, Scutia, Sa- 

geretia^ and Colubrina, 
„ IV. — Qouaniese .... Apteron, Gouania, and Helinus, 

Of the genera not here described, Smythea and Apteron are scandent shrubs 
of Tenasserim. Hovenia dulcis, Thunb. ; Kook. Fl. Ind. i. 640 ; Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 630 ; 
Brandis 94. Vem. Cikamhun, Pui\jab, is a tree commonly cultivated throughout the 
Himalaya, with a light-coloured, coarse and open-grained wood, and an edible fruit 
with a flavour like that of the Bergamot Pear. Scutia indicay Brongn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
i. 640 ; Eurz i. 268, is a straggling shrub of Burma and South India. Colubrina 
contains three species, of which Colubrina asiatica, Brongn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 642 ; 
Beddome Ixix. ; Kurz i. 268. (Ceanothus a*iaticus, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 615.) Vem. 
Kioay-nway, Burm., is a large shrub of the coast forests of Burma and Malabar. 
Chuania contains three climbing shrubs, commonest among which is O, leptosUichya^ 
DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 643 ; Kurz i. 269 ; Gamble 19. Vem. Kalalag, Eumaun ; 
Batwa^sif Nep. ; Kkauta, Orissa ; Tayounyonwaff, Buim., a large climber of the 
Eastern Himalaya, Burma and South India. Helinus lanceolatus, Brandis 574, is a 
slender twining shrub of the outer North- West Himalaya, ascending to 4,000 feet 

s 

Wood hard or moderately hard. Pores small or moderate-sized. 
Medullary rays fine or very fine^ numerous^ equidistant. 

1. ZIZYPHUS, Juss. 

A genus containing 13 Indian species, 7 of which come from Northern 
and Central India, about 6 from South India, 4 from Burma, and 6 from the 
North-East Himalaya and Assam. Six species are here described. Of the remainder, 
the chief is Z. vulgaris, Lamk. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 633 ; Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 609 ; 
Brandis 85. Vem. Sinjli, simli, ban, her, kandika, kandidri, Hind., a small treei 
of the arid and northern dry zones. It is found in the outer Himalaya from the 
Indus to the Ravi, ascending to 6,500 feet, cultivated in the Punjab, Beluchistan, and 
Bengal, and semi-wild as far as Italy and the south of France — Mathieu FL For, 
p. 60. Its fruit is eaten. 

Wood reddish, moderately hard or hard ; no heartwood. Pores small 
to moderate-sized, often subdivided, between numerous fine or very fine 
medullary rays, the distance between the rays being less than the 
diameter of the pores. 

1. Z. Jiguba, Lam.,- Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 632; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 608 j 
Beddome t. 149 ; Brandis 86; Kurz i. 266; Gamble 19. Vern. B^, 
baer, berif Hind. ; K41, 6er, Beng, ; Zeeben, Burm. ; Bengha, regi, Tel. ; 
Yellande, Tam.; Blior, Mar/*; Renga, Bhil; Ulenfia, Mai.; YelcAi, Kan. 



ZizyphuB. ] RHAHNEA. 89 

A moderate- sized deciduous tree, almost evergreen. Bark J inch 
thick, dark grey, nearly black, with long, deep, irregular cracks. Wood 
hard, reddish j no heartwood; no annual rings. Pores small or moderate- 
sized, scanty, often oval and subdivided. Medullary rays fine and very 
numerous, uniform and equidistant ; the distance between two rays much 
less than the transvei*se diameter of the pores. Pores frequently joined 
by veiy fine, wavy, interrupted, concentric lines. 

Cultivated throughout India and Burma. Its original habitat doubtful. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 135, 58 lbs. ; Cunningham, 57 lbs. ; our speci- 
mens give from 43 to 52 lbs. Cunningham gives the value of P as 495 ; Skinner 072. 

Wood used for saddletrees and agricultural implements, oil-mills, and other 
purposes. The fruit is commonly eaten and is much improved by cultivation. 

lbs. 

O 265. Garhwal (1868) 

C 2815. Mdlghat, Berar 

C 1128. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 43 

D 1071. North Arcot, Madras . . . - . , . . .52 

P 885, from Mult&n, sent under the name of Z.JUxuosOt has the same structure 
as Z, Jujuba, but the pores are round and moderate-sized. Weight, 48 lbs. 

9. Z. HUnnnularia, TV . and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 633 ; Beddome Ixix. ; 
Brandis 88. Z. mieropA^lla, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 613. Vern. Karkanna^ 
Afgh. ; Malta, b^r, birdr, J^arif ianta, N.-W, P.; Gangr, jangra, Sind; 
Farpalli gidda, Kan. 

A thorny shrub with grey bark. Wood yellow, hard, compact. 
Structure similar to that of Z^ Jujuba, except that the pores are larger and 
the medullary rays are somewhat further apart ; the distance between 
the rays is less than the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Drier piu'ts of North-West India and the Dekkan. 

Growth : No. P 2931 shews well-marked annual rings and a fast growth of 2 to 

3 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 43 lbs. per cubic foot on an average. It is used 

to make fences round fields and gardens. The leaves are threshed out and used as 

fodder for sheep and goats. The fruit is eaten. 

lbs, 

P 2931. Bhajji, Simla, 3,000 feet 41 

P 3^3* ] S*^^'^' Punjab, 3,000 feet 43 

P 442. Ajmero 46 

3. Z. ozyphyllay Edgw. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 634; Brandis 86. Vern. 
Kurkun bir, Afgh. ; Fitni, Kokan ber, atnldi, amnia, beri, sAamor, Pb. ; 
Giggar, N.-W. P, 

A thorny shrub with thin brown bark. Wood white, moderately hard. 
Pores small, somewhat larger aud more numerous on the inner edge of 
each annual ring. Medullary rays equidistant, very fine ; the distance 
between the rays equal to the diameter of the pores. 

Outer Uimalaya from the Indus to the Ganges from 2,000 to 6,000 feet. 
H 2947. Suni, Sutlej Valley, 3,000 feet. 

4. Z. (Enoplia, Mill, j Hook. PI. Ind. i. 634 ; Beddome Ixix. ; 
Brandis 86 ; Kurz 1. 266. Z. Napeca, Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 612. Vern. 
Makai, Hind. ; Shgaknl, Beng. ; Barokoli, Uriya ; Irin, C. P. ; Paranu, 
paramie, porki, Tel. ; Tauzeenvoay^ Bnrm. 

A straggling or climbing shrnb with rough, dark-grey bark. Wood 
reddish with the structure of a climber. Concentric bands consisting 

M 



90 RHAMKEiB. [ ZtZ^phuS. 

of a great mass of moderate* sized to large pores, often subdivided, 
between closely packed medullary rays, which bend outwards where they 
touch the pores, presenting a reticulate appearance. 

Ben^l, Banna, Central and Southern India. 
Used for hedges. The fruit is eaten. 

C 2753. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces. 

5. Z. xylopyra, Willd. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 634 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 
611 ; Beddome Ixviik; Braudis 90. Vern, Xai-ier, bSri, goti, gotaha, 
kahor, chittania^ sitabSr^ gh6ntj Hind. ; Goti, Tel. ; Qoii, bAorgofi, Mar, ; 
CAalle, Kan. 

A large scrambling shrub. Bark grey or reddish brown. "Wood 
yellowish brown, hard. Pores small and moderate-sized, in patches of 
soft tissue which* are often confluent, forming oblique bands. Medullary 
rays fine, equidistant, very numerous, the distance between the rays 
being less than the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Sub-Himalavan tract from the Ganges to Nepal, Central and Southern India. 

Weight, 60 lbs. per cubic foot (Skinner, No. 136) ; our specimen gives 49 lbs. Skinner 
gives P = 800. Used for carts and agricultural implements. The bark is used for 
tanning ; the shoots and leaves for fodder. The fruit is not edible, but is used to give 

a black dye to leather. 

lbs. 
C 2736. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces • • • • • 49 
C 2764. Melgh&t, Bei-ar 



••• 



6. Z. mgosa, Lam. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 636 ; Beddome Ixvii. ; 
Brandis 89 ; Kurz i. 265 ; Gamble 19. Z. latifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 607. 
Vern. Dhaura, dAauri, Oudh ; Suran, cAurna, C. P. j Suran, Mar. ; 
HuiA baer, Aarray baer, Nep. 

A large scrambling shrub or small evergreen tree, with rough, dark 
bark. Wood reddish, moderately hard, warps. Pores large and 
moderate-sized, oval and subdivided. Medullary rays fine, extremely 
numerous, uniform and equidistant, the distance between the rays much 
less than the transverse diameter of the pores. Pores frequently joined 
by very faint, wavy, concentric lines. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Ganges eastwards, Burma, Central and Southern India. 
Weight, 46 lbs. per cubic fbot. Wood only used as fuel ; often attacked by insects. 
Fruit eaten. 

lbs. 

£ 2336. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Tend 45 

2. BERCHEMIA, Neck. 

A genus which besides this species contains several erect or climbing shrubs, of 
which the chief is B. lineata, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. L 638 ; Brandia 91, of the North- 
West Himalaya. 

1. B. floribimday Brong^. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 637; Brandis 91; 
Kurz i. 264 ; Gamble 19. Vern. Kala lag, Kumaun ; CAiaduk, Nep. ; 
Bungyeong rii, Lepcha. 

A large erect or climbing shoab or small tree. Bark whitish, exfo- 
liating and shewing a purple inner layer. Wood yellow, turning grey 
on exposure, porous. Pores large^ ovalj subdivided^ between undulating 
moderately broad medullary rays. 

Himalaya from the Jhelum to Bhutan, Khasia Hills. 
£ 2864. Tttkdab, Daijeeling, 5,000 feet. 



Ventilago, ] rhamne^. 91 

3. VENTILAGO, Gaertn. 

CoDtains 6 species of scandent shrubQ. Besides the one described, 2 species 
occur in Northern and Central India, 4 in Burma, 2 in Southern India and 1 in 
the Eastern Himalaya and Bengal. V, calyculata. Tul. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 631 ; 
Brandis 96. (V. madraspatana, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 629.) Vem. Papri, C. P. ; 
Raktapita, kala lag, Kumaun ; SaJcal yel^ Mar., is a lai*ge climber of the outer Hima- 
laya from Kumaun eastwards, Southern India and Burma. 




1. V. maderaspatana, Gaertn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 631; Beddorae 
Ixviii. ; Brandis 96; Kurz i. 262/^ Vern. Raktapita, Beng. ; Yerra 
chicaili, Tel. ; Papli, Tam.^ Kan. ; Zoiandi, kanwail, Bombay ; 
ChoTpiy -Hyderabad. 

A large climbing shrub. Bark dark grey with vertical cracks^ 
exposing the inner surface which has a vermillion colour. Wood 
gi'eyish yellow^ porous^ soft; structure similar to that of Berchemia 
fiorihunia. \ 

Central and Southern India and Burma. 

The bark is made into oordage, and a red dye is extracted from the root. It is said 
also to give a gum. 

C 2920. CentnliWVinces. 

1R 4. RHAMNUS. 

Oontains 7 Indian 8pe<^e8» indigenous to the Himalaya and the mountains of the 
Western coast. Besides those here described, jS. persieus, Boissier ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 
638; Brandis 93. Vem. Sheraivane, tourak, Af^h. ; Kukei, nar, nikki kander^ 
JalUiar, kuehni, Ph., is a small tree of the Sulmian and Salt Ranges, and the 
Himalaya from the Jhelum to Garhwal ; B, TiepaUnsis, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. i. 640, Gamble 19. Vem. Achat, Ne^., is a large shmb of the Central and 
Eastern Himalaya and Ehasia Hills; while JS. Wightii, W. and A., is a large 
shrub of the higher hilk of the Western Ghdts. 

"Wood generally with a brown heartwood^ close-grained. Pores very 
small^ arranged in oblique tails and bands which generally anastomose. 
Medullary rays fine^ numerous. 

1. E. virgattll|, Roxb. M. Ind. i. 604 ; Brandis 92; Gamble 19. 
R. dahuricus, VaW:-, Hook. Y\. Ind. i. 689. R, hirsutus, W. and A.; 
Beddome Ixx. Vern. Phipai, dddur, tadru, seta pajja, kdnji, mamrdt^ 
ahomfol^ reteon, gogsa, sindrol, muCni, nior, chair ^ romuak, Pb. ; Thalot, 
cAelain, Simla; Tsdpo, mail, Tibet, Spiti; ChaiOjChedwala,chadua, Hind. 

A shrub or small tree, deciduous. Bark thin, grey, smooth. Sap- 
wood whitish ; heartwood brown, very hard and close-grained. Annual 
rings distinctly marked. Pores very small, arranged in oblique anasto- 
mosing irregular bands of soft texture, forming an irregular net-work. 
Medullary rays fine, very numerous, prominent in the meshes of the 
net- work. The structure of the wood is the same as that of Rliamnm 
catAarticus, Linn. 

Throughout the Himalaya and Western Ghats. 

Weight, 66 lbs. per ciAic foot. Wood not used, except as firewood. The fruit is 
bitter, emetic And purgative, and is given in afEections of the spleen. 

H 79. Mashobra, Simla, 7,000 feet 57 

H 2877. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 „ 55 

H 3168. Dungagalli, Hazara, 7,000 „ ^ 



02 RHAMNE^. [ Rhamuus. 

2. B. purpureas, Edgew. ; Hook. Fl.Ind.i. 639; BrandisOl. Yem. 
Bat sinjal, iunani zanani, tadra, tundAi, mimarari, kunji, chaterni, Pb. 

A large deciduous shrub^ with thin smooth bark. Wood brownish 
grey^ close-grained. Annual rings marked by an interrupted belt of 
pores. Pores very small^ in narrow irregular radial belts of softer tissue^ 
which often anastomose and have a reticulate appearanoe. Medullary 
rays fine, numerous, straight, prominent. 

North-west Himalaya from the Indus to Nepal, between 4,500 and 10,000 feet. 

Weight, 41 lbs. Fruit used as a purgative. 

lbs. 

H 70. Masbobra, SimU, 7,000 feet 41 

H 2848. Mabasu, Simla, 8,000 „ ^ 

3. E. triquetrus, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 639 ; Brandis 92. Vern. 
Gudlei, Simla; Fagora, gardhaUyphulla^ Pb. ; Oogsa, ghant, ff.-W. P. 

A shrub or small tree^ deciduous^ with thin grey bark. Wood 
yellowish white^ moderately hard, close-grained. Annual rings distinctly 
marked by an interrupted belt of larger pores. Pores very small to 
small^ arranged in irregular branching bands of softer tissue, which 
form fantastic patterns. Medullary rays fine and moderately broad, short. 

North- West Himalaya from tbe Jhelum to Nepal, between 3^00 and 6,000 feet. 

H 75. Masbobra, Simla, 7,000 feet. 
H 2903. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 „ 

4. B. procumbenSy Edgew. ; Hook. FI. Ind. i. 640 ; Brandis 93. 

A small procumbent «hrub. Wood yellowish, with the same struct- 
ure as that of R, virgatus. 

Western Himalaya from Simla to Eumaun, between 7.000 and 8,000 feet. 
H 2952. Naldehra, Simla, 7,000 feet. 

5. SAGERETIA, Brongniart. 

Besides tbe two species described, 8. oppositifolia, Brongn. ; Hook. Fl.Jnd. i. 641 ; 

mdis 95. Vern. Kanak, gidurddk, 

a large sbrub of tbe N.-W. Himalayat 



Brandis 95. Yem. Kajutk, gidurddk, drange, girthan, Pb. ; Aglaia, Kumaun, is 



Wood close-grained, hard. Pores small, round. Medullary rays 
fine and very fine. 

1. S. theezanSy Brongn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 641 ; Brandis 95. Vern. 
Dargola, Simla; Drangu, ankol, kauli, karur, phompMi, kdnda, brinkol, 
chauHshy iairdin, tkum, ium, Pb. 

A large spinescent shrub. Bark thin, grey. Wood very hard, 
white, with irregular dark-coloured heartwood. Annual rings (?) 
marked by white lines. Pores round, small, in rings of softer texture, 
uniformly distributed. Medullary rays fine and very fine, numerous. 

Salt Range and Suliman Range. Western Himalaya from Easbmir to Simla, 

from 3,000 to 8,000 feet. Fruit eaten. 

lbs. 

H 2946. Suni. Sutlej Valley, 3.600 feet . , 

H 2951. Naldehra, Simla, 7,000 „ ......... 

H 3129. Eoti, Simla, 6,000 56 

2. S. Brandrethiana, Aitch. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 64:1 ; Brandis 95. 
Vern. Ganger, goher, Pb. ; Maimina^ Afg. 



Sdger€iia.'\ RHAMNEiE. 93 

A small deciduous shrub. Bark grey^ with long wrinkles. Wood 
yellow^ very hard^ close-grained. Annual rings distinctly marked by 
white lines and by an interrupted belt of pores. Pores small^ rounds 
numerous^ between the white, fine, short, very numerous medullary 
rays ; the distance between the rays equal to the transverse diameter of 
the pores. 

Saliman Range and Salt Range, and North-West Himalaya between the Indas and 
the Jhelnm. 

The fruit is sweet and much eaten by Afghans and in the frontier districts. 

P 914. Salt Range, Punjab. 



Order XXXIII. AMPELIDEJE. 

The Vines. A large Family containing two genera : Vtiis, cl imbing shrubs, often of 
large size ; and Leta, large perennial herbs or shrubs, with large pith. The Vines are 
found in most parts of India, but especially in the moist zones, some of them climbing 
extensively over lofty trees ; they nave a soft porous wood, with very large vessels 
often filled with water, which runs out on their being cut. F. lanaia, Roxb. ; V, 
repanda, W. and A., and F. latifolia, Roxb., are ^e chief species of the forests 
ox the plains of Northern India, while F. himalayana, Brandis. Vern. PMoK' 
imr, Simla; Zemardarhan, zemaro, Sutlej ; Chappar tang^ Kimiaun, is a well- 
known large climber of the forests of the Himalava (H 2913, Simla, 7,000 feet, 
33 lbs.). Many have curiously twisted or flattened stems. The Grape Vine, F. 
vinifera, Linn., Vern. Ddkh, dakki,drdksha, angur,'Rind. ; Lanang, Kaoawar, has 
been introduced and successfully cultivated in Kashmir and other parts of India. 

The species of Leea are found in the undergrowth of the forests of the Himalaya, 
Eastern Bengal, Burma and the West coast. Some species have fluted stems and very 
large pith, such are, L. macrophylla, Roxb. ; L. aspera, Wall. ; L. robvsta, Roxl). ; 
L. ertspa, Willd. ; X. sumatraTta, Kurz ; and L. samhucina, Willd. L, robusta, 
Roxb. Vern. Qaleni, Nep. ; Fantom, Lepcha (Nos. E 879 and E 2860, Darjeeling), 
has a moderately hard wood, with broad medullary rays, and is used for fencing and 
temporary huts: Z. hirta, Roxb., is a small tree of valleys in the Eastern Himalaya; 
and X. Qigantea, Griff'. ; Kurz ; i. 280 (No. E 3278 Muragh&t, W. Duars), is a small 
tree with moderately hard wood, pores small, radially distributed, and medullary rays 
of two kinds, very broad and fine. 



Order XXXIV. SAPINDACILffl. 

Contains about 20 genera of Indian trees or shrubs. Most of these come from 
Burma or Southern India, but the largest genus Acer^ the M^lc, is almost exclu- 
sively found in the Himalaya. 

The Order is divided into 4 Tribes, viz.^ 

Tribe I. — Sapindeaj . . Hemiggrosa, DUiela^ma, Erioglossum, Allo' 

phgltvs, JEscuIus, Sryphopetalum^ Cupania, 
LepuantheSf Schleichera, Sapindus, Xero- 
4permum, Nephelium, Pomeita, Harpullia, 
Zollingeria. 
n. — Aoerineffi . . Acer and DoMfuea, 
III. — Dodonteea; . . Dodonaa. 
IV. — StaphylesB . . Staphglea and Turpinia, 

Hetnigyrosa contains two species : JET. eanescen*, Thwaites En urn. 56, 408 ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 671 ; Beddome t. 161 ; Kurz i. 290 (Molinaa canescens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
iL 243). Vern. Nekota, karadipotigan,T9m, ; Earivi, Tel.; Kaluyette, Kan.; Lokaneli, 
kurpa. Mar., is a tree of Southern India, especially the Coromandel Coast and Tcnaa- 
serim ; and H. deficicm, Beddome t. 231 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 671, is a tree of the 






94 SAPiNDACEiE. [Allopkyllui. 

Anamalai Hills. Dittelasma Barak, Hook* f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 672 ; Karz i. 297, is 
an evergreen tree of the Pegu Yomas and Tenasserim. JSrioglossum edule, Blame ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 672 (^. ruoiginosum, Bl. ; Brandis 108. Sapindus rubiginasa, Bl. ; 
Beddome Ixxiii. ; Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 282. Pancovia rubiginosa, Baill. ; Kutz i. 296) 
Vem. Rithay Hind. ; Ishi rashi, Tel. ; Manipanaam, Tarn. ; Tseikchay, Burm. (No. 
23 Brandis' Banna List, 1862, marked Sapindus, 66 lbs. ex Kurz^ MSS.), is a 
large tree of Sikkim, Assam, South India and Barma, said by Boxbargh to have a 
strong durable wood with a chocolate-coloured heartwood. acyphopetalum rami* 
Jlorumt Hiern. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 676, and Zollinfferia macrocarpa, Karz i. 288. 
Vem. Wetkyotbeng, Barm., are trees of Burma. Cupania contains 9 species, the chief 
of which are C, glabrata, Kurz i. 284 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 676 (Sapindus squamosum, 
Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 282) of Burma and C pentapeiala, W. and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 
678. (Schleichera pentapetala, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 276) Vem. Koiki-pura t ; Purakoi $ . 
Sylhet, a large tree of Sylhet ; the rest are small Buimese trees. Of Lepisanthet 
there are two Burmese species ; Xerospermum Nbronhianum, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 
686 ; Kurz i. 296, is a tree of the Khasia Hills, E. Bengal and Burma, while Harpullia 
cupanioides, Roxb. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 692 ( H. imbricata, Bl. ; Beddome t. 168 ), is a 
large tree of the Western Gh4ts. Dobinaa vulgaris, Ham. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 696 ; 
Gamble 23. Vern. Satnli, Nep., is a large shrub of the Eastern Himalaya. 

Wood generally soft or moderately soft, even grained ; no distinct 
heartwood except in Schleichera, Pores small, or very small, generally 
uniform and uniformly distributed. Medullary rays very fine or fine 
rarely moderately broad, often closely packed. Apart from the annual 
rings^ no concentric bands except in Alloph^llm and Sapindus. 

1. ALLOPHYLLUS, Linn. 

A genus containing 2 large shrubs : that here described, which has trifoliolate leaves, 
and A. zeylanicus, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 673 ; Gamble 22, a shrub or small tree 
of the Eastern Himalaya and Assam, with nnifoliolate leaves. 

1. A Cobbe, Bl.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 673; Kurz i. 299. Ornitrophe 
Cc?ii tf, Willd. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 268. Schmidelia Cobbe, Beddome Ixxiii. 
Vern. Thauijot, Burm. 

A deciduous shrub. Wood grey, soft. Pores small, scanty, medul- 
lary rays moderately broad, short, joined by numerous white parallel 
and equidistant concentric lines ; prominent on a radial section. 

Eastern Bengal, South India, Burma and Andaman Islands. 

Ibe. 

B 1988. Andaman Islands (Kurz 1866) 40 

2. ^SCULUS, Linn. , 

A genus containing two Indian species. The Horse-chestnut, commonly planted 
in Europe, is the ^. Uippocastanum, Linn. 

Wood white, soft to moderately hard. Annual rings distinct. Pores 
numerous, small or very small, generally abundant in the spring wood. 
Medullary rays uniform, equidistant, very fine, very numerous. 

1. JE. indica, Colebr. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 675; Brandis 103. The 
Indian Horse-chestnut. Vern. Torjaga, Trans-Indus ; Hane, hanudun, 
Kashmir; Banihor, gugu, ianor, pdniar, Hind. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark grey, with long horizontal cracks, 
exfoliating in long flakes. Wood white, with a pinkish tinge, soft, 
close-grained. Annual rings marked by a line and sometimes by fewer 



JBiCulttS. ] SAPINDACEJS. 95 

pores in the autumn wood. Pores very small. Medullary rays very 
fine^ very numerous. 

North-West Himalaya between 4,000 and 10,000 feet, from the Indus to Nepal. 

Weight, 34 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood used for building, water troughs, platters, 
packing cases and tea boxes. The Tibet drinking cups are sometimes mack of it. 
The twigs and leaves are lopped for fodder. The fruit is given as food to cattle and 
goats, and in times of scarcity is soaked in water and then ground and eaten mixed 

with flour, by the hill people. 

' lbs. 

H 31. Matiy&na, Simla, 7,000 feet 34 

H* 166. Kangra, Punjab (1866) 

H 936. Hazara, Punjab 35 

H 776. Kalatop, Punjab, 7,000 feet 34 

2. JE. pnnduana, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 675 ; Gamble 22. 
jS. assamica, Griff.; Kurz i. 286. Vern. Cherinangri, Nep.; Kunkif" 
kola, ekuhea, As. ; Di?tgri, D6ars ; Bolnawak, Garo. 

A moderate-sized, deciduous tree. Wood white, soft, close-grained. 
Pores small, in short radial Hues between the very fine, closely packed^ 
medullary rays. Animal rings marked by a faint white line. 

Northern Bengal, Khasia Hills, Assam and Burma, ascending to 4,000 feet. 
Growth moderate, 10 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 36 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Wood rarely used. 

Ibe. 
E 3139. Buxa Reserre, Western Duars 36 

S. SCHLEICHERA, WiUd. 

1. S. trquga, Willd.; Hook. PI. Ind. i. 681; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
277; Beddome t. 119; Brandis 105; Kurz i. 289. Vern. Kosum, 
ffausam, Hind. ; Rusam, Uriya ; P'&shA, may, roatanga, Tel. ; Pdvd, pH, 
pulachi, zolim-buriki, Tam. ; Sagdi, sagade, chakoia^ akota^ Kan. ; 
CAendala, Coorg; Puvatii, Kaders; Kassumar, kokam, kockam, Panch 
Mehals; Kusumb, peduman, Mar.; Komur,pusku, Gondi; Baru, Kurku; 
Gyoben, Burm. ; CSng, conghas, Cingh. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark J inch thick, grey, exfoliating in 
small rounded plates of irregular shape and size. Wood very hard. 
Sapwood whitish; heartwood light, reddish brown. Pores scanty, 
moderate-sized, often oval and subdivided. White, wavy, concentric 
lines, which may possibly indicate the annual rings. Medullary rays 
very fine, very numerous, wavy, uniform and equidistant, closely packed ; 
the distance between the rays less than the transverse diameter of the 
pores. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards. Central and South India and 

Burma. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following 

experiments : — 

Weight. Value of P. 

Brandis, 1862, No. 22. Burma found . 70 lbs. 

„ 1864, 8 experiments with bars 3' X V X l'^ „ . 68 „ 1160 

Baker, 4 experiments, 1829 „ „ 7' X 2^' X 2^ „ • 68 „ 618 

Wallich, No. 179 {Scytalia irijuga) „ . 60 „ 

Smythies, 1878, with our 8 specimens „ . 67*5 „ •- 

A. Mendis, Ceylon Collection, No. 47 „ . 67 „ ••• 

The wood is very strong and durable ; it is used for oil, rice and sugar mills, and 



96 SAPiNDACEiE. [ Schletchera. 

for agricultural implements and carte. The lac produced on this tree is hiehly prised. 
The fruit is often eaten, and the seeds give an ou used for huming in Makunjr. 

llM. 

O 206. Garhwal (1868) 65 

O 536. DehraDun 66 

C 191. Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) 66 

C 1110. Ahiri Beserve, Central Provinces . .... 66 

C 2769. Melghdt, Berar 62 

W 732. South Kanara 70 

B 319. Burma (1867) 75 

B 2515. „ (1862) 72 

No. 47. Ceylon Collection 57 

4. SAPINDUS, Plum. 

Four species according to the Flora Indica, but the nomenclature of Beddome and 
Brandis has been altered by Hiern; it will be convenient to use Brandis' names 
instead of those given in the Flora Indica. S. Danura, Yoigt; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
i. 684; Kurz i. 298 (Scytalia Danura, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 274). Vem. Nancha, 
danura, Beng., is a small tree of Northern India, Northern and Eastern 
Bengal, Burma and the Andamans, chiefly in the tidal forests. The wood is said by 
Home (Sundarbans List, 1872-73) to be white, and to be used in Lower Bengal 
for boat and house building. 

1. S. emarg^atuSy Vahl. ; Beddome t. 154 ; Brandis 107 ; Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 279. S. tri/oliatus, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 682. The 
Soapnut Tree. Vern. Ritha, Hind. ; Bara-riiAa, Beng. ; Mukta maya, 
Uriya; Konkidu, Tel.; Pounanga, puvandi, Tarn.; TAalay marathu, 
antawdla, Kan. ; Areela, Mai. ; Puvella, Cingh. 

A large tree. Wood yellow, hard. Pores large, joined by concentric 
bands of soft tissue, which contain numerous extremely small pores ; 
intervening are darker coloured bands of firmer tissue, in which the 
very fine, nyimerous medullary rays are prominent. 

Bengal, South India and (Ceylon, often cultivated. 

Skinner, No. 114, gives the weight of the wood at 64 lbs., and P = 682; it is 
sometimes used for biulding and carts, but the chief use of the tree is on account of its 
saponaceous berries, which are largely used as a substitute for soap. The root, bark 
and fruit are used in native medicine, and a semi-solid oil is extracted from the seed. 

D 3209. Cuddapah, Madras. 



B 2259 (51 lbs.) is a white, moderately hard wood sent by Major Ford from the 
Andamans in 1866 ; it perhaps belongs to this species. 

3. S. detergenSy Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 280; Brandis 107. 8. Muiorossi, 
Gaertn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 683. The Soapnut of North India. Yern. 
Ritha, dodan, ianmar, Hind. 

A handsome deciduous tree with g^ey bark. Wood light yellow, 
rough, moderately hard, compact and close-grained ; annual rings dis- 
tinctly marked by a band of white tissue, containing large pores ; the 
pores in the outer portion of each annual ring are very small and unite 
by narrow, concentric, often interrupted bands of white tissue. Medul- 
lary rays not straight, short, fine, numerous, lighter coloured than the 
intervening tissue. Fores and medullary rays distinctly visible on a 
vertioal section. 

Cultivated throughout North -West India and Bengal. 

Growth slow, 18 to 15 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 44 lbs. Wood not used. 



Sapindus, ] sapindaceje. 97 

The fruit is very lar^i^lj used and eiported as a substitute for soap ; the leaver are 
given as fodder to cattle, and the seeds used in medicine. 

Ibfl 

H 117. Waziri Rupi, Kulu, 4,000 feet 44* 

H 3060. Kepu, Sutlej Valley, 2,000 „ 

3. S. attenuatuSy Wall. ; Hook. FI. Ind.^ i. 684 ; Gamble %i. 
Sapindus ruber, Kurz i. 298. Sci/talia rubra, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. %1'Jt,. 
Vern. Achaita, Nep ; SirAooiUn/jfciir, Lepcha ; Lai loUpHra, Sylhefc. 

A shrub or small tree with thin grey bark. Wood white^ moderately 
hand. Annual rings marked by darker lines. Pores moderately large, 
scanty, often in short radial or wavy lines. Medullary rays short, 
white, very fine, numerous. 

Eastern Himalaya, Assam and Eastern Bengal, down to Chittagong. 
Flowers red. Fruit eaten in Sylhet. 

£ 3272. Western Ddars. 

5. NEPHELIUM, Linn. 

Four indigenotis and two introduced Indian species. The Ratnhutan fruit is tho 
produce of N, lappaceum, Linn., a tree of the Malay Archipelago. Of indigenous 
trees If, stipulaceum, Beddomo t. 135, is iound in the forests of the Western Ghats ; 
jy. hypoleucum, Kurz i. 293 ; and N, rukescens, Uiem ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 688, in 
Burma. 

Wood red, hard ; prominent wavy concentric bands. 

1. N. Longana, Camb.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 688; Kurz i. 294. 
Euphoria Longana, Lamk. ; Beddome 1. 156. Scytalia Longana, Boxb. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 270. The Longan. Vern. Ashphal, Beng. ; Poovati, Tam. ; 
Fund, Courtallum; Wumb, Bombay; Mai ahcotd, Kan.; Kyetmouk, 
Burm. Morre, Cingh. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Wood red, moderately hard. Pores 
smallj numerous, uniformly distributed; the transverse diameter equal 
to the distance between the fine and very fine medullary rays. Prominent, 
wavy bands, broader than the rays, divide the wood into a succession of 
concentric strata which may possibly indicate the annual growth. 

Mysore, Western GhAts and Burma. It is also found in China, where it is called 
Longan, 

Weight, 44 lbs., Wallich, No. 179 ; 62 lbs., A. Mendis; our snecimens give 61 lbs. 

Ser cubic foot. The wood is not used, though Kurz says it isgooa for furniture ; but it 
cserves notice. The fruit (the Longan) is eaten. 

lbs. 

D1278. Anamalai Hills, Madras 61 

No. 67. Ceylon Collection 62 

2. H. Litchi, Camb.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 687; Kurz i. 288. Sc^talia 
ZilcH, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 269. The Litchi. Vern. Zi^i, Hind, 
(originally Chiuese) ; Kyeimouk, Burm. 

A handsome evergeen tree with thin grey bark. Wood red^ hard, 
heavy. Pores small to moderate-sized, the transverse diameter usually 
greater than tho distance betiveen the rays. Medullary rays very fine, 
very numerous. Prominent wavy bands, as in N, Longana, 

Introduced from South China, and now cultivated largely in India for its 
delicious fruit. Weight, about 56 lbs. per cubic foot. 

O 3260. Saharanpur. 



98 SAPiKDACEJE. [ Pometia. 

6. POMETIA, Porst. 

1. P. tomentosa, Bth. and Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 691 ; Eurz i. 
295. Pometia eximia, Beddome 1. 157. Vern. Tiaby ay, Bnrm.; BadoA, And. 

Under this name was collected by Kurz, in 1866, in the Andaman 
Islands, No. B 1973. It has a red heartwood, large, scanty, uniformly 
distributed pores, prominent on a vertical section ; and closely packed, 
very fine medullary rays ; the wood is traversed by prominent concentric 
lines, which may possibly be annual rings. Weight, 48 lbs. per cubic 
foot. 

7. ACER, Tournef. 

A hurge penus of fioropean, Asiatic and AmeriGan trees, which ooonta about 14 
Indian species. The species not here described are A. tiiveum, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind., 
i. 693 ; Eurz i. 289, a very large tree of Assam and Burma ; A, stachyophyllum, 
Hiern ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 694, a small tree of Independent Sikkim ; A. isolodum, Kurz ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 694; Kurz i. 289, an evergreen tree of the Martaban Hills from 
6,000 to 7,000 feet elevation ; and A, pentapomicumj J. L. Stewart ; Hook. FL Ind. i. 
694 ; Brandis 111. Vern. Teekan, kcttckri, kitla, tian, kilpattai, serdn, Pb., a tree of 
hot dry places in^ the inner ranges of the Noith-West Himalaya from Kashmir to 
Kumaun. 

The species may thus be distinguished by characters taken almost exclusively from 
the leaves : — 
Leaves undivided — 
Basal nerves 3 — 

Leaves white beneath — 

Cymes puhescent A. ohUmgum. 

„ glabrous . . . .A. niveum. 
Leaves green beneath A, lavigatum. 

Basal nerves 5 — 

Leaves glabrous beneath — 
Branches green, serratures of leaves none or very 

indistinct A, sikkitnense. 

Branches red, leaves finely duplicate-serrate . , A. Hookeri, 
Leaves puhescent beneath . . . . .A. stachyophyllum. 

Leaves 3-lobed — 

Lobes less than half the len^h of the leaves . . , A* Thomioni. 
Lobes deeper than half the length of the leaves — 

Lobes lanceolate, acutely serrulate . . . , A, isolobum. 

Lobes ovate, obtusely serrate A. petUapomicum* 

Leaves 5-lobed and nerved^ 

Leaves pale beneath A, ceeHum, 

Leaves green beneath — 

Leaves large, serratures distant, simple . .A, villosuh^. 

Leaves small, serratures close, sharp . , A. caudcUum, 

Leaves 5- to 7-lobed and usually 7-nerved^ 

Leaves serrulate A. CamphelUi. 

Leaves entire ........ ^. picium. 

The wf>od of Acer is generally shining and mottled by the medullary 
rays being prominent on a radial section. It is soft and close-grained. 
There is no heart wood, and the annual rings are generally well marked. 
The pores are small and very small, uniformly distributed ; the medullary 
rays fine and very fine, often of two sizes. Concentric medullary patches 
are found in most species. The structure of the wood of the difierent 
species of Maple, European^ Indian and American, is so similar that it 
is very difiicult and perhaps impossible to distinguish the different 
species by the structure of their wood. 



Acer. ] SAPiKDACEJS. 99 

1. A. oblongnin^ Wall; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 693; Brandis 110; 
Gamble 22. Vern. Mark, Pb. ; Pharengala,patkngalia, kirmoli, N.-W. P. ; 
Magila, buzimpdla, Nep. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark dark grey^ smooth^ with 
horizontal wriukles. Wood light-reddish brown^ moderately hard, 
close-grained. Annual rings faintly marked. Pores small^ uniformly 
distributed. Medullary rays fine^ red^ distinctly visible on a radial 
section^ giving the wood an elegantly mottled appearance. 

Himalaya from the Jhelom eastwards to Bhutan, up to 6,000 feet. 
Growth moderate, 7 rings per inch of radios. Weight, 45 lbs. per cnbic foot. 
Wood used for agricultural implements and drinking cups. 

H 221. Garhwal (1868) 45 

H 2944. Sutlej Valley, near Suni, 3,000 feet . . - . 

2. A. lavigatum, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 693; Brandis 110; 
Kurz i. 289; Gamble 22. Vern. Saslendi, cherauni, thali iabasAi, Nep. ; 
Timgnyok, Lepcha. 

A deciduous tree, with thick, smooth, grey bark. Wood white, 
shining, hard, close-grained. Pores small, scanty. Medullary rays 
short, not straight, fine and moderately broad, prominent. 

Himalaya from the Jumna eastwards to Bhutan, between 5,000 and 9,000 feet» 
Khasia Hills, Tenasserim. 

Weight, 43 lbs. per cubic foot. Used for planking and tea boxes. 

Ibg, 
£ 684. Sepoydura, Darjeeling, 5,500 feet 43 

3. A. sikkimense, Miq. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 694 ; Gamble 22. Vern. 
PaUgnyok, Lepcha. 

A small tree, with thin grey bark. Wood shining, grey, annual 
rings distinct. Pores small, very numerous. Medullary rays fine, 
numerous. 

Hills of Sikkim and Bhutan, from 7,000 to 9,000 feet. Mbhmi HUIs. 

Growth slow, 10 to 15 rings per inch of radius. 

lbs. 
E 3102. Darjeeling, 7,000 feet 37 

4. A. Hookeri, Mic[. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 694; Gamble 22. Vern. 
Lai kabasAi, Nep. ; Pale, Lepcha. 

A deciduous tree with brown bark, i inch thick, deeply cracked. 
Wood grey. Pores small. Medullary rays fine, red, very numerous. 

Sikkim and Bhutan, ahove 7,000 feet. 

Growth moderate, 8 rings per inch of radius. Weicrht, 37 lbs. per cubio foot. 
Plants with copper-coloured foliage are not uncommon about Darjeeling. 

£ 2338. Bangbdl, Darjeeling, 7,500 feet 37 

5. A. Thojnsoni^ Miq.; Gamble 22. A. villomm, Wall, var.; Hook 
Fl. Ind. i. 695. Vern. Kabashi, Nep. 

A large tree, bark thin, grey. Wood greyish white, soft. Pores 
small. Medullary rays fine and moderately broad, numerous. 

Hills of Sikkim and Bhutan above 4,000 feet. 

Growth slow, 16 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 44 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Ibf. 

E 3103. DaijeeUng, 5,000 feet 44 



100 SAPiNDACEJS, [ Acer. 

6. A. CSdSinin, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 695; Brandis 111. Vern. 
Trekhan, tarkhanay tilpaUar, mandar, kauri, kalindra, salima, kanzal, Pb. ; 
Kanshin, Tibet; Jerimu, 9humanjra,^\m\2^\ A^iYtf, Kumaau. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark grey^ exfoliating in long vertical 
strips. Wood white, close-grained, less mottled than that of A, caudainm, 
soft to moderately hard ; annual rings distinct. Pores small, numerous, 
uniform, between the fine, very numerous medullary rays. 

North-West Himalaja from the Indus to Nepal, between 7,000 and 11,000 feet. 
Growth slow, 9 to 31 rings per inch of radius, giving an average of 18. Weight, 
40 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood scarcely used ; drinking cups are sometimes made of it 

by the Tibetans. 

lb«. 

H 33. Matiy4na, Sunla, 7,000 feet 40 

H 916. Hajsara, Punjab, 7,000 „ 41 

H 290l! ] ^^^^^^'^ ^^°^^ ^'^^ „ 

H 431. Deoban, Jaunsar, 8,000 „ 40 

7. A. villosum, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 695 ; Brandis 111. Vern. 
Karendera, Simla. 

A large deciduous tree, with thin grey bark. Wood white, moder- 
ately hard, close-grained, beautifully mottled and shining, annual rings 
distinct. - Pores scanty, small, uniform, uniformly distributed. Medul- 
lary rays short, fine and moderately broad. 

North-West Himalaya from the Jhelum to Ne^al, between 7,000 and 9,000 feet. 
Growth slow, 16 rings ner inch of radios. Weight, 38 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood 

not used. Leaves lopped tor fodder. 

ibt. 

H 62. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 88 

H 3006.") 

H 2899. ) " " " •" 

H 167. Eangra(1866) 

8. A. caadatum. Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 695; Brandis 112; 
Gamble 22. Yern. Kamla, kandaru, kanjara, Simla; Khansing, kaiasAi, 
Nep. ; Yalishin, Bhutia. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree, with dark-grey bark. Wood white, 
with a faint pink tinge, shiny, compact, moderately hard, sometimes 
with small masses of heartwood near the centre. Annual rings distinct. 
Pores small, uniform and uniformly distributed. Medullary rays 
moderately broad, short, giving on a radial section a beautifully mottled 
appearance. 

Himalaya, from the Chenab to Bhutan between 7,000 to 11,000 feet 
Growth slow, 26 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 43 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Ibf. 

H 27. Matiy4na, Simla, 7,000 feet 46 

H 41. Mahasu, „ 8,000 „ 44 

H 74. Kalashi, „ 6,000 „ 41 

H 3007. Nagkanda, „ 9,000 , 



... 



9. A. Campbellii, Hook. f. and Th.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 696; 
Gamble 23. Vern. KabasAi, Nep.; Daom,yaUi, Lepcha. 

A large deciduous tree, with smooth grey bark. Wood greyish 
white, moderately hard, shining, close-grained. Annual rings marked 
by a thin line. Pores small, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays 
numerous^ fine and moderately broad. 



Acer. ] SAPiNDACE^. ioi 

Sikkim Himalaya, above 7,000 feet. 

Growth moderate, 8 to 15 rines per inch of radius, but rather faster when young. 
Weieht, 38 lbs. per cubic foot. The chief Maple of the North-East Himalaya. The 
wood is extensively used for planking and for tea boxes. It reproduces freely either by 
seed or by coppice, and plays an important part in the regeneration of the hill forests. 

lbs. 

E 436. Rangbdl, Darjeeling, 7,000 feet 37 

E 2337. .. „ „ 40 

E 686. Sepoydura, Darjeeling, 5,500 feet 37 

10. A. pictunii Thunb. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 696; Brandis 112. 
Vern. Kilpatlar, trekAan, tarMana, iairu, ianzal, ianjar, jerimu, laWj 
Pb. ; Kanckeli, N.- W, P. ; Dhadonjra, Simla. 

A moderate-sized tree, with thin grey bark. Wood white, soft to 
moderately hard, close-grained. Pores very small. Medullary rays fine 
and very fine. 

Outer and Middle Himalaya from the Indus to Assam, between 4,000 and 9,000 
feet. 

Growth moderate, 12 rings ner inch of radius. Weight, 41 lbs. per cubic foot. The 
commonest Maple of the North- West Himalaya. The wood is used for construction, 
ploughs, bedsteads, and poles to carry loads. Tibetan drinking cups are made of the 
knotty excrescences. The branches are lopped for fodder. 

lbs 

H 931. Hazara, Punjab, 8,000 feet 41 

H 3008. Nagkanda, Simla, 9,000 „ 43 

H 432. Deoban, Jaunsar, 7,000 „ 38 

8. DODON-^A, Linn. 

!• D. viscosa, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 697; Beddome Ixxv. ; 
Brandis 113; Kurz i. 287 ; Gamble 23. D, dioica, Roxb. and D. angm^ 
ti/blia, Linn. f. ; Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 256. Vern. Sanatla, mendru, 
ban mendu, Pb. ; Bandeni, C. P. ; Bandurgiy bandriie, Kan. 

An evergreen shrub, with thin grey bark exfoliating in long thin 
strips. Sapwood white; heartwood extremely hard and close-grained^ 
dark brown, with an irregular outline ; annual rings (?) distinctly marked 
by fine white lines. Pores very small, in short radial lines. Medullary 
rays fine, white, very numerous. 

North- West Himalaya from the plains up to 4,600 feet, Punjab, Sindh, South 
India ascending to 8,000 feet and attaining here the size of a small tree, Burma, 
planted throughout India for hedges. 

Growth slow, 11 to 12 rings per inch of radius. The wood is used for engraving, 
turning, tool-handles and walking-sticks, and the branches to support the earth of 
flat roofs. It is likely to be important in re-clothing denuded tracts like the Siwalik 
Hill of Hoshiarpur. 

P 894. Salt Range, Punjab. 

9. STAPHYLEA, Lien. 

1. S. Bmodi, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 698; Brandis 114. Vern. 
Marchob (Serpent Stick)^ Afg. ; Nagdaun, chitra, dual, bati^baiAru, ban' 
$hagali, guldar, kdghania, Hind. 

A large shrub or small tree. Bark grey, with darker longitudinal, 
anastomosing streaks. Wood soft^ grey. Pores very small between the 
fine^ closely packed^ medullary rays. 



102 SAPiNDACEiE . [ Staphylta. 

North- West Himalaya, above 6,000 feet. 

Sticks are made of the wood which are sold in the hill bazars. They are supposed 
by the Afghans and frontier tribes to have the property of keeping off snidces. 
Weight, 44 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Ibe. 

H 2900. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 41 

H 3189. Dangagalli, Hazara, 7,000 feet 47 

10. TURPINIA, Vent. 

Contains 2 Indian species, which in the Flora Indica are described as one. T.pomi- 
fera, DC, Kurz i. 292 ; Gamble 23. Vem. Nagpat, Nep. ; Singnok, Lepcha ; Toukthama^ 
Burm., is a tree of the tropical forests of Bengal and Burma: vrhiXe T, nepalensu 
comes from the hills. 

1. T. nepalensis, Wall. ; Beddome t. 159; Kurz i. 292; Gamble 28. 
T. pomifera,vC. \ YLook. Fl. lud. i. 698. Vern. TXaW, Nep,; MurgtU, 
Lepcha ; Nila, Nilgiris. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark -^ inch tbick^ S^^Jy smooth. 
Wood grey, soft, even-grained. Pores small, very numerous, uniformly 
distributed. Medullary rays of two classes, the first being moderately 
broad, scanty, short, and the second fine, very numerous. 

Himalaya from the Nepal Frontier eastwards, between 4,000 and 7,000 feet, 
Assam, Cachar, Chittagong and Burma. 

Weight, 30 lbs per cubic foot. Wood not used, leaves given as fodder to cattle. 

lbs. 
E 649. Sepoy dura Forest, Datjeeling, 5,500 feet .... 30 
E 3108. Darjeeling, 6,000 feet 



Order XXXV. SABIACRffi. 

Contains 2 Indian genera, viz, : Meliosma, which is here described, and com- 
prises trees or shrubs ; and Sabia, a genus of about 10 climbing or sarmentose shrubs. 
Among these latter S, campanulata. Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. i ; Brandis 116. Vem. 
Bakalpaia, Kumaun, of the Himalaya from Simla to Sikkim, above 5,000 ft. (H 3030, 
Nagkanda, 9,000 ft. ; H 3193, Theog. 7,000 ft) ; 8. paniculaia, Edgew.; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 3 ; Brandis 117; Gamble 23 of the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna to 
Sikkim and 8, Uptandra, Hook. f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 2; Gamble 23. 
Yem. Simalif Nep. ; Payongrik, Lepcha, of the Sikkim Hills, are the most noticeable. 
They have a soft wood, with large pores and broad medullary rays. 

1. MELIOSMA, Blume. 

A eenus containing 7 species of Indian trees. Two are found in North-West 
India, four in the Eastern Himalaya, one in Burma and three in South India. Of 
those not here described , ikf. ^Mw^ren*, Wall. ; Brandis 116. Vem. Oardar, kharat, 
Kumaun, is a tree of the NoHh-West Himalaya from the Indus to Nepal, but rare 
west of the Sutlej ; M, Wightii, Planch. {M, pungens, Bedd. Ixxvii). Vem. Tode, Nilgiris, 
is a tree of the Western Ghats often called Hill Mango by Europeans, but not used ; M, 
Amottianaf Wight ; Beddome 1. 160. Vem. Suit makay^ Nilgiris ; Massivdra, Mysore, 
is a large tree of the hills of South India, above 4,000 ft. elevation, l^eddome says the 
heartwood of old trees is striped red and white, but that the timber is worthless. AT. 
pinnata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 104 ; Gamble 23. Vem. Bolay, Nep. ; Batitca, Sylhet, is a 
large tree of the outer Eastern Himalaya and Khasia Hills, whose wood is used for 
house-building. 

Pores small, arranged in groups, or in short radial lines. 



Meliosma,^ sABiACEiE. 103 

1. M« dilleniafolia, Bl. ; Hook. FI. Ind. ii. 4; Brandis 115 ; Gamble 
23. Vem. Porda, paren^a, pAilli, Simla; Gwep, N.-W. P. 

A small deciduous tree, with dark-grey bark. Wood white, soft, 
even-grained. Annual rings marked by a continuous line of pores. 
Pores small, in rounded groups of from ten to twenty, except along the 
annual rings. • Medullary rays wavy, moderately broad and fine, dis- 
tinctly marked on a radial section. 

Throughout the Himalaya, from 4,000 to 11,000 feet, from the Sutlej to Bhutan. 
Growth moderate, 4 to 6 rings per inch of radius ; weight, 35 to 38 Ihs. per cuhic 
foot. 

Ibfl. 

H 60. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 38* 

H 2892. „ „ „ 36 

2. M. simplicifolia, Koxb. Fl. Ind. i. 103 ; Hook. Fl.'Ind. ii. 5 ; Bed- 
dome Ixxvii. ; Brandis 116 ; Kurz i. 301 ; Gamble 23. Milling tonia, Boxb. 
Vem. Kosru, Nep. ; Hingman, Lepcha ; KokOy Mechi ; Dibru, Ass. ; 
Dantrungi, Sylhei; i?(?«^, Chittagoug ; GokpaA,Magh. 

An evergreen tree. Wood reddish, moderately hard, warps. Pores 
small and moderate-sized, single or in short radial lines, numerous, 
uniformly distributed. Medullary rays moderately broad, very numer- 
ous. 

Eastern Himalaya, Assam, Chittagong, Burma, South India and Ceylon. 

Weight, 36 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Ibg. 

E 2339. Sivoke, Darjeeling Terai 36 

3. M. Wallichii, Planch. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 6; Gamble 24. Vern. 
Da6dabbi, nunetoalai, Nep. ; Himan, Lepcha. 

A large deciduous tree. Wood white, very soft, spongy. Pores large, 
in scattered groups of five to ten. Medullary rays broad and fine, dis- 
tinctly marked on a radial section. 

Eastern Himalaya and Ehasia Hills, ahove 5,000 feet. 

Growth moderate, 8 to 10 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 18 lbs. per cubic foot. 
Wood used only for firewood and occasionally for boxes. 

lbs. 

E 361. Rangbdl, Darjeeling, 7,000 ft 18 



Order XXXVI. ANACABDIACEJE. 

Contains 19 Indian genera of trees, rarely shrubs or climbers. Many of the species 
are very important forest trees, and they are dispersed over the whole of India, but most 
particularly in Madras and Burma. They have often an acrid, milky juice, and 
several species give a varnish. Some species have only a soft wood, while others have 
a hard, orten brightly coloured heartwood. The Order is divided iiMi two Tribes, viz, — 

Tribe I.^Anacardiese . . . Skus, Pistacia, Mang\fera, Anacardium, 

Bouea, Gluta, Buchananiay MelanoT' 
rhcea^ Stointonia, Solenocarpus, Tapiria, 
Odina, Parishia, Semecarpus, Dri" 
mycarpuSj Holigama and Nothopegia, 
„ II. — Spondiese . . . Spondias and Dracantomelum. 

Twelve of the genera are here described, while of the rest Tapiria contains only 
one climbing shrub of the Eastern Himalaya and Eastern Bengal down to Chittagong, 
jT. kirsuta. Hook, f . ; Earz i. 320 ; Gamble 24. Vern. Mashul-lara, Nep. ; Renchiling' 
rik, Lepcha. Swintonia contains three species, two of which are found in Tenasseriur; 



104 ANACARDIACEiE. [JBilM. 

while of the third, S. Srhiccnckii, Teysm. and Binnend. ; Hook. FL Ind. ii. 26; Korz L 
316, herbarium specimens were sent from Chittagong acoompanyinff £ 1964. Yerih 
JBoilam, boiisur, Beng. ; Sambunpf sanginphroo, M^b ; Shibika, Cbakma ; 7%ayet S(m, 
Barm., which has unfortunately been mislaid. It is a very large tree of tbe Eastern 
Peninsula from Chittagong southward and, especially in Chittagong, is remarkable by* 
its tall straight, white stem and handsome foliage, wnich is tin^^ with red in the oold 
season. The wood is sometimes used for boats and is said by Major Lewin to last 
better than other woods in salt water. Solenocarpus indwn, W. and A.; 
Beddome t. 233, is a tree of the Western Gh&t't. Parishia insignis, Hook, f . is a 
large handsome evergreen tree of Tenasserim and the Andaman Islands. Notkcmegia 
contains three small trees of the Western Gh&ts ; and Dracontomelum nutng^erum, 
Bl. Yem. Ounradah, And., is a large evergreen tree of the Andaman Islands* 

According to the structure of tbe wood the genera of this family ' 
may be divided into two series. The first series which comprises Mela^ 
norrhcBa, Gluta, Bouea and Mangifera is characterized by closely packed 
medullary rays and somewhat scanty pores^ of these the first three genera 
have hard and dark-coloured heartwood. The second series comprises 
B,husy Pistaciay Anacardinm, Semecarpm, Odina, BucAanania, Spondiaa, 
and JOrim^carpm, and is marked by numerous fine, medullary rays, which 
are not closely packed, and numerous small or moderate-sized pores. The 
wood of the genera of this group is soft, and except that of Pisiacia^ Bhus 
and Odina, has no heartwood. The heartwood of Pistada is hard and 
that of Odina moderately hard. 

1. RHUS, Linn. 

Contains 11 species, chiefly Himalayan. Bhus parviflora, Roxb. Fl. lud. ii. 100; 
Brandis 119. Vem. Tunga, rai tung, dungla, tumra^ ranel, Hind., is a shrub of dry 
slopes of the N.-W. Himalaya and of the hills of Central India, with a yellowish, close- 
grained wood. B, khasiana. Hook. f. and B, Oriffithii, Hook. f. are small trees of 
the E^hasia Hills and Chittagong, while B, paniculata. Wall., is found in Bhutan 
and in Burma. B, Coriaria, Linn., is the Sumach tree of Europe, whose leaves are 
used in tanning in the preparation of Morocco leather. 

Wood grey, soft except in B. mysorensis, often streaked, with a yellow 
or brown heartwood. Pores small, often large and in continuous porous 
belts in the spring wood, Medullary rays fine and moderately broad. 

!• B. Cotinus, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 9; Brandis 118. Vern. 
Padn, bhdn, manu, banihra^ iung^ tUri, Pb. ; Tunga, iung, cAanidf-, dmi, 
N.-W. P. 

A shrub or small tree, deciduous. Bark thin, reddish brown, rough. 
Wood moderately hard ; sapwood small, white ; heartwood mottled, of a 
rich dark yellow colour. Annual rings marked by a belt of moderate- 
sized and large pores, the pores in the autumn wood very small, arranged 
in long, irreguWj radial groups. Medullary rays fine, short. 

Suliman Bange, North- West Himalaya to Kumaun, ascending to 6,000 feet. 
Growth slow, 32 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 66 lbs. per cubic foot. Used 
in South £ur(me for inlaid and cabinet work. In the Himalaya the twigs are used 
for basket-making, and the bark and leaves for tanning. 

lbs 

H 85. Bh^jji, Simla, 6,000 feet 66 

II 3182. Dungagalli, Hazara 

2. B. mysorensis, Ilcyue ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 9; Beddome Ixxviii.; 
Brandis. 119. Vern. Damrni, Ajmcrc. 



XAUS.] ANACARDIACE^. 105 

A small shrub with thin brown bark. Wood hard, pinkish yellow, 
dose-grained, heavy. Pores moderate-sized, evenly distributed. Me- 
dullary rays fine, very numerous, wavy, bent where they touch the pores. 

Saliman Range, Sind, Punjab, Rajputana and the Dekkan, Wood used only for 
fuel. 

P 3231. Kagpahar Forest, Ajmere. 
P 3248. Ajmere. 

3. B. semialata, Murray ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 10; 6randisll9; 
Gamble 24. S, buckiamela, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 99. R. Javanica, Linn. ; 
Kurz i. 819. Vern. Talri, titri, chechar^ arkhar, arkoly iairi, dudla, 
iakkeraUj wdnsA, hulashing^ Pb. ; SasAiu, Sutlej ; DaiAmila, ddswila, 
N.-W. P. ; Bakkiamela, bhagmili, Nep. ; Takhril, Lepcha. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark \ inch thick, rough, with 
deep vertical furrows. Wood soft, shining, grey with darker streaks. 
Annual rings marked by a broad belt of closely packed large pores, the 
outer belt of each annual ring being often very narrow, with patches of 
very small pores. Medullary rays fine. 

Outer Himalaya from the Indus to Assam, ascending to 7,000 feet ; Ebasia Hills. 

Growth variable : the Simla specimens had a slow growth of 16 rings per inch, 
while the Daneeling specimens had grown veiy fas^ 2-3 rings per inch of radius. 
Weiffht, 26 to 27 Ihs. per cuhic foot. Wood not used. Fruit eaten oy Nepalese and 
Lepdias, who make a wax of it called Ondu, Nep. 

Ibf. 

H 89. Bhaiji, Simla, 5,000 feet 26 

H 2943. Suni, Sutlej VaUey, 3,000 feet 27 

H 3079. Annandale, Simla, 6,000 feet 

£ 2340. Tukdah, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet 27 

4. B. pTU^jabeilsis, J. L. Stewart ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 10 ; Brandis 
120. Yern, TtMj arkkar, palai, cAoklu, kangar, kakkrein, dor, ra^Atu, 
Punjab. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree, with rough dark-g^ey bark and 
scented aromatic leaves. Wood consisting of alternate layers of soft, 
porous spring wood and hard autumn wood. Heartwood yellowish 
grey, with dark longitudinal streaks, moderately hard. Annual rings 
marked by a broad belt of closely packed large pores ; the pores in the 
rest of the annual rings scattered, small or very small, in groups or 
patches of soft tissue. 

North- West Himalaya, ascending to 8,500 feet. 

Growth slow, 14 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 34 Ihs. per cuhic foot. 

Ibfl. 

H 19. Matiydna, Simla, 8,000 feet 33 

H 3061. Kotgarh, Simla, 7.C00 feet 35 

H 3170. Dungagalli, Hazara . - 

5. B. insigniSy Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 11 ; Gamble 84. Vern. 
Kagphulaiy Nep. ; Serh^ Lepcha. 

A moderate-sized tree, with thin grey bark. Wood grey, soft heart- 
wood yellowish brown. Pores small and moderate-sized, uniformly 
distributed. Medullary rays fine, numerous. 

Sikkim and the Ehasia Hills, ahote 4,000 feet. 

Growth fast, 3 to 4 rings per inch of radius. 

Ibfl. 

E 3104.-)^ . ,. ^..^^ . f 26 

E 3105. j Darjeeling, 7,000 feet [ 27 

O 



106 A^ACARDUCBiB. [Mui, 

6. B. Wallichii, Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 11. R, veruicifera, PC. ; 
Brandis 120. Vera. Kambal, gadumbaly riiiali, arkiar, arid, loidsa, 
harHi Punjab ; Aioria, iaunii, bAaliiiu, N.-W. P. ; BAdlaio, oioii, Nep, 

A small or moderate-sized tree^ exuding^ from between the bark and 
the wood, a black acrid vamisb, which draws blisters. Sapwood white, 
soft; heartwood reddish brown, yellow when dry {Brandts). Structore 
similar to that of B. semialata. 

N.-W. Himalaya, from 2,000 to 7,000 feet. 

The wood is used in the Sntlej Valley for saw frames and axe handles. The juioa 
of the leaves is corrosive and blisters the skin. 

U 3078. Annandale, Sunla, 6,000 feet. 

7. B. SUCCedaneay Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 12 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
98 ; Brandis 131. R, acuminata, DC. ; Gamble 24. Yern. Tairi, arkol^ 
litarflaiAar, rikhul, sAasi, hurku, Pb. ; Raniwalai, Nep,; Serinyok, 
Lepcha ; Dingkain^ Khasia. 

A small deciduous tree, with thin bark. Wood white, shining, soft, 
with a small darker-coloured heartwood. Structure similar to that of 
M, semialata, 

Himalaya, from the Jhelum to Assam, Khasia Hills, from 2,000 to 8,000 feet. 

The wood is not used. The juice is acrid and causes blisters, the seeds give a good 
wax, and the tree is pUnted in Japan along roads and regularly worked for this wax, 
which is of a snow-white colour and is made into candles. 

H 2907. Nagkanda, Simla, 7,000 feet 32 

H 3167. DuDgagalli, Haz4ra 



2. PISTACIA, Linn. 

Contains only one Indian species. The pistachio nuts (pista), which are imported 
into India from Afghanistan, are the produce of Putacia vera, Linn., a small 
tree of Western Asia, cultivated in South Europe. P. Lentiscus, Linn., a shrub of 
the Mediterranean region, is the ti-ue Mastic of Chios. P. Terefnnthus, Linn., the 
Terebinth Tree, g^ves the Chio or Cyprus turpentine, and the gaUs found on it are 
used in tanning. 

1. P. int^l^errilliay J. L. Stewart ; Hook. FL Ind. ii. 13; Brandis 
122. Vern. Kaka, kakkar, kakrangche, kakring, kangar, tungu, Pb. ; 
Kakar singi, Kumaon ; SAu^, sarawan, mastuiy Afg. 

A deciduous tree, with rough grey bark. Sapwood white ; heartwood 
yellowish brown, beautifully mottled with yellow and dark veins, very 
hard. Annual rings marked b^ a belt of closely packed pores. Pores 
of two classes : those in the spring wood moderate-sized, while those in the 
greater portion of the wood are very small, forming interrupted, wavy 
lines, and grouped in irregular, narrow patches, which are frequently 
arranged in zigzag lines. Medullary rays fine, very numerous. 

Suliman and Salt Ranges, outer North-West Himalaya, ascending to 6,500 feet and 
extending east as far as Kumaon. 

Growth moderate, 8 to 9 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 64 lbs. per cubic foot. 
The wood is used for furniture, carvings and all kinds of omamentsJ work. It is 
usually sold in the hill hazars and particularly at Simla, in the form of thick short 
planks. The leaves are lopped for fodder for buffaloes and camels, and the galls are 
used in native medicine. 



Phfacia. ] 



ANACAdDIACE^. 



107 



H 6. Julung, Simla, 4,000 feet . 

H 11. Eomharsen, Simla, 6,000 feet 

H 160. Hazara, Punjab (1866) 

H 926. Hazara, Punjab 

H 898. Murree, Punjab, 7,000 feet 

H 227. Garhwal (1868) 

H 2930. Simla, 6,000 feet 



lbs. 

• •• 

60 

62 

46 

66 

60 

63 



3. MANGIFERA, Linn. 

Besides the 3 species here deBcribed : M. longipetf Griff. ; Kurz i. 303. Vera. 
ThayeUthee-nee, Burm., is an evergreen tree of the swamp forests of Burma ; and 
M,/cetida, Lour. Yem. Lamote, Burm., a large tree cultivated in Southern Tenas- 
serim for its fruit. 

No heartwood, "Wood soft, somewhat spongy. Pores large, promi- 
nent on a vertical section. Medullary rays fiue^ generally closely packed. 
Namerous, fine, wavy, concentric lines. 

1. M. indica, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 13 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 641 ; 
Beddome t. 162; Brandis 125; Kurz i. 304; Gamble 24. The Mango 
Tree. Vern. Am, Hind. ; Giari am. Ass. ; JegachUy Garo ; Marka, Gondi ; 
Ambe, Kurku; Jmba, Mar.; Mad, mangas, Tam. ; Mamadi,.mamid,^e\, ; 
Mavena, mdvu, Kan. ; Maca, Mai. ; Thayet^ Burm. 

A large evergreen tree. Bark thick, dark grey, nearly black, rough 
with numerous small fissures and exfoliating scales. Wood grey, coarse- 
grained, soft. Pores scanty, moderate-sized and large, distinctly marked, 
on a longitudinal section. Medullary rays fine, wavy, closely packed. 

Wild on the Western 6b4ts, cultivated all over India. 

Weight, 41 lbs. per cubic foot (our specimens); 37 (Puokle) ; 42 (Skinner, No. 90} ; 
44 (Cunningham); 41 (Baker) : the average giving about 41 lbs. 

Puckle's three Mysore experiments with bars 2^ X 1'^ X I*' gave P = 687 ; 
Cnnningham's two experiments with similar bars gave P = 650 ; Skinner's P ^ 632 ; 
and Baker's with bars 6' X 2^^ x 2^' ; P = 471. The wood is used for planking, doors and 
window frames, in Calcutta for packing cases, and in Behar for indigo boxes; canoes 
and Masula boats are made of it. The tree is, however, chiefly grown for the sake of 
its fruit ; its bark gives a gum, and its seed contains gallic acid, is used in medicine 
and is sometimes eaten. It is generally propagated by layers and grafls ; plants raised 
from seed will sometimes produce good fruit, but there is no dependence to be placed 
on the quality of the fruit of such trees. The seeds do not retain their vitality long, 
but germinate well if sown when quite fresh. 

E 637. Goalpara, Assam 48 

B 2302. Assam 38 

£ 3131. Calcutta • . . .41 

E 1957. Chittagong 39 

D 2053. Mysore 39 

2. M. caloneura, Kurz i. 305; Hook. Fl. lud. ii. 14. Vern. Tau- 
ikayeiy Burm. 

. An evergreen tree. Wood light brown, moderately hard. Pores 
large, scanty, prominent on a vertical section. Medullary rays fine, 
very numerous. Finft, wavy, concentric lines. 

Burma. 

Weight, 36 lbs. per cubic foot. 

lbs. 

B 294. Burma (1867) 38 

B 2519. „ (1862) 32 



108 ANACAKDiACEJi. [ Mangifeta. 

3. H. sylvatica, Roxb. FI. Ind. i. 644; Hook. FI. Ind. ii. 15; Kurz 
]. 804; Gamble 24. Vern. Bun am, Ass.; LaksAmi am, Sylhet; 
Chuchi am, Nep. ; Katur, Lepcha ; Haeng neng thayet, Burm. 

A large evergreen tree with a thick grey bark. Wood grey, moder- 
ately bard. Structure the same as that of M, caloneura, but the 
medullary rays are less distinct and less numerous. Numerous wavy^ 
concentric lines. 

Nepal, Eastern Bengal and the Andamans ; rare in Burma. 

Weight, 34 to 41 lbs. Wood not used, but wortli trial for tea boxes. The fruit is 
sometimes eaten fresh or dried. It is also used medicinally. (Soxb,) 

lbs. 

E 594. Eookloong Forest, Darjeeling Terai 41 

£ 952. Golaghdt, Assam 34 



4. ANACARDIUM, Rottb. 

1. A. OCCidentale, Linn. ; Hook. FI. Ind. ii. 20 ; Roxb. FL Ind. 
ii. 812; Beddome t. 163 ; Kui-z i. 310. The Cashew Nut Tree, Vera. 
Knjfi, Hind. ; Hijuli, Beng. ; Kola mava, mundiri, Tam. ; Jidi mamidi, 
Tel.; Jidi, Kempu geru, Kan.; Thee-hoh ihayet, Burm. 

A small evergreen tree, with rough bark. Wood red, moderately hard, 
close-grained. Pores large, prominent on a vertical section. Medullary 
rays indistinct. 

Originally from South America, now established in the coast forests of Chittagong, 
Tenasserim, the Andaman Islands and South India. 

Growth moderate, 8 to 11 rings i>er inch of radius. Weight, 38 to 39 lbs. per cnbio 
foot. The wood is used for packing cases in Burma, for lH>at-building ukL charcoal. 
The nutd are roasted and eaten as dessert, they also give, by expression, a yellow 
oil similar to almond oil. The pericarp of the fruit gives a black acrid oil which is 
called ' cardol ' and gives an acid called ' anacardic acid.' The oil is very caustic, raises 
blisters and is used for warts, corns, and ulcers ; it is also nsed to prevent the attacks of 
white ants to wood- work and of insects to the binding of books, and in the Andamans to 
colour and preserve fishing lines ; the enlarged pedicels of the fruit are eaten. 

lbs. 

B 2227 38 

B 2229. Andamans (1866) 39 

5. BOUEA, Meissner. 

1. B. bnrmanicay Griff.; Hook. FI. Ind. ii. 21. B. opposili/oUa, 
Meissn. ; Kurz i. 806. Mangi/era oppontifolia, Roxb. FI. Ind. i. 640. 
Vern. Meriam, mayauy Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree with dark-grey bark. Wood grey, 
hard, with a dark reddish brown heartwood. Pores scanty, moderate* 
sized, prominent on a vertical section. Medullary rays fine, numerous, 
undulating. Wavy concentric lines dividing the wood into a succession 
of concentric bands, which may possibly be annual rings. 

Burma and Andaman Islands. 

Weight, 55 Ihs. per cubic foot. The wood is not specially used, but is said by 
Roxburgh to be very durable. The tree has an edible fruit, for which it is often 
cultivated. 

itw. 

B 2213. Andamans (1866) ........ 55 



Glnta, ] ANACARDIACE^. 109 

6. GLUTA, Linn. 

Contains 3 species : one (that hero described) from South India, and two from 
Burma, viz, : O. tavoyana^ Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 22 ; Kurz i. 309. Vem. Thayet- 
thiUay, Burm., and O, elegans. Wall. ; Kurz i. 309, small trees of the Tenasserim coast. 
Kurz says that the wood when steeped in ferruginous mud turns jet black, looking like 
ebony, and that it is used for building, for boxes and for dyeing. 

1. G. travancorica, Beddome t. 60 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 22. Vern. 
Sheficurunpif Tinnevelly. 

A very large evergreen tree, bark J inch thick, grey, Sapwood light- 
reddish grey ; heartwood dark red, very hard and close-grained, beauti- 
fully mottled with dark and light streaks. Pores moderate-sized, 
scanty, filled with resin. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous, promi- 
nent, visible on a radial section as narrow bands. Numerous white, 
undulating, concentric lines and bands, of lighter colour in the wood. 

6h4ts of l^nnevelly and Travanoore. 

Growth moderate, 12 rings per inch of radius. Weight, according to Beddome, 
40 lbs. per cubic foot ; our specimens give 46 and 58 lbs. The wood is little used, but 
its splendid colour and markings should rapidly bring it to notice as a valuable wood 
for furniture. It seems to season very well, and works and polishes admirably. 

lb§. 

D 1066. Tinnevelly (some sapwood) 46 

D 3155. „ (heartwood only) 58 

7. BUCHANANIA, Roxb. 

A genus of 7 Indian species, most of which are trees from Tenasserim and the 
Andaman Islands. B. angusttfolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 386 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 23 ; 
Beddome Izzix. Vem. Sara, chara, pedda morali, Tel., is a small tree of South India. 

1. B. latifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 885 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 23 ; Bed- 
dome t. 165; Brandis 127; Kurz 1. 307. Vern. CAirauli, Ph.; Pidl, 
paydla, murid, iafMilatoa, OsLvhw^l ; Pidr^peirahy Oudh; AcAdr, cAar, 
ehironjiy C. P. ; Saraia, herka, Gondi ; TarOy Kurku ; CAaru, Uriya ; 
Kat mad, aima, Tarn. ; CAara, cAinna morale morli, Tel. ; Charwari, 
Hyderabad ; Nuskul, murialu, Kan. ; Sir, Bhil ; Pyal, cAaroli, Bombay ; 
Lamhoben, lonepAo, Burm. 

A tree, leafless only for a very short time. Bark \ inch thick, dark 
grey, sometimes black, rough, tesselated with deep irregular cracks. 
Wood greyish brown, moderately hard, with a small dark-coloured 
heartwood. Pores large, round or oval, frequently subdivided, uniform 
and equidistant, prominent on a longitudinal section. Medullary rays 
very numerous, fine, reddish, uniform and equidistant, bent outwards 
where they touch the pores ; marked on a radial section as long, narrow, 
dark-coloured plates, the distance between the rays being less than the 
transverse diameter of the pores. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards, ascending to 3,000 feet. Through- 
out India and Burma. 

Weight, 36 lbs. (Brandis* Burma List, 1862, No. 108) ; the average of our specimens 

fives 33 lbs. The wood seasons well and is fairly durable if kept dby; it is used for 
exes, bedsteads, bullock-yokes, doors, window frames, tables and the like. The bark 
is used for tanning. The fruik is eaten by the hill tribes of Central India, its kernels 
resemble pistachio nuts ; they are largely used in native sweetmeats, and an oil is 
extracted from them. 



110 ANACABDiACEiR. [ Buckanania. 

Itw. 

O 2-15. Garhwal (1868) 35 

C 1124 Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 29 

C 2761. Moharli „ „ 36 

C 2763. Melghat, Berar 

C 1249. Gumsur, Madras 32 

8. MELANORRHCEA, Wall. 

Contains 2 species : that here described and Jf . glabra. Wall. ; Hook. HI. Ind. ii. 
25 ; Kurz i. 317. Vern. Thitseeben, Barm., a tree of Tenasserim. 

1. H. USitata, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 25 ; Kurz i. 818. The 
Varnish Tree of Burma. Yern. Kieu, MsLuipnT ; ThiUeeben^ Burm. ; 
Soothan, Taleing; Kiahong^ Karen. 

A deciduous tree, with dark-grey bark. Wood dark red with yellow- 
ish streaks, turning very dark after long exposure ; very hard. Pores 
moderate-sized, not numerous, often subdivided. Each pore or group of 
pores enclosed in a small patch of light tissue. Medullary rays very 
fine, wavy, numerous. Numerous white, undulating, concentric lines 
of softer tissue, unequally distributed in the wood. 

Munipnr and Burma. 

The following experiments have heen made to determine the weight and transyerse 

strength : 

Weight. Value of P. 

Benson, in Burma, with hars 3' X 14" X l^*". . found 61 Ihs. 526 

Skinner, in 1862, No. 91, „ 61 „ 514 

Brandis' Burma List, 1862, No. 44 . . . . „ 54 „ «• 

Smythies found the average of our two specimens . . 59 „ 

The wood is used for tool handles, anchor stocks, and has lately heen recommended 
for huilding, railway sleepers, gun-stocks and other purposes. It gives a black 
Tarnish, used to cover huckets to make them watertight. This varnish is used hy the 
Burmese in lacquer work, as size in gilding, for writing in palm-leaf books, and for 
many other purposes. It has been used in medicine as an anthelmintic with great soooess. 

Ib«. 

B 551. Moulmein, Burma .56 

B 2618. Burma (1862) 62 

« 

9. ODINA, Roxb. 

1. 0. Wodier, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 293; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. %9i 
Beddome t. 123 ; Brandis 123 ; Kurz i. 821 ; Gamble 24. Vern. 
Kiamil, iimul, kamldiy iasAmala, jhingan, mowen, mohiny may en , 
ginyan. Hind. ; Oarja, Bijeragogarh ; Bara dabdabbiy halloray, Nep. ; 
JiyalfloAarbAadiyBeng,; Gob, A^mere; Wodier, toude, Tam. ; Oumpini, 
gumpna, dumpini, dumpri, dumper, Tel. ; Kaikra, gumpri, gharri, Oondi ; 
Kekeda, Kurku ; Shimti, punil, gojal, Kan. ; Moi, moja, moye. Mar. ; 
Uneingpyoing, Magh ; Nabhay, Burm. 

A moderate-sized or large deciduous tree with few branches. Bark \ 
inch thick, compact, grey, smooth, exfoliating in small irregular plates. 
Sapwood large ; heartwood lij^jht red when fresh cut, turning reddish 
brown on exposure, moderately hard, close-grained, seasons well and does 
not warp, not very durable. Pores moderate-sized, uniformly distributed^ 
often subdivided. Medullary rays fine, numerous, short, bent where they 
touch the pores. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Indus eastwards, ascending to 4,000 feet. Forests 
of India and Burma. 



Odina.] anacardiacejs. Ill 

The following experiments have been made to determine the weight and transverse 
strength : — 

Wdght. Value of P. 

Skinner, No. 101, 1862 found 60 821 

Benson, Burma wood, bars 3' X 1*4'^ X 1'4'^ . . „ 60 281 

Brandis, No. 46, Burma List, 1862 . . . . „ 65 — 
Smythies, 1878, our specimens (omittiog the very old 

pieces and sapwood) „ 50*5 

The wood is used for spear^shafls, scabbards, wheel-spokes, cattle-jokes, oil-presses 
and rice-pounders ; it might be good for cabinet work. It has been tried for sleepers 
both in Madras and in the Oudh and Bohilkhand Line, but has not succeeded. The 
tree is pollarded for fodder, especially for elephants ; its bark is used for tanning ; it 
gives a brown, clear, brittle gum used by the Nepalese as paper-sizing, by weavera in 
doth-printing, and in native medicine. With regard to this gum. Captain CampbeU, 
writine from Eumaun, says : " It sells at Rs. 2 per maund, and is used in mixing with 
lime when white-washing ; it is also used for pasting, and is exported annually to the 
amount of about 100 maunds from Garibolchand forest in the Kumaon Bhabar." 

Ibfl. 

H 3049. Kumharsen, Sutlej Valley, 2,500 feet (sapwood) ... 35 

P 447. Ajmere 43 

P 3225. Nagpahar, Ajmere ^ 

226. Garhwal (1868) 38 

O 2992. „ (1874) 41 

C 202. Mandla, C. P. (1870) 38 . 

C 1103. Ahiri Reserve, C. P. 48 

E 661, Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai 46 

E 2342. „ „ „ 48 

E 1399. Chittagong 44 

E 1965. „ 61 

B 1414. Tharrawaddy, Burma 64 

B 2517. Burma (1862) 35 

B 516. Andaman Islands 60 

10. SEMECARPUS, Linn. fil. 

Contains about 6 Indian species, mostly Burmese. Amongst them, besides the 
species described, the most important are : 8, iravancorica, Beddome t. 232 ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 31. Yem. Natu shengote, Tam. ; and 8, auriculata, Bedd., large haoidsome 
trees of the Tinnevelly and Travancore hills. 

L S. Anacardinm, Linn, f.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 30; Boxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 83. ; Beddome t. 166; Brandis 124; Kurz i. 312; Gamble 25. The 
Marking-nut Tree. Yern. Biilawa, bheyla, Hind. ; Bhalaiy Nep. ; Bhela^ 
bielaiuki, Beng. ; BAallia, Uriya; Kongki, Lepcha; Bawara, Gfiro; 
ioAia, bida, Gondi ; Shaing^ Shayrang, Tam. ; Jiri, jidi, nella-Jedi, Tel. ; 
Gheru, Kari gheruy Kan. ; Bibwa, bibii, Mar. ; CAyai beng, Burm. 

A deciduous tree^ bark ^ inch thick^ dark brown^ roughs exfoliating 
in very irregular inner patches; inner bark fibrous. Wood greyish 
brown^ often with yellow streaks^ soft^ no annual rings. Pores scanty, 
moderate-sized^ frequently subdivided^ well marked on a vertical sec- 
tion. Medullary rays numerous, moderately broad, reddish; prominent 
on a radial section as loug, narrow, dark-coloured plates. 

Snh-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards, ascending to 3,500 feet ; forests of 
India, extending to Chittagong hut not to Burma. 

Weight, 42 Ihs. per cubic &ot (Brandis) ; 37 lbs. (Wallich, Anacardium lattfolium. 
No. 4) ; 27 lbs. (Kyd) ; the average of our specimens gave 37 lbs. Kyd's experiments 
with bars of Assam wood 2' X F X 1" gave P = 197. The wood contains an 
acrid juice which causes swelling and irritation, and timber-cutters object to felling 



112 ANACARDi acej:. [ Semecarfius, 

it ; it is not used. The ripe fruit is much used ; the fleshy cup is eaten, hut is best 
eiUier dry or roasted. The pericarp contains an acrid juice which is universally used 
in India for marking ink and in medicine. The ink is improved by the addition of 

lime water. The green fruit is pounded and made into bird-lime. 

lbs. 

C 1157. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 44 

C 2746. Moharli „ „ 40 

E 578. Kookloong Forest, Darjeeling Tend 39 

E 627. Bamunpokri „ „ 30 

E 2341. „ „ „ 33 

The Ahiri specimen, C 1157, has pores joined by irregularly-shaped soil tissue across 
the medullary rays, and has a harder and closer-grained wood than the Darjeeling 
specimens ; the bark is, however, that of S. Anacardium, and there is no reason to 
doubt its identity. The specimens from Darjeeling are marked by the absence of 
the lines of softer tissue joining the pores, and it may be suggested for investigation 
whether they do not come from a different species of Semecarpus, 

11. D RIM YCARPUS, Hook. f. 

1. D. racemosus, Hook. f. ; Hook. FI. Ind. ii. 36; Kiirzi. 314; 
Gamble 26. Holigarna racemosa, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 82. Vern. Kagi, 
Nep. ; Brongy Lepcha ; Telsuty Beng. ; Amdali, Ass. ; Chengane, 
sangaipnt, sangryriy Magh ; AmjouTy Sylhet. 

A large evergreen tree. Wood greyish yellow, hard, close-grained. 
Pores large and moderate-sized, sometimes subdivided, each pore in a 
narrow white ring. Medullary rays short, moderately broad, uniform 
and equidistant, joined by innumerable faint, transverse lines. 

Eastern Himalaya from 2,000 to 6,000 feet, Ehasia hills and Sylhet to Chitta- 
gong, Pegu. 

Weight, 61 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood used occasionally in Assam for canoes and 
nlanking ; in Chittagong for boats, for which it is one of the woods most employed. 
Major Lewin says that boats 50 feet long and 9 feet in girth are sometimes cut. 

Ibe. 
E 722. Chittagong 61 

12. HOLIGARNA, Ham. 

Seven species. S". Amoitiana, Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 36. {ff. longifolia, 
Wt. and Arn. ; Beddome t. 167). Vern. Kaaira, kutngeri, Kan. ; Sulgeri, ^mbay, 
is a large tree of the Western Gh&ts, where also are found J7. ferruginea, Marchand. 
2r. Gh'ahamii, Hook. f. (Semecarpus Orahami, Wight; Beddome kxix.) and jET. 
Beddomei, Hook, f . ; H. HeJferi, llook. f . ; Kurz i. 315 and H. albicans. Hook, f ., are 
trees of Burma. 

1. H. longifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 80; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 87. 
Vern. Barola, Beng. ; Khreik, Magb. 

Wood grey with yellowish streaks, soft. Pores moderately large, 
sometimes subdivided, uniform, scanty, prominent as dark lines on a 
vertical section. Medullary rays fine, white, short, equidistant. 

Chittagong and Burma. 

Wood not used. It, like all the other species, gives a black acrid exudation which 
raises blisters and is much dreaded by the iiill people. 

£ 3287. Rinkheong Forest, Chittagong. 

13. SPONDIAS, Linn. 

Contains 3 species, including, besides the one described, 8. acuminata^ Roxb. 
Fl. lud. ii. 453, of South India; and 8, axillaris^ Roxb. Fl. lud. ii. 453, of Nepal. 



Spondias, ] anacarbiacba. 113 

1. S. mangifera, Pers. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 11. 42; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 451 ; Beddome t 169 ; Brandis 128 ; Karz i. 822 ; Gamble 25. The 
Hog Plum. Vern. Amra, amara, ambodAay Hind. ; Amara, Nep., Ass. ; 
Jmna, Beng. ; Bonchiling, Lepcha ; Tongrong^ Giro ; Kat mda, Tam. ; 
Aravi mamadi, amalum, Tel. ; Kat ambolamy Mai. ; Amb^ Mar. ; Amte, ELan. ; 
Hamdray Gondi; Ambera, Kurka; Puli ille, Kaders; Gway, Burm. 

A deciduous tree, with smooth, grey bark. Wood soft, light grey. 
Pores large, numerous^ often subdivided. Medullary rays fine and 
moderately broad, at unequal distances, white, prominent^ distinctly 
marked on a radial section as long narrow plates. 

Snb-Himalayan tract, asoeoding to 3,000 feet in Sikkim; dry forests of Sonth India 
Itnd Burma ; rare in Central India. 

Weight, 43 lbs. (Skinner, No. 116) ; our specimens gave an average of 26 lbs.; Skinner 

fives P = 614. Wood soft, of no value. It gives a gum somewhat like gum arabic. 
he fruit is eaten, and is pickled and is preserved or made into curries ; the leaves are 
acid. 

lb«. 
C 2800. Melgh4t, Berar 

E 499. Eookloong Forest, Darjeeling Terai 30 

E 1296. Cachar (Vern. Tiindur) 21 

E 1497. Sylhet (Vern. Suirung) 26 

B 560. Burma 29 



Order XXXVII. CORIARIEJE. 

An Order containing one Indian genus of a single species. 

1. CORIARIA, Linn. 

C. myrtifolia, Linn., a shrub of South Europe (Corroffh'e, French), has leaves 
which are used for tanning and dyeing leather ; its fruit is poisonous. C »armetUo»a 
is a New Zealand shrub the fruit of which is xnade into wine by the settlers. 

1, C. nepalensifly Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 44 ; Brandis 128. Vern. 
MasuriymaJkola, Hind.; Iiaselwa,arcAarru,pajerra, Sitnl^; Biqf inn's ep, 

A deciduous shrub or small tree. Bark reddish brown^ rough. 
Wood grey, bard, beautifully mottled; no heartwood. Annual rings 
distinct^ marked by a belt of numerous moderate-sized pores ; the pores 
of the outer portion of the annual rings are small and often joined bj 
interrupted concentric bands of whitish tissue. Medullary rays very 
broad^ short. 

Outer Himalaya from the Indus to Bhutan, ascending to 8,000 feet in the North- 

West, and to 11,000 feet in Sikkim. 

Growth moderate, 6 to 6 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 47 lbs. per cubic foot 
The wood takes a good polish, and is very handsomely marked, so it might be used 

for boxes and small articles. At present it is only used for firewood, and is often used 

as such about Simla. 

lb«. 

H 68. Mashobra, Simla, 7,000 feet 48 

H 2853. Mahasu, „ 7,500 „ 53 

H 2885. Nagkanda, „ 8,000 „ 41 

P 



114 UOKDSOEM. IMorim^. 

Ordkr XXXYIII. MOSnrGEJB. 

1. MORINGA, Juss. 

Wood sofb^ white. Pores large, scantj, osnally in groups of two 
or three. Medullary rays short, moderately broad. 

1. M. jaterjgOSpeinnSLf Gaerto. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 45 ; Beddome t. 
80; Brandts 129; Kurz i. 68. Hjfperanihera Moringa, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
36b. The Horse Radish Tree. Vcm. Soanjna, sanjna, genjna, Mejna, 
iohajna, tainjan. Hind. ; Snjuna, Beng. ; Swanjera, Sind. ; MmnigAa, 
Uriya; Morunga , Tarn. ; Saihnn, sejan, minga, mulaia, Tel.; Nnggee, 
Kan. ; DainfAa, dan-iha-lone, Burm. 

A tree. Bark one inch thick, grey, corky, with longitudinal cracks. 
Wood soft, white, spongy, perishable. Wood cells large, prominent. 
Pores large, scanty, often in groups or short radial lines of two or three. 
Medullary rays short, fine to moderately broad ; the distance between 
them less than the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Wild in the Sub-Himalajan tract from the Chenab to Oadh ; oommonly ealti- 
rated in India and Bnnma. 

The tree is pretty ; it is ^nerall j grown on acconnt of its fruit, which is eaten as a 
vegetable and is pickled. The root has a strong flavour of horse radish, and is osed 
in medicine as a vesicant. It vields an oil similar to the Ben oil of watch-makers, 
which is not the produce of this but of another species, 3f. aptera, Gkiertn., of Africa. 
It also gives a reddish gum used in native medicine. The leaves and flowers are 
eaten as well as the fruit, and the branches are lopped for cattle fodder. 

£ 3214. Calcutta. 

2. M. concanensifly Nimmo ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 45 ; Brandis 130. 
Vern. Sainjna, Rajputana. 

A tree, bark thick, soft, corky. Wood white, soft, in structure resem- 
bling that of M. pier ygoiper may except that the pores are more variable 
in size and the medullary rays rather finer. 

Kajputana, Sind, Konkan. 

Wood apparently not used. The unripe fruit is eaten. 

£ 8226. Nagpahar, Ajmere. 



Okder XXXIX. CONNARACE^. 

An Order of little importance, containing 4 genera of Indian trees and shmbs, 
found in Eastern Bengal, South India and Burma. JSourea contains 5 species, four 
being scandcnt shrubs from Eastern Bengal, Tenasserim, and the Andamans ; and one, 
R. sanidloidesj Vahl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 47 ; Beddome Ixxxi. from South Ind^. 
Connarus contains 6 Burmese and two South Indian species : one, C. panieulatut^ 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 139 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 62, extending to Cbittagong, Sylhet and 
the Khasia Hills. CnestU ramiflora. Griff. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 64. (C platantha^ 
Griff.; Kurz i. 328.) Vern. Tankyet louk, Burm., is a large climhing shrub of 
Burma ; and EUipanthtis contains three Burmese shrubs or smsul trees. 



Order XL. LEGUHINOSiS. 

The largest Order of Indian trees, shrubs or climbers. It contains about 70 genera 
containing species distributed over the whole of India, equally in the arid regions of 



LEOUMlNOSli. 115 

tlie Inner HimalaYa and in the tropical forests of Malabar and Tenasserim. Many 
of the larecat and most important of onr forest trees belone to this Order* and with 
few exceptions they produce valuable timbers. It is divided into three Sub-Orders, 

I. PapilionaoesB. 
II. CsBsalpiniese. 
III. Mimosese. 

With the exception of the following genera^ Sesbania, Buiea, Hry* 
tArina, Pon^amia, and a few species of Valbergia {D. lanceolaria and /9a»/. 
culata), the wood of the Legnminosse is characterised by a distinct, hard, 
dark-coloured heartwood. The pores vary in size, but are generally 
moderate-sized, large or very large, and enclosed in rings or patches of 
soft texture, which frequently are confluent, so as to form concentric 
bands. The medullary rays are generally sharply defined^ moderately 
broad and equidistant (exceptions are HryiArina and Aldizzia), 

As regards the structure of their wood, leguminous trees may be 
most conveniently divided into the following groups, which it will be 
seen do not correspond with the established division of the Order into 
genera :— 

A. OuGEiNiA Group. 

Pores enclosed in elongated patches of soft tissue, which are arranged 
in more or less concentric lines. Exceedingly prominent and straight 
medullary rays. To this group belong Ougeinia dalbergioidea, Afzelia 
bijuga, Tamarindus indica, Cassia Fistula, marginata and the new Cassia 
from the Andaman Islands. 

B. Prosopis Group. 

Pores enclosed in irregularly shaped patches of soft tissue, which 
are more or less united in concentric bands. To this group belong Pros^ 
opis spicigera, and the following species of Acacia, viz. : Farnesiana, 
Catechu, leucophl<Ba, eburnSa and pennata, Indigofera, Piptanihus and 
Desmodium are nearly allied to this group, but differ by having the patches 
of soft tissue more oblique and less concentric. 

To this group also belongs Hamatoxi/lon eampeachianum or '' Log- 
wood.^' 

C. Dalbergia Group. 

Numerous, narrow, wavy, concentric bands of soft tissue, sometimes 
interrupted. To this belong all species of Dalbergia, except D. nigres* 
eens, the identification of which is doubtful, all species of Pterocarpus, 
Derris robusta, Casalpinia crista or ^^ Redwood, ^^ and Bapkia nitida^ the 
*' Camwood " or " Barwood'' of the West African Coast. 



D. Bauhinia Group. 

Numerous, regularly distributed, concentric bands of soft tissue, which 
are broader than those in the Dalbergia group. To this belong Ponga^ 
mia glabra, all species of Bauhinia, Cynometra, Cassia Siamea and 
Millettia pendula. 



lie LEGUHINOSJ!. 

E. Hardwickia Group. 

Pores Isolated, not enclosed in patches of soft tissne, though they are 
generally surrounded by narrow rings. Concentric bands of sofb tusae 
are either wanting entirely, or very scanty. The medullary rays are 
generally undulating. To this group belong Xjflia dolabriformis, Hard^ 
wiciia, Adenantkera, Piptadenia, Mimosa, Acacia arabica, modesia 
BXid /erruffinea, Ccssalpinia Sappan and echinata (Brazil or Pemambuco 
wood). 

F. Albizzia Orodf. 

Pores isolated, generally large, not enclosed in patches of sofb tissue. 
None or very few concentric lines of soft tissue. To this group belong 
all species of Albizzia, Acacia dealbata and Melanox^lon, Acrocatpuij 
Besbania, and Dalbergia nigrescem. 

G. Erythrina Group. 

Pores large. Distinguished by broad medullary rays and broad 
bands of soft tissue which do not always enclose the large pores. To 
this group belong all species of Erythrina, and Btiteafrondosa, 



Sub-order I. PAFILIONACEiB. 

ContaiiiB 35 genera, divided into 8 tribes, tnz : — 

Tribe I. — Podalyrieje .... Pipianthus, 

„ II. — Genistese .... Priotropii and Crotalaria, 

„ III. — Galege» Indigofera, Colutea, Millettia, 

Mundulea, Tephrosia, Sesbania 
and Caragana, 

„ rV. — Hedjsaree Lespedeza, Alhagi, JEsckyno^ 

mene, Ormocarpum, Ougeinia 
and Detmodium, 

„ V. — Vioe« Abrv9, 

„ VI. — Phaseole» .... Mucuna, Stythrina, Spatkolo* 

but, Butea, Dioclea, Pueraria, 
Cajanus, Cvlista and Flemingia. 

„ VII. — Dalbergiese .... Daloergia, Pterocarpu*, Ponga' 
mia and Derri», 

„ VUl.^-Sophore® .... Dalhouiiea, Calpumia, S&pkora, 

JSuchresta and Ormosia, 

Many of these, however, contain only small shrubs ; snch are Priotropit, Cro' 
ialaria, Colutea, Ifundulea, Tephrosia, Caragana, Letped^za, Alhagi,jSi$ekgnO' 
mene, Ormocarpum, Cajanue, Flemingia, Dalhaiuiea, ana Calpumia : others only 
climbing shrubs ; such are Abrus, mucuna, Spatholobue, Dioclea, Pueraria and 
Cglieia, 

Of the genera not here described, Sopkora contains abont six species of which 
5. mollie, Wsdl. ; Brandis 132. Vern. Argnawdn, Afg. ; Qojdr, hin, mdlan, tilun, 
kathi, brisari, Puniab; Pahar gungri, I^maon, is a yellow-fiowered handsome shrab 
of the Panjab and North-West Himalaya ; and Ormosia Iravancorica, Beddome t. 46, 
is a tree of the Tinnevelly and Travancore Hills. 

1. PIPTANTHUS, D. Don. 

1. P. nepalensis, D. Don ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 62 ; Brandis 182 ; 
Gamble 25. Vern. Bankaru, Sutlej; Shalgari, Kumaun. 



Piptanthus.'\ liguminos-e. 117 

A shrub with greenish-grey bark. Wood white. Pores small, in 
wsLTy, oblique and concentric bands^ except at the inner edge of the 
annual rings^ which are marked by a continuous line of pores. Medul- 
lary rays fine, equidistant. 

Himalaya from the Sutlej to Bhutan, ahove 7,000 feet. 

Has handsome, large, yellow flowers, and is sometimes planted for ornament in the 
hills and in Europe. 

llM. 

H 3024. Nagkanda, Simla, 9,000 feet 40 



Priotropis rytisoides, W. and A. ; Kurz i. 363 ; Gamble 26, is a yellow-flowered 
branching shrub of the Eastern Himalaya and Burma. Crotalaria contains numer- 
ous shrubs, of which the most important is C.juncea, Linn., the " Sunn Hemp Plant," 
commonly cultivated in India. 

2. INDIQOFERA, Linn. 

Contains a number of Indian species, about 16 of which are shrubs. Few of 
them are of any importance except toe Indigo Plant, I. tinctoria, Linn. ; Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. iii. 379 ; JBrandis 135. Vern. Nil, Hind, which is extensively cultivated in 
Bengal, the North- Western Provinces, the Punjab, Sind and South India. /. pulrhella, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 382 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 101 ; Beddome Ixxxv. ; Brandis 136 ; Kurz i. 
361 ; Gamble 25. Yem. Sakena, sakna hakna, Hind. ; Baroli, Mar. ; Togri, Bhfl ; 
Balori, Eurku; ^i^i, Lepcha ; 2au maiyain.'Bwcm,, is a large, handsome, pink- 
flowered shrub of the forests of the Sub-Himalayan tract. South India and Burma ; its 
flowers are sometimes eaten as a vegetable in Central India. 

1. I. heterantha. Wall. ; Brandis 135. 7. Gerardiana, Wall.; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 100 {rar.). Vern. Kati^ khcnti^ matiu, hatSy sAd^ali, T?h, ; Kathi, 
iheoty Simla. 

A small shrub. Bark \ inch thick^ brown^ with longitudinal anas- 
tomosing lines. Wood hard, white^ with an irregular heart wood of dark 
colour. Anuunl rings distinctly marked by a white line and by a con- 
tinuous belt of pores. Fores small^ enclosed in patches of softer tex- 
lure, which frequently join, forming short, interrupted, concentric bands. 
Medullary rays fine^ numerous^ almost equidistant. 

North-West Himalaya and eastern skirts of the Suliman Bange, ascending to 
8,000 feet 

Growth slow, 20 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 66 lbs. per cubic foot. The 
twigs are used for basket work and often form part of the twig bridges of the 
North-West Himalaya. 

11m. 

H 2825. Fagu, Simla, 8,000 feet 

H 2870. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 

H 2935. Mfl^asu, Simla, 7,000 feet 56 

2. I. atropnrpurea, Ham. ; Brandis 136; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 101; 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 381. Vern. Bankati^ hala sakena, sakna, Hind. ; 
KhefUifjand, Kaghan ; KatAi, goriatri, Kashmir. 

A shrub of smaller size^ but with wood of structure similar to that of 
J. heterantha. 

Salt Range from 2,500 to 5,000 feet. Outer Himalaya from the Jhelnm to Nepal, 
ascending to 9,000 feet, but found as low as 1,200 feet on the Siwalik Hills. 
The twigs are used for basket work and twig bridges. 

H 2824. Cheog Forest, Simla, 7,000 feet. 



118 LEGUMiNOS J!. [ Indtgoferu. 

Colutea wBpalensis, Sims.; Brandis 136. (C. arhoretceM^JAim, \ Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 103). Tlie Bladder Senna. Yern. Brda, Ladak, is a shrub of the arid valleys 
of the Inner Himalaya. 

3. MILLETTIA, Wight and Arn. 

Contains abont 22 species of trees, shrubs or climbers chiefly from Eastern 
Bengal and Burma, The ^enus may be divided into 2 sections: — 

1, Trees, containing 7 Burmese and 1 Eastern Bengal species. 

2. Climbers, containing 8 species irom Burma, 7 from Northern and Eastern 
Bengal, 3 from Southern India, and 1 from North-West and Central India. 

M. pulchra, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 104 ; Kurz i. 366. Vern. Thitpaaan, Bnrm., 
is an erect tree of the forests of the Khasia Hills and Eastern Bengal ascending to 4,000 
feet. M,pendula,lM\L.\ M. tetraptera, Kurz ; M. pubinervis, Kurz ; Jf. ovalifblia, 
Kurz; M. Brandisiana, Kurz; and M. atropurpurea, Bth.; Kurz i. 358. Yern. 
Kway tanyeng, tanyengnee, Burm., are all trees of Burma. Among the climbers, 
M. auriculaia. Baker; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 108 ; Brandis 138 ; Gamble 26. (£o6tnta 
macrophylla, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 329, Otosemma macrophylla, Bth.) Vern. Maudk, 
Oudh; Gonjha,ganj, Kumaun ; Crurur, Gondi ; Jtfw rar*, Kjarku ; Gonjo, Nep. ; Br^rik^ 
Lepcha. (No. 3479, Sukna Forest, Darjeeling Terai) is a very common large climber 
of the Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Sutlej to Bhutan, ascending to 3,500 feet. Jf. 
cinerea, Bth. and M. pachycarpa, Bth., with 3 other species, are common in the forests 
of Sikkim and the Khasia Hills ; while M, tnontu^ola, Kurz, is only found in the 
forests of Sikkim above 6,000 feet and at Nattoung in Martaban, between 6,500 and 
7,200 feet. 

1. H. pendula, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 105. If. leucantha, Kurz i. 
856. Vern. Tiinwifi, Burm. 

A deciduous trce^ with small purplish black heart wood^ beautifully 
streaked^ very hard. Pores few, moderate-sized, joined by narrow con- 
centric bands of soft tissue. Medullary rays fine, uniform and equally 
distributed. 

Savannah foreats and dry lower hill forests of Burma, up to 2,000 feet. 
Weight, Brandis' Burma List of 1862, No. 41, gives 60 lbs. ; our specimens 66 lbs. 
per cubic foot. The wood is used for cross pieces of harrows, and is worthy of attention 

for its beautiful grain and dark colour. 

llw. 
B 2520. Myodwin, Burma (1862) 66 



B 2249 (73 lbs. ) from the Andamans and B 3141 (67 lbs.) from Myodwin, Burma 
(1862). Yern. Chloani, Burm. ; have a dark, reddish brown, very hard heartwood, in 
structure resembling that of M, pendula. It is doubtless a species of Millettia. 



Mundulea suberosa, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 110 ; Beddome Ixxxv. is an orna- 
mental small tree of South India, and Tcphrosia contains several shrubs, among which 
may be noticed T. Candida, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. Ill; Brandis 138; Gamble 26. 
Wem^Lehtia, Kumaun ; Bodle, Nep., a handsome white-flowered shrub of the Sub- 
Himalyan tract, Eastern Bengal and Buima. Its leaves are used to poison fish. 

4. SESBANIA, Pers. 

Soft-wooded shrubs or trees. Wood white, soft. Medullary rays 
fine and closely packed. 

1. S. fiBgpytiaca, Pers. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 114; Beddome Ixxxvi. ; 
Brandis 137 ; Kurz i. 362 ; Gamble 26. jEac^ynomene Sesban, Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. iii. 332. Vern. Jaii, jhijan^ janjhan, dAandidin, Hind. ; Jayanli, Beng.j 
Saori, $ewrij Berar ; Siewari, Dekkan; Sinm'nita, Tel. ; Yaj/thagyee, Burm. 



Sesbania.] LEGUMiNOSiS. 119 

A soft-wooded tree, 10 to 12 feet high. Wood white, extremely soft. 
Pores small, in short, linear, radial groups, between the very fine and very 
numerous medullary rays ; the distance between rays being less than the 
transverse diameter of the pores. 

Cultivated in many parU of India and Burma, wild in tropical Africa. 

Weight, 27 lbs. per cubic foot. Not durable. 

Grown in Berar and the Dekkan to furnish poles as a substitute for bamboo ; the 
bark is made into rope, the wood is used to boil jaggery, and the leaves and branches are 
cut for cattle fodder. It is commonly planted in Bengal as a hedge-plant, for which pur- 
pose its very quick growth renders it suitable. It is also sometimes grown to support the 
plantations of the betel pepper. Roxburgh says the wood is said to make the best gun- 
powder charcoal, and Eurz that it is good for children's toys. 

Ibfc 

C 870. Amraoti, Berar 27 

2. S. grandiflora, Pers. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 115 ; Beddome Ixxxvi. ; 
Brandis 137 ; Kurz i. 362. ^schynomene grandiflora, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 
S30. Agati grandifioray Desv. ; W, and A. Prodr. 215. Vern. Basna, 
Hind. ; Buka^ bak, agastay Beng. ; Bagfal^ Sundarbans ; Hadga, heta, 
Berar; Agati y Tam. ; Avesiy Tel. ; Agase, Kan. ; Poukpanypoxihpyoo, Burm. 

A short-lived, soft-wooded tree, with large handsome flowers, at- 
taining 20 to 30 feet in height. Wood white, soft. Pores small and 
moderate-sized, often in radial groups of 3 to 5 between the numerous, 
fine, white medullary rays. 

Cultivated in Southern India, Burma, and in the Ganees Doab. 

Weight, 32 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood is not durable ; in Lower Bengal it is 
used for posts for native houses and for fii-ewood (Home) ; in Berar and the Dekkan 
it is grown as a substitute for bamboo. The tender leaves, pods and flowers are 
eaten as a vegetable, and the tree is grown as a support for the betel pepper vine ; 
it is easily known by its very large, handsome, pink flowers and long narrow pods. 

lbs 

C871. Amraoti, Berar 32 



Caragana, Brandis, 133 contains several low spinescent shrubs of the arid region 
of the Punjab, Sind and Beluchistan, and the inner valleys of the Punjab Himalaya* 
Lespedeza contains a number of uudershrubs of Northern India and Burma. Amonc^ 
these^ L. eriocarpoy DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 144, is a shrub of the Himalaya between 
3,000 and 9,000 feet, with handsome purple flowers and a hard red wood. Pores mode* 
rate-sized, scattered or in short concentric lines. Medullary rays fine. Few concentric 
lines of soft tissue. (H. 3192. Nowti Valley, Simla, 4,000 feet). Alhagi Maurarum, 
Desv. ; Brandis 144. (Hedysarum Alhagi^ Koxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 344) The Camel Thorn. 
Yem. Jawdsa, Hind., is a widely-spread shrub of the Granges Valley and the arid and 
northern dry zones, whose leaves are used as fodder for camels, ^schynomene aspera, 
Linn.; Book. Fl. Ind. ii. 152; Brandis 147; (Hedysarum laffenarium, Hoxh. Fl. 
Ind. iii. 366.) Vern. Sola, phul-solay Hind., Beng. ; NirjUuza, Tel., is the Solah 
plant of tanks and marshes in Bengal, from whose stems the well-known white pith 
IS obtained which is used for making hats, toys, and for other purposes. Ot*mocarpum 
tennoides, Eurz i. 390, is an evergreen shrub of the plains of Central and Soatk 
India. 

5. OUGEINIA, Bth. 

1. 0. dalbergioides, Benth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 161 ; Beddome t. 86 ; 
Brandis 146. Daibergia OojeinensU, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 220. Vern. 
Sandan, asainda, tinnaSy timsa, Hind. ; Shdnjariy pdnan, Oudh ; Sandan 
pipliy Nep. ; BandhonUy Uriya ; Kala palds, tewaa. Mar. ; Ser, sAermana, 
Gondi ; Bargu, tella moihiy Tel.; Kari mufaly Kan. ; Tewsa, Bhfl; Rutok^ 
Kurku; Tunniuy Banswara; 2>/m«^ Khandeish. 



120 LEOUMiNOSJE. [ Ougeinia. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree^ ander certain circumstances gre- 
garious. Bark \ inch thiek^ light brown^ sometimes with bluish patches^ 
with regular longitudinal and horizontal cracks. Sapwood small; 
heartwood mottled, light brown, sometimes reddish brown, hard, close- 
grained ; annual rings indistinct. Pores moderate-sized, enclosed in 
irregularly-shaped, more or less concentric but interrupted patches and 
bands of white soft tissue. These patches, which are tapering and point- 
ed at the ends, are separated by irregularly-shaped belts of firm and 
darker-coloured shining tissue, in which the fine and numerous, white, 
uniform and equidistant medullary rays are distinctly visible. Pores 
marked on a longitudinal section. 

Chiefly in the intermediate zone. Sub-Himalayan tract from the Satlej to the 
Tista, ascending to 6,(X)0 feet ; Central India and the Western Coast. 

Weight, 57 to 60 lbs. (Brand u) ; R. Thompson gives 58 ; onr specimenB gire an 
average of 55 lbs. The wood is tough and durable, and takes a beautiful polish. It 
is usal for agricultural implements, carriage poles, wheels and furniture ; also for 
building. The ti*ee gives an astringent red gum ; the bark is pounded and used to 
intoxicate fish ; and the branches are lo]|)ped for cattle fodder. A crystalline substance, 
probably magnesia, is sometimes found m the wood (see specimen £ 601). 

llM. 

P 102. Sutlej Valley, Punjab ^. 

O 212. Garhwal (1868) 62 

C 185. Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) 63 

C 1152. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 64 

C 2767 . Melgh4t, Berar 65 

C 1242. Gumsur. Madras 62 

E 601. Lohagavhi, Darjoeling Terai 67 

W1226. North Kanara 63 

6. DESMODIUM, Desv. 

Contains a number of shrubs found 'in the forests in almost all parts of India. 
D.pulchellum, Bth.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 162; Brandis 145; Kurz i. 383; Gamble 26 
(Hedysarum pulchellum, Roxb. Fi. Ind. iii. 361) Yem, Juta-salpani, Beng. ; Set 
hrUhnapaniy Cuttack ; Toungtamin^ Burm., is a common erect shrub with the 
flowers in the axils of bifoliolate bracts. D, gyroides, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 176 ; 
Kurz i. 388 ; Gamble 27. Vern. Boluy Nep., is an erect, blue-flowered shrub of the 
Himalayas, Eastern Bengal and Burma ; and 2>. .^yraw^, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 174; 
Brandis 146 ; Gamble 27 (Hedysarum gyrans^ Boxb. Fl. Ind. iii, 351) Vern. Oora^ 
chandj Beng., is common in India and Burma, and generally known as the " Telegraph 
Plant " from its small, sensitive, rotating, lateral leaflets. 

1. D. tili»folium, G. Don.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 168; Brandis 145. 
Vern. Sambar, shamruy chamra, chamydr, chamkat^ chamkul^ martan, motia, 
gurskagaly priy mardra, muss, mtirl, later, Hind. 

A large deciduous shrub^ with thin, grey bark. Wood yellowish brown, 
with a darker centre. Pores small. Annual rings distinctly marked by a 
belt of small pore? ; in the outer part of each annual ring the pores are 
very small, and generally arranged in short, linear, wavy, concentric lines. 
Medullary rays white, fine to very fine. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Nepal, between 3,000 and 9,000 feet. 

Growth slow, 14 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 53 lbs. per cubic foot. The 

bark is extensively used for rope-making and paper. 

lbs. 

II 3184. Dungagalli, Hazara, 8,000 feet « 

H 51. Nagkanda, Simla, 7,000 feet 

H 2034. Mahasn, Simla 7,000 feet 53 

H 3019. Kotgarh, Simla, 7,000 feet (var. argcnUum, Wall.) . . ^. 



Desmodiitm.] leouminosa. 121 

2. D. Cephalotes, Wall. ; Hook. FI. Ind. ii. 161 ; Beddome Ixxxvii. ; 
Kurz i. 386 ; Glamble 26. Iledysarum Cephalotea and umbeUatum, Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. iii. 860. Yem. BodleiuruyNep. ; Manipityol, Lepcha ; Cheten- 
ta, Tel. 

A shrub with grey bark and yellowish wood^ which in structure 
resembles that of D, iilia/olium. 

Eastern Himalaya, Soath India and Burma. 
E S281. Dainah Beserve, Western Ddars. 



Ahrus contains 3 spedes, of wkich A, precatarius, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 175 ; 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. iij. 258; Brandis 139. Vern. Chinchi, rakti, Hind. ; Magpati, Nep., 
18 a wiiy dimber. whose seeds (rakti) are nsed as weights by jewellers; they weigh 1^ 
to 2 grains each. 

Mueuna contains several lar^e climbers of Bengal and Burma, among which the 
chief are M. imbricata, DC. Vern. Kasi, Beng., with large plaited pod, covered 
with stinging hairs (No £ 483 Darjeeling Tend), and soft, very porous wood ; M. 
macroearpa, Wall. ; Gamble 28. Yem. Balengra, Nep., an enormous climber of the 
hills of Sikkim, Eliasia, Sylhet and Burma up to 7,000 feet ; and M.pruriens, DC. 
The Cowhage Plant. Yem. Alkusd, Beng. ; ^'toocA, aoncha. Hind. ; Kouatch, Nep.» 
which is an annual climber, well known in the forests from its golden brown, velvety 
pod, covered with irritatiug hairs, which are used as a vermifuge. 

7. ERYTHRINA, Linn. 

Contains 7 species of Indian soft-wooded, handsome-flowered, deciduous trees. 
JE, ovaltfolia, Bozb. Fl. Ind. iii. 254 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 189 ; Beddome boxviii. ; Kurz i. 
367. Yem. Hari'hekra, Beng. ; Kone kathit, Burm., is a tree of the coast forests 
of Chittagong, Arracan and Pegu, extending northwards to Sjlhet and Assam. £. 
litkotperma, Miq. Yem. Yea-kathit, Burm. and JE, kolosericea^ Kurz i. 367, are 
trees of Burma, while JS, retupinata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 257 ; Brandis 141, is a herb- 
aceous plant from a perennial root-stock found in the gprass lands of the Himalayan 
Terai. 

Wood soft; no heartwood. Pores large^ medullary rays broad. 
Numerous concentric bands of soft texture^ whidi^ as a rule, have no 
connection with the pores. 

I.E. snberosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 253; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 189 f 
Beddome Ixxxvii. ; Brandis 140 ; Kurz i. 369 ; Gamble 27. Vern. Pangra^ 
dauldhdkf rungra, rotoanra^ nasul, maddra, Hind. ; GulnasAiar, paridra, 
thab, Fb. ; Fullidha, Nep. ; Mandal, G^ro ; Katiang, Lepcha ; Muni, 
maduga, Tam. ; Mulu tnodugu, Tel. ; Piangera, Gondi ; Gada pAa^M, 
Kurku. 

A moderate*sized deciduous tree. Outer bark corky, light grey, with 
deep, irregular, vertical cracks, varying in thickness up to 1 inch ; inner 
bark fibrous, ^ inch thick. Wood . very soft, spongy, white, fibrous 
but tough ; that near the centre of darker colour, but no rei^ular heart* 
wood. Annual rings visible. Pores very large, scanty, often subdivided. 
Medullary rays short, broad ; the tissue between the rays consisting of 
narrow, hard, wavy and often interrupted, concentric bands of a darker 
colour, separated by alternate bands of white, spongy tissue. The tan* 
gential section presents the appearance of anastomosing fibres. On 
the radial section the medullary rays appear as long, wavy, shining bands, 
giving the wood a handsome mottled appearance. Fores prominent ou 
a vertical section. 



1 Z*Z L£auMiN08£. [ Bryikrina. 

Himalaya from the Bavi to Bhutan, ascendiog to 3,000 feet. Oudh, Oentral and 
South India, Banna. 

Growth fast, 4 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 13 to 20 lbs. per cabic foot 
The wood is used for seaboards, sieve frames, and occasionally for plankmg. The tree 
is readily grown from cuttings. 

O 530. DehraDdn 20 

C 11<15. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces *>• 

£ 668. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai IS 

E. indicai Lam.; Hook. FLInd. ii. 188 ; Beddomelxxxvii.; Bran- 
dis 139 ; Kurz i. 368 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 249. The Indian Coral Tree. 
Vern. Pangra, panjira, pangarajfarad^ Hind.; Palita mandar, Beng. ; 
Murukdf Tam. ; Modugu, Tel.; Pangara, phandra, Mar.; Hdliwara, 
pdlitodra, Kan. ; Chaldua, Uriya ; Madar, Cachar ; Kaiheik, Mag^h ; P^s- 
laykatAity Burm. ; Dudap, Malay ; Errabadu, Cingfa. {Mochi wood of 
Madras). 

A deciduous tree. Bark yellowish^ smooth and shining, peeling off 
in thin papery flakes, young stems and branchlets armed with prickles. 
Structure the same as that of E» suberosa. 

Cultivated throughout India and Burma ; wild in Oudh, Bengal, South India and 
Burma. 

Weight, 17 to 26 Ihs. per cubic foot according to our specimens, bat 18 lbs. is 
nearest the true weight. Wood rather durable, though it is so light and open-grained it 
does not warp or split, and it varnishes well. It is used for light boxes, toys, scabbards, 
trays, and is often grown as a support for and to ffive shade to the betel pepper vine. 
It grows readily from cuttings and is used for hedges. It gives a dark-brown gum 
of no value. 

Ibf. 

C 820. Bairagarh Reserve, Berar • .17 

B 2843. Myanoung, Burma 18 

B 2223. Andaman Islands (1866) ^ . • 26 

3. E. arborescenS) Boxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 256 ; Brandis 140 ; Gamble 27. 
Vern. Rungara, Kuinjiun; Bodinga^ /ullidiaf Nep. ; Oyesa, Lepcha; 
JDingsong, Khasia. 

The wood has a similar structure to that of E. suberosa and Indiea, but 
it is more compact^ less spongy, and has more numerous concentric bands 
of soft texture. 

Outer Himalaya from the Ganges to Bhutan, up to 7,000 feet ; Ehasia Hills. 
It is very haudsome when covered with its bright scarlet flowers ; it ^rows easily 
from cuttings, and is often planted for ornament, as in the avenues at Dar]eeling. 

P 3106. Darjeeling, 7,000 feet. 

E 2344 (16 lbs. per cubic foot) from Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai, has been 
identified as JE, stricta, Koxb. ; Beddorae 1. 175 ; Kurz i. 369 ; Gamble 27. Vern. Mauri- 
cou, hichige, Kan. ; Toung kathit, Burm., described from Western India and Banna. 
The structure is the same as that of JS. suberosa. 



Spathohhus Roxburghii, Bth. ; Brandis 143; Gamble 27. (Butea parviflora, 
Boxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 248 ; Kurz i. 365) Vern. Mala^ mula, maula, Hindi. ; jOebrelara, 
Nep. ; Terolrikf Lepcha ; Pouknwag, Burm., is a very common gigantic creeper ol the 
forests of the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards, Bengal and Burma, 
with trifoliolate leaves, white flowers and a soft porous wood in oonoentrio layers 
separated by a ring of soft tissue exuding a red gum resembling " kino " (E 486, 
Daijeeling j 2927, Garhwal, 1874). 



Btitea.] LEGUMiNOSiE. 123 

8. BUTEA, Boxb, 

Besides the species described below, B, sup&rba, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 247 ; Brandis 
143 ; KuTZ L 366. Vera. YSl paras. Mar. ; Ti^e motku, Tel. ; Samur, (Jondi ; Tunang^ 
Korka; P<7«i;9iioay, Barm., is a large scarlet-flowered climber of India and Burma, 
giving a gum like that of B,frondosa ; and B, minor, Ham. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 196 ; 
Gamble 27, is a shrub or climber of the Eastern Himalaja. 

1. B- frondosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 244; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 194 ; Bed- 
dome t. 176; Braudis 142; Kurz i. 364; Gamble 27. Vem. Dkdk,palds, 
kakria, kankrei, CAicAra, Hind. ; cAalcAa, Bandelkhand ; CAiula, puroAa, 
C. P.; Palds, Beng. ; Palasi, bufyettra, Nep.; LaAokung, Lepcha; 
PofcaUy Uriya ; Murr^ Gondi ; PAarsa, Kurku ; Porasan, Tam. ; Modugu, 
moAiu, Tel.; Muttuga, iA&rds, Kan.; Parda, Mar. ; Gasskeala^ calukeale, 
Cingh. ; Pouk, Barm. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark i inch thicks fibrous^ g^^J, 
exfoliating in small irregular pieces ; exuding from cuts and fissures a 
red juice which hardens into a ruby-coloured gum similar to kino. 
Wood dirty white, soft, not durable ; no annual rings. Pores large, 
scanty. Medullary rays broad and moderately broad, white; the 
darker tissue between the rays is broken up inte oblong patehes by 
broad concentric bands of white tissue similar in appearance te the 
medullary rays ; the latter distinctly visible on a radial section as long, 
irregular bands. 

Thioughottt India and Burma, extending in the North-West Himalaja as far as 
the Jhehmu 

The weight is given hj Kjd as 32 lbs. per cubic foot; by Adrian Mendis, 
Ceylon Collection, No. 11, 38 lbs. ; the' average oi our specimens is 36 lbs. Kyd gives 
P = 336. The wood is not durable, but is said to be better under water, and so is used in 
North-West India for well curbs and piles. The bark of the root yields a good fibre 
which is used for coarse cordage, for caulking boats and to make slow matches. The 
eum is sold as ** Bengal Kino ** and has the same properties as that obtained from the 
j^ieroearpus Marsupium; it is said to be used to purify iodigo. The seeds are used 
as a purgative and vermifuge. In Oudh and Central India lac is collected on its 
branches. The leaves are used as plates and as fodder for buffaloes. The tree is well 
known from its handsome scarlet flowers, appearing in the hot season before the leaves ; 
they give a yellow dye, which treated with alum is used at the Holi festival. 

lbs. 

O 237. Garhwal (1868) 

C 1119. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 

C 2769. Moharli Heserve, Central Provinces . .36 

E 674. Bakti Forest, Darjeeling Terai 31 

E2346. Sivoke „ „ „ 40 

Dioclea reflexa. Hook. FL Ind. ii. 196, is a climbing shrub of the Andamans. 
Pueraria tuberosa, DC. 4 Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 197 ; Brandis 141 ; Gkunble 28. (Hedy* 
sarum tuberosum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 363) Vem. Sidli, baddr, bilei hand, billi, pona. 
Hind ; Dart, gumodi, Tel., is a large tuberous-rooted, deciduous climber with bright 
blue flowers and soft, spongy wood. Cajanus indieus, Spreng., is a shrub cultivated 
in most parts of India for its seed {Arkar, Beng. ; Patsigong, Burm.) and for its 
leaves which are given as fodder to cattle. Cylista seariosa. Ait., is a climbing 
shrub of South Indm and Burma. Plemingia contains a number of shrubs found in 
the forests of India, and Burma, among which one of the most common is JF. semialata^ 
Roxb. FL Ind. iii. 341 ; Kurz i. 374 ; Gamble 28 {F, eongesta, Roxb. var. ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 228.) Vem. Bhalia, Hind.; Batwdsi, Nep.; MipUmuk, Lepcha, a tall- 
handsome-flowered shrub of Northern India with a white wood having rather broad 
medullary rays, scanty pores and concentric lines of white tissue like that of 
Erythrina (E 3279, Dainah Forest, W. Duars). 



124 LKcuMiNOs.i^. [ Dalbergia. 

9. DALBERGIA, Linn. fiU 

ContainB about 28 Indian species, of which one-half are trees and the other half 
climbing shrubs. About 8 species are found in North-West and Central India, 18 in 
the Eastern Himalaya, Assam and Eastern Bengal, 8 in South India, and 18 in Banna. 
The Genus is divided into sections as follows :— 

Pod flattened, winded at the edges — 

Staminal bundle split on one side only . SUsoa, 
„ „ „ two sides . . Dalbergaria. 

Pod thickened, not winged, falcate . . SeUnotohium (DrepanoetMrpu* 

Kurz). 

To the section Sissoa belong the trees 2). Sissoo, lat\folia, rimosa and euUrata and nine 
climbing shrubs. To the section Dalberj^aria belong the trees 2). laneeolariOf pur- 
purea,paniculata, glomeriflora and hirctna Bud five climbing shrubs. To the section 
Selenolobium belong D,9p%no9a and ren\formis, trees or erect shrubs and twoclimbeiB. 

D. rimosa, Roxb. ¥\. Ind. iii. 233 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 232 ; Brandts 148, Vem. 
^aogrum, Svlhet and D. hirdna. Ham. ; Brandis 151. Yem. Saras, bandir, tantia, 
gogera. Hind., are trees found in the Sub-Himalavan tract from the Ganges eastwards. 
2>. reniformis Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 226 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 238. (Drepanocarpus re- 
niformu, Kurz i. 336). Vem. Kures, Sylhet ; Htouhma, Burm. ; and 2>. sfinosa, Boxb. 
Fl. Ind. iii. 233. Vem. Yaychinya, Burm., are small trees of the tidal forests of 
Burma, the latter species, acooraing to Kurz i. 337, having : " Wood soft, beautifully 
silvery white, close and straight- grained. The roots powdered absorb alcohol, and a 
spoonful of the powder in a tumblerful of water is said to be sufficient to destroy in 
less than half an hour the effects of alcohol, even in cases bordering. on delirium 
tremens." 2). glomeriflora, Kurz, is a tree of the upper forests of the Pegu Tomas. 

Among the climbers, which have mostlv a hard wood, the chief are 2>. volu- 
hilis, Roxb.; Brandis 152. Yem. Bhatia, oankhara. Hind., found in the Sub- 
fiimalayan tract; and 2>. tamarindifolia, Roxb.; Gamble 29. Yem. Damar, 
Nep. ; JCeti, Sylhet, of the outer Eastern Himalaya, Eastern Bengal, Burma and the 
Anoamans. 2>. monosperma, Dalz. {Drepanocarpus monospermus, Kurz i. 387), is 
a scandent shrub of tidal forests in Upper Tenasserim. 2). Oumingii, Bth., is a scandent 
shrub said by Kurz to eive a dyewood, the Kayu-lakka of commerce. 2>. congesta, 
Grah. ; and J), sympathetica, Nimmo, are climbing shrubs of the hills of South India. 

2). SissoOy latifolia and cuUrata have a hard^ dark-coloured, heavy 
faeartwood; while 2>. stipulacea, lanceolaria smi paniculata have white wood 
without heartwood. All Dalbergias, with the exception of nigrescens 
(the identification of which is doubtful), have scanty, moderate-sized 
pores, joined by narrow bands or lines of soft texture. Medullary rays 
fine, uniform and equidistant. 

1. Dalbergia Sissoo, Boxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 223; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 231 ; 
Beddome t. 25 ; Brandis 149 ; Gamble 28. The Sissoo. Vern. ShUkam, 
aissuy sissai, Hind. ; SAewa, Pushtu ; Tali, sqfedar, shin, nelkar, Pb. ; 
Sissdi, Oudh ; TeUe, Tam. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark between ^ and ^ inch thick, grey, ex- 
foliatiug in narrow longitudinal strips. Sapwood small, white ; heart- 
wood brown with darker longitudinal veins, close and even grained, 
seasons well, very hard. Annual rings not distinctly marked, alternating 
dark and light-coloured bands, which run into each other. Pores large 
and moderate-sized, uniformly distributed, joined by irregular, narrow, 
wavy, white, concentric bands. Medullary rays white, very fine, uniform 
and equidistant, numerous. Pores well defined on a longitudinal section. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Indus to Assam, ascending to 3,000 feet. Van 
Somercn, in his " List of Forest Trees of Mysore and Coorg," gives it as occurring 
under the Kanarese name hiridi, but it is probably not indigenous in those provinces. 
The amount of data available regarding the rate of growth of Sissii is as yet 



Ltilhergia. ] 



LSGUMINOSA. 



125 



very small. In the " Forest Flora of the North-West and Central India," Brandis says 
that it attains under favourable circumstances, on an averaee, 2} feet girth in 12, and 
4^ feet in 30 years. Since then a few data have been collected, principally from the 
specimen saplings sent from the Punjab for the Paris Exhibition of 1878. 

The annual rings in the sapwood are, as a rule, fairly distinct ; those in the 
heartwood are geneiBlly ill-defined : in either case a lens is required to make them out. 
The following statement exhibits the rings counted on sections from the Changa- 
Manga plantation, which were cut in 1877 :— 



Known age. 


Number of rings 
visible. 


Average 

diameter of 

section. 


Average diameter of 
heartwood. 


Rings per inch« 


6 years .... 

6 , 

7 „ . . . . 

8 „ . . . . 

9 „ . . . . 

10 «... . 


4 
6 
6 
6 
9 
6 


Inches. 

6-76 

8 

9 
12 

10-76 
11 


Inches. 
0-76 
2 
3 

4-5 
8*2 
6 


1-2 
1-6 
1-8 

1 

1-7 

11 


^ Average rings per inch of average radios 


1-8 



The calculation has, however, been based on the number of rings counted ; if we 
take the known age, the number of rings will be respectively 1'5, 1*5, 1*5, 1*3, 1*7, 1*8, 
giving an average of 1*55 year per inch of average radius. But these data refer to 
trees up to 10 years of age only, and grown in fivourable conditions on irrigated 
land, so that no further calculation can be derived from them, the measurements of 
older trees being much wanted. But, assuming this rate of increase of ] '55 ring per 
inch, we should have at 12 years of age about 4 feet girth, which is a much faster 
growth than Brandis' estimate. 

The specimens from the Jhelum Sailaba plantations on non-irrigated land ffave 
4 rings per inch of radius average. This would make 30 years to a girth of 4 feet, 
which is nearly Brandis' estimate. 

The Punjab plantations also give the following information : — 



ChangO'Manga planiatUm (Punjab Fvrnt Stport, 1876-77. i>. 22). 



^<^- tssif "ssr 



Yhankara Circle Compartments 6, 5, 8, Block I . 
Manjoki „ „ 77, to 87 & 99 to 111, Block I , 

Delhi Btla plantation (Mr, MinnUcin't Beport, 1878). 



Chandrawdl, Compartment I 
Kudsia, .. Ill 



3 trees 



J&ffarKhan, 






»> 



IV 6 trees 



Tears. 


Ft. 


Inches. 


6 


35 


28 


4 


20 


9 


7i 25 to 30 


15 


6 


20 


15 


2 


12 • 


6 


6 


••• 


15-5 



This gives for the Changa-Manga plantation 1*35 to 2*8 rinss per inch of radius, 
and for iJelhi Bela 2 to 3' 14, or an average of 2*5 rings per inch. This gives a girth 
of 30 inches at 12 years of age, which is Brandis' estimate. 

A specimen from the Darjeeling Terai, in the Bengal Forest Moseiim, gives 35 
rings on a m^an di^^met^r of 11 inghes, 27 rings b^ing heartwood. 



126 



LEQUMlNOSiE. 



[ Balbtrgia, 



The weight and transverse strength have heen calculated by the following experi- 
ments : — 



Experiment by 
whom condnoted. 


Year. 


Wood 
whence procured. 


Weight. 


Number of 
experiments. 


Sise of bar used. 


▼■iM 
DTP. 












Ft. In. In. 




Cunningham 


1864 


Gwalior . • 


48 


4 


2X1X1 


697 


Campbell . 


••• 


Bengal 


66 


1 


6X2X2 


928 


Skinner, No. 66 . 


1862 


» • • 


60 


• •• 


( 8 X li X li 
(2X1 XI 


}870 


Bossell 


>f 


»» • • 


66-6 


• • • 


-X 1 XI 


967 


Baker . 


1829 


Northern Bengal (Coc 
sipore, 1819). 


h 49 


9 


7X2X2 


762 


w • • • 


t* 


Northern Bengal (Cos 
sipore factory). 


46 


6 


6X2X2 


784 


f» • • • 


» 


Northern Bengal 


» •• 


8 


8 X 14 X 1 


709 


l» • • • 


n 


w »> • 


» ••• 


13 


2X1X1 


606 


Brandis 


1864 


Bengal 


49 


16 


6X2X2 


788 


99 • 


>t 


»» • • 


47 


18 


6X2 XU 


740 


»* • • 


1866-66 


»i • • 


46 


9 


6X2X2 


787 


» • 


>f 


If • • 


47 


17 


8X1X1 


869 


9* • • 


»> 


»» • • 


41 


11 


2X1X1 


864 


» ' • 


»» 


i» • • 


46 


14 


2X1 X0| 


919 


Smythios . 


1878 


Northern India, vari' 
ons places. 


48 


8 

• 




.*• 



The wood is very dnrahle, seasons well and does not warp or split. It is highly 
esteemed for all purposes where strength and elasticity are required. Clifford says 
that " in strength it is only inferior to sd.1, while in many other useful qualities it 
surpasses it, and has the advantage of being lighter. For felloes and naves of wheels 
and carved work of every description, for frammgs of carriages and similar work, it is 
unsurpassed by any other wood, owing to its fine seasoning and standing qualities.** 
It is extensively used for boat-building, carts and carriages, agricultural implements, 
in construction and especially for furniture. 

Formerly, it was more extensively used for ffun-carriages than it can be at preaenti 
owing to the comparatively small supply. Wiui regard to its durability and strength 
as a wood for wheels, Clifford says, *' The wheels of our ordnance carriages have 
never failed, however arduous or len^^ened the service has been on which they have 
been employed, of which no more striking example can be furnished than the campaign 
in Afghanistan, about the most trying country m the world for wheels. Some oi our 
batteries served throughout the campaign, went to Baneean and even to the Hindoo 
Koosh and came back again to India without a break-down, while Hoyal Artillery 
wheels built of the very best materials Woolwich oould produce, specially for Indian 
service, almost fell to pieces after few months' exposure and service on the plains of 
India/' 

It has been tried and found to be good for sleepers, and Mr. McMaster in the 
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, vol. xxiii. 1863, says it will be 
really gooa for that purpose. 

it is much plantied as an avenue tree all over India and in forest plantations in 
the Punjab and ^ngal. 

P 145. Giri Valley, Punjab, 3,000 feet 44 

P 884. Multan, „ 52 

P 1205. Changa-Manga plantation (9 specimens) ...... 

P 1347. Peragbaib and Saila plantations* Jhelom (8 specimens) . . ^ 

O 205. Garhwal (18C8) 62 

O 537. Dehra Dun 

O 1460. Bahraich, Oudh 49 

O 1486. Khen, „ 52 



Dalbergia, ] 



LEGUMINOSiB. 



127 



E 675. Bakti Forest, Darjeeling Terai 

E 2347. Sakna ,, 

E 634. Eastern Dliars, Assam 



»» 



lb«. 

47 
46 
42 



2. D. latifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 221; Hook. Fl. Ind, ii. 281; 
Beddome t. 24; Braodis 148; Gamble 29. The Blackwood or Rose- 
wood of Southern India. Vern. Sitsal, Beng., Nep., Oudh; SAUAam, 
tisu, kdlarukA, dAotbeula, sissiii, Mar. ; Sissu, Guz. ; Sirds, sissu, sirsa, 
si33a, MsLudh ; Sissa, Uriya; Hi, eruvadi, Tarn.; Jileffi,yeruffudu, Jiianffi, 
Tel. ; BUi, iAodagatti, Kan. ; BAoiuk, Bhil ; Seris, Gondi ; Seruso, Kurku. 

A deciduous tree attaining a large size in South India. Bark ^ inch 
thick, groy> with irregular short cracks, exfoliating in thin fibrous longi« 
tudinal flakes. Sapwood yellow, small; beartwood extremely hard, dark 
purple, with black longitudinal streaks; no distinct annual rings, but 
alternating concentric belts of dark and light colour, which, however, run 
irregularly into each other. Fores moderate-sized, uniformly distributed, 
generally joined by narrow, white, wavy interrupted, concentric lines. 
Medullary rays light*coloured, fine, numerous, uniform and equidistant. 

Oadh, Eastern Ben^, Central and South India. 

Growth moderate when young, 5 to 9 rings per inch of radius (Brandis) ; some of 
OUT specimens shew 8 rings. 

It coppices well, is easily raised from seed, and reproduces well naturally. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following 
experiments:— 



Ezp6riiDent by whom 
ocmdiietea. 



Tear. 



Wood whence 
procured. 



Weight. 



Nunber of 
' experl* 
mcDte. 



Sise of bar. 



Value 
of P. 



WaDidh, Ko. S9 
Pockle 

Maitland 

SUimer, No. M 

Baker 

S. Thompson 

Smythles 



1860 

1882 

1882 
1839 
1878 

1878 



India 
Mysore 



Malabar 
Central 

▼incea. 
Varioos 

vinoes. 





08-0 
61 


...». 




61 




Pro^ 


00 
56 

86 


"'s* 


pro- 


68 


16 



Ft. In. In. 

8 x*i"*x 1 

8 X U X 1| 

Variona • 
6x2x8 



{ 



1,068 

740 

to 

906 

012 



Brandis says the value of P may he taken at 950. 

It is a valuahle furniture wood, and is exported to Europe from the forests of 
Kanara and Malahar. Wood sent to London for sale in 1878 fetched £13 lOs. per 
ton. It is also used for cart wheels, amcultural implements and for gun-carriages. 
It is good for carving and fancy work, and is used for the handles of knives, 
kukris and other arms. It has heen used for sleepers. Nine sleepers which had 
been down 7 to 8 years on the Mysore State Railway were found to mive, when taken 
up, 5 good, 3 still serviceable, and 1 bad. It has been grown in plantations in Malabar 
and E!anara. 

lbs. 



mere 



C 187. Mandla, Central Provinces (1869) . . . . .46 

C 2984 Jabalpur (1863) 63 

- - -- ' . . . . 58 

52 
53 

64 

. . . 64 



C 1146. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 

C 2732. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces 

C 955. Dangs Forests, Guzerat, Bombay 

C 1236. Gumstir, Madras 
\j XtfUo. „ ,, • • • 

E 492. Khookloong Forest, Darjeeling Tend 



128 LEGUif iNOSiE . [ Ba llergia. 

Ibv. 

E 672. Bamnnpokri, Darjccling Terai 60 

E 2348. „ „ , 60 

W 1227. North Kanara 54 

W 720. South „ 66 

W 865. „ „ 49 

D 2044. Mysore 64 

D 1072. North Aroot 67 

No. 24. Salem Collection 62 

3. D. cnltrata, Grab. ; Hook. R Ind. ii. 283 ; Kurz L 342. Vern. 
Tendiie, Burm. 

A moderate-Rized tree. Bark { iDch thick^ smooth, with short transverse 
clefts. Wood purplish black, with darker streaks, with harder wood than, 
but structure similar to, that of D. laiifolia. 

Banna. 

Weight, according to Benson, 83 lbs. ; according to Brandis' Banna Lint, 1862, 
No. 36, & lbs. ; our specimens give 69 and 70 lbs. Benson gives, from experiments 
made with hars 3' X 1*4" X 1*4", P = 1003. It is used for wheels, agricoltaral 
implements, handles of dalis and spears, and especially for carvings. The Bap*wood 
is very perishable, but the heartwood extremely aurable. 

Ibt. 

B 2621. Burma (1862) .70 

B 2728. Nawing Forests, Prome (1868) 09 

B 2697. Tavoy (Wallich, 1828) 



••• 



4. Specimens marked Thitpoke (B2523), collected in Burma in 1802 
(Brandis^ Burma List, 862, No. 133), have light yellow wood with 
numerous concentric bands, scanty, large and moderate-sized pores, and 
very fine, very numerous, uniform and equidistant medullary rays. 
Thitpoke is identified by Kurz as Dalbergia purpurea, Wall., Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 236 ; Kurz i. 344 ; which has a small heartwood. To this also 
belongs B 2280 from the Andaman Islands. 

5. D. lanceolaria, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 235 ; Brandis 151 ; 
Gamble 29. D. frondoia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 226 ; Beddome Ixxxviii. 
Vern. TaJcoli, biinua, Hind. ; Bander Hrh, Nep. ; Barbai, parbati, Bans- 
warra*; Qengri, Fanch Mehals ; Harrdni, Dharwar ; I/al valanga, Tarn. ; 
Pedda sopara, yerra pattaru, pasarganni, Tel.; Bandons, kaurcAi, Mar. 

A deciduous tree. Bark \ inch thick, compact, grey, smooth, exfoliat- 
ing in thin rounded patches. Wood white, moderately hard, not dur- 
able, no heartwood. Annual rings (?) marked by thin, concentric lines. 
Fores scanty, large and moderate-sized, larger and somewhat more 
numerous in the spring wood ; often oval and subdivided, very prominent 
on a longitudinal section. Medullary rays extremely fine, very numer- 
ous, very regularly distributed, joined by very fine, short, white bars. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards, ascending to 2,500 feet^ Central 
and South India. 

Skinner, No. 53, gives for the weight 62 lbs. per cubic foot ; Wallich 46 lb«. ; our 
specimens give only 33 to 44 lbs. Skinner also gives P = 1003, but it is probable that 
he has not described the right wood, for, although he gives the correct Telugu name, 
yoi he calls his specimens (No. 63, p. 76) Moukshow, Burm., and " Moulmein lance-wood ;" 
while Kurz, the latest authority, does not give 2>. lanceolaria as occurring in Burma. 
Skinner says that one log was brought from the western coast, and another by Con- 
ductor Bowman from Burma. Bedaome says the timber is useful for building pur- 



Balbergia. ] leouhinosa* 129 

lbs. 

C 1144. Ahiri Reseire, Central Provinces ^ 

£ 618. Champasari Forest, Darjeelin^ Terai 33 

E 2346. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai 44 

6. D. paniculata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 227 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 
236; Beddome Izxxviii.; Brandis 150; Kurz i. 845. Yern. Katsina, 
Oudh ; Bhobein, dhohein, pdssi, ^atpuria, Hind. ; Paicialai, valance, 
Tarn. ; Poirum, porilla, patsuru, toper, Tel. ; Sondarra, sAeodur, topia, 
Mar. ; Hasnr gnniri^pacidri, Kan.; Piangani, Mai.; Tapoukben, Burm. ; 
Padri, Gondi, Bhil ; Piassi, Kurku. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark ^ inch thick, compact, grey, smooth, 
with occasional horizontal cracks. Wood yellowish or greyish white, 
soft, perishable; no heartwood. Structure most remarkable, entirely 
diflPerent from that of other species of the genns : broad concentric 
masses of wood alternate with narrow, dark coloured belts of a fibrous 
substance, resembling the inner bark. Planks cut out of old trees fall to 
pieces. Fores small, scanty. Medullary rays very fine, numerous. 
Wavy, narrow, concentric bands of white tissue alternate with broader 
bands of harder and darker substance. 

North-West Himalaya from the Jumna to Oudh, Central and Sonth India. 
(Quoted by Kurz from Burma, but identification doubtful.) 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 55, and B. Thompson 48 lbs. per cubic foot ; our 
specimens give an average of 37 lbs. Skinner gives P = 872. Wood not durable and 
vei^ subject to the attacks of insects. Beddome says it is used for building and other 
purposes. 

Ibt. 

C 1115. Ahiri Keserve, Central Provinces 32 

C 2928. Seoni, Central Provinces 46 

7. D. nig^escenSy Kurz i. 846. Vern. ThiUanweng, Burm. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Wood light grey, soft. Foresr 
scanty, large, subdivided. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. 

Dry mixed forests of Upper Burma. 

B 291. Burma (1867) 38 

B 2522. „ (1862) 39 

There is some doubt about the identification of this species, owing to the absence o£ 
concentric bands. 

8. D. stipulacea, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 288; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 237; 
Kurz L 846; Gamble 29. Vern. Tatebiri, Nep.; Oarodosal, Mechi; 
Tifn-nyoij Lepcha. 

A large climbing shrub. Wood soft, greenish grey, with a purplish 
brown heartwood, porous. Pores numerous, of different sizes, small ta 
extremely large, in white, undulating, concentric bands running into each 
other. Medullary rays white, fine, very numerous. 

Eastern Himalaya, ascending to 4,000 feet, Assam, Ehasia Hills, Chittagong andb 
Burma. 

Weight, 48 lbs. per cubic foot. Growth, about 9 rings per inch of radius. 

lb«. 

E 574. Khookloong Forest, Darjeeling Terai 

E 2349. Sivoke „ „ , 48 

9. D. foliacea, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii, 282; Kurz i. 347 ; Gamble 
29. Vern. Takbiri, Nep. 



130 



LEGUIIINO&S. 



[ Dalbtrgia, 



A large straggling shrub^ with white porous wood with a small dark 
hcartwood, in structure ressmbliog that of 2>. siipulacea, except that the 
medullary rays are broader. 

Eastern Himalaya and Burma. 

E 3274. Mdragbdt Reserve, W. Ddars. 

10. PTEROCARPUS, Linn. 

Containa 4 Indian species. P. ma^rocarpus, Kurz i. 349 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 839, 
is a deciduous tree of the Eng and upper mixed forests o£ Martaban and TenafBerim, 
rare in Prome. The ** Rosewood" or **Lanoewood" of West Africa is prodnoed by 
P. erinaceus, Poir. 

The wood of the three species examined is very uniform in stroetarej 
though the colours differ. They all have extremely iiue^ uniform and 
equidistant medullary rays^ large and small pores, and fine^ wavy^ oon- 
centric bands. 

1. P. indicus, Willd. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. \l 238 ; Beddome 1 23 ; Kan 
i. 349. P. dalbergioides, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 236. Andaman Redwood. 
Vem. Padoui, Burm. ; Cialanga-dd, And. 

A lofty tree, sometimes evergreen, with grey bark. Sapwood small ; 
heartwoocl dark red, close-gramed, moderately hard to hard^ with a 
slight aromatic scent. Pores scanty, small to large, sometimes oval 
and subdivided. Very fine, wfiite, wavy, interrupted, concentric lines, 
irregularly distributed. Medullary rays extremely fine, very niuneroasj 
uniform and equidistant. The transverse diameter of the pores much 
larger than the distance between the rays. 

Burma and the Andaman Islands. 

The weights of our specimens from Burma differ considerably from those firom the 
Andamans, Sie latter being much lighter, the wood softer and the colour rather lighter. 
The weight and transverse strength have been determined from the fidkmiog eoEperi- 
ments : — 



ExnEnnirr bt whom 


Year. 


Wood 
whence 


Weight. 


Nomber 
of experi- 


Siie of bv. 


YaloiofP. 


MAOM, 




procured. 




ments. 
















Ft. in. In. 




Simpeon . 


t tt 


Tenasserim 


63 




3 X li X U 


981 


H .... 


«•• 


•t 


81 




8 X l{ X If 


1^6 


Benson .... 


• «• 


»f 


71 




3 X 1*4 X 1*4 


1,06S 


Skinner, No. 110 


isea 


Burma 


66 




Variooa 


864 


Maitland 


ft 


w 


67 




8 X 11 X l\ 


esotoUtt 


lirandls. No. 88 


»> 


n 


60 








Smythies 


lB7d 


»t 


60 


i 






n .... 


ft 


Andamann 


48 


4 






Bonnett, No. 1 


1872 


M 


4B'6 


• •• 




8S7 



Used for forniture, carts, guo-carriages and other purposes. It is said to be the 
most useful wood in the Andamans, where it grows to an enormous siie. Major 
Protheroe dcscrihes a tree felled in 1876 with a clear stem of 65 feet and a eirth of 17 feet^ 
and says that the wood of the root is closer-grained, darker>coloured and more beauti- 
fully marked than that of the stem. The plank sent to the Paris Exhibition of 1878 
measured nearly 4 feet across. In London, a portion of the same log from which the 
plank was cut fetched a price of £17-1(>. per ton, or nearly Bs. 4 per cubic foot» 
while three logs lately sold in Calcutta fetched Be. 60 per ton. Fumitare made from 
Padouk wood and exhibited at Paris in 1878 by Messrs. Jackson and Grahwrn was 
much admired. They reported on it as follows :— - 

** This is a straight-grown wood, with rather a coarse open grain, but wttboai any 
itroDg figure or markings. When first cut it is of a reddish brown coloor, batitfadm 



Plerocarpns.] lrguminosje. 131 

to mach the same colour as teak— a wood it resembles very muoh, and it is about as 
hard, but much heavier. From the six specimen trees sent us, we imagine that it does 
not grow to any great size. The lareest sent to us measured 16 feet long X 1 foot 
7 inches X 1 foot 6 inches. We consider it suitable for all kinds of furniture. We 
manufactured it into a suite of morning-room furniture, which was exhibited at the 
Paris Exhibition, and which stood the test of a very hot summer in a most satisfactory 
manner." 

It seasons well, works well and takes a very fine pc^sh. It gives a kind of gum 
'* kina" Home's valuation surveys in the Andamans gave an average of 7 mature trees 
per acre, which shews what a large quantity of the wood might be made available for 
export. 

lb*. 

B 584. Martaban 60 

B 2624. Pegu (1862) 60 

B 2708. Tavoy (Wallich, 1828) 62 

B 2716. „ ( „ „ ) 69 

B 626. Andaman Islands 46 

B 2207. „ „ (1866) 43 

B 2494. „ „ (Home, 1874, No. 1) 55 

2. P. santalinus, Linn, f.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 289; Boxb. Fl. Ind. 
iii. £34 ; Beddome t. U ; Brandis 153. The Red Sanders Tree. Vem. 
Zal ehandauj rakta ciawiau, seyapu ckandanum, Tam.j Tel.; HonnS^ 
Kan, 

A small tree. Sapwood white ; heartwood purplish blacky dark- 
orange red when fresh cut^ extremely hard^ the shavings giving a blood- 
red orange colour. Pores moderate-sized^ often subdivided^ scattered. 
Medullary rays fine^ numerous^ equidistant, wavy. Hie pores are joined 
by many fine, white, undulating, concentric lines at unequal distances. 

South India, chiefly in Cuddapah, Noi*th Arcot and the southern portion of the 
Kamdl district. 

Growth, Beddome mentions a tree 6 years old having 18 feet 6 inches in height an4 
9 inches in girth ; this would give 3 rings per inch of radius, which is fast^ hut the tree 
was young and the annual growth of old trees is much slower. In Captain Campbell- 
Walker s Report on the Cuddapah forests of March 1876, he mentions a tree having 
grown in 14 months to a height of 4} feet and giith of 3 inches. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 112, 70 lbs. ; our specimens g^ve 76 to 77 Ihs. 
Skinner gives P^976. Beddome says it is used for building purposes and for 
turning. It is exported from Madras in billets and root pieces as a dyewood, as it 
contains a red colouring principle, " santalin," which is soluole in alcohol and ether, but 
not in water. Dissolved in alcohol, it dyes cloth a beautiful salmon-pink colour. It 
is used in medicine by the natives as an astringent, but does not seem to have much 
value. 

Regarding the method of planting the " Red Sanders " Tree, the following memo- 
randum by Mr. Yarde was published at page 98 of the Report of the Forest C<mference 
Meeting in 1876 : — 

" The seeds are gathered in May and sown in July, in small beds abont eight feet 
square, prepared adjacent to where water is to be had. They are thrust into the light 
soil perpendicularly, or at an inclination, and about an inch deep (just sufficient to 
cover the winged seed). From 700 to 800 may be put into the nursery beds of the 
above-mentioned dimensions, and watered every second evening by a watering-can. 
Seeds soaked for a night in cold water germinate in 20 to 26 diays, while those 
nnsoaked take from SO to 36. After germination has taken place, the beds must 
be moderately watered by a picotta or other means, with small communicating or 
distribuUon channels made between the beds. During' the first six months particular 
care in watering is very necessiiry. Too much water proves equally destructive as none 
at all. The condition of the soil where planted must be the best guide, as they seem 
only to inhabit the country where the rainfall is small. 

" The leading shoot at six months has a tendency to drop from the top weight of 
leaves, and should be supported with a forked stick, which is sufficient to straighten 
the stem. The nursery must be kept free from weeds, and when the plants in the 



182 



LKGTJlCINOSiS. 



[Pierocarpu9. 



nursery are about six months old, they xna^ be safely transferred to wicker or bamboo 
baskets, which must be done during the rams. They must be carefully removed with 
pointed instruments, so that their tap-roots are not injured or broken. The wicker 
baskets with the plants should be placed in a shady spot and watered every second or 
third day, and when it is perceived that the roots have taken firm hold, and the plants 
quite revived, the baskets should be buried in pits 1' X 1' X 2^ at about five or six 
feet apart, and watered till the rains set in. During the time the plants are in the 
nursery, as a protection from the sun, I always found Peruvian cotton, planted near 
or around, very beneficial. Of course any shade will suit the purpose required." 

lbs. 

D 2066. Mysore ; . 76 

D 2917. Madras (Brandis) 

D 1075. North Arcot (with sapwood) 66 

D 3161. Cuddapah, Madras .77 



3. P. Marsupinm, Boxb. ; Fl. Ind. iii. 234 ; Hook. Fl. Tnd. ii. 239 ; 
Beddome t. 21 ; Brandis 152. Vern. Bija, bija^dfy bijasdl, piasal. 
Hind. ; Byam^ IJnjA; BAorbeula, dsan, Mar. ; Peddei, Oondi ; Peddap, 
yeanga^yeggi^yegisa, pedigay pediiyTel.; Vengai, Tarn, ; Benga^ honni^ 
Kan. ; Bijaira, Bijeragogarh ; Radat hera, Bhfl. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark \ inch thick^ S^^y* ^ith long vertical 
cracks^ exfoliating in small pieces of irregular shape and size. Sap- 
wood small ; heartwood brown^ with darker streaks^ very hard^ darable, 
yielding a red resin. Pores moderate-sized and large^ often subdivided, 
uniformly distributed. Numerous fine, white, wavy, concentric lines 
at regular intervals. Medullary rays extremely fine and numerous ; 
not visible except under a lens, uniform and equidistant, prominent on 
a radial section. Fores marked on a vertical section ;. the transverse 
diameter of the pores many times larger than the distance between the 
rays. 

Central and South India, extending northwards to the Banda District of the North* 
Western Provinces. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following ex- 
periments : — 



Experiment by whom 
condacted. 



Tear. 



Wood whence 
procured. 



Weight. 



No. of 
experi- 
ments. 



Size of bar used. 



Value of 
P. 



Wallich. No. 224 
Pockle 



»» 



Skinner. No. Ill 

French .... 

Baker (Nof. 501 to 60«) . 



Smythiea . 



1869 

•» 
1862 
1861 

1829 
1878 



TraTancore . . 


47 


• • t 


Mysore . . . • 


66 


• •■ 


n 


61 


• •• 


South India . . 


66 


• • • 


Madras (Erode 


• •1 


3 


workshops). 






Bareri Forest, 
Midnapore . . 


63 


4 


Different places . 


62 


10 



Ft. in. in. 



2 X 1x1 

• • • • • • 

1 X 1x1 

7 X 2x2 



821 

868 
611 

687 



The wood is durable, seasons well and takes a fine polish ; the heartwood is full of 
eum resin and stains yellow when damp. It is much need for doors and window 
frames, posts and beamf<, furniture, agricultural implements, cart and boat building. 
It has also been used for sleepers. Out of 25 sleepers which had been down 7 to 8 
years on the Mysore State Railway, there were found, when taken up, 9 good, 11 still 
serviceable and 5 bad. It has also been used to a certain extent on the Holkar and 
Neemuch and other lines. It yields, from wounds in the bark, a red gum-resin 
called "'kino/' a valuable astringent, much used in medicine. 



Pierocarpus.'] leguminos^*. 133 

lbs. 

C 175. Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) 47 

C 1105. Ahiri ReBerve, Central ProvinceR ..... 58 

C 2741. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces 49 

C 2918. Seoni, Central Provinces 56 

C 1238. Gumsur, Madras 66 

W 742. South Eanara 48 

W 762. „ „ 45 

W 850. „ „ 63 

D 1061. South Arcot ^ 

D 1086. Madura 69 

No. 39. Salem Collection : . 52 

11. PONGAMIA, Vent. 

1. P. glabra, Vent. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 240; Beddome t. 177; 
Brandis 153; Kurz i. 335. Galedupa indica, Lam. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
iii. 239. Vera. KaranJ, papar, Hind. ; Dalkaramcha, iaranja, Beng. ; 
Koranj4, XJriya ; Pon/d, Tarn. ; Kanga, pungu, kaniga, ganuga, Tel. ; 
Oaranjif Gondi ; CAarr, Ajmere; ffungay,pong, Kan. ; Tiinwin, Burm. 

A moderate-sized tree, almost evergreen. Bark soft, ^ inch thick, 
greyish brown, covered with small tubercles. Wood moderately hardj 
white, turning yellow on exposure. Annual rings indistinct. Pores 
moderate-sized, scanty, included in and joined by white, wavy, concen- 
tric anastomosing bands of soft tissue, which alternate with bands of 
darker colour and firmer texture^ In the darker-coloured bands the 
fine, white, numerous and uniformly distributed medullary rays are 
distinctly visible. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Ravi eastwards, ascending to 2,000 feet ; Bengal, 
Burma, Central and South India. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 107, 40 lbs. per cubic foot ; our specimens give an 

average of 42 lbs. Skinner gives P = 686. The wood is not durabfe, and is readily 

eaten Dj insects, but is improved by seasoning in water. In Lower Bengal it is used 

for oil-mills and firewood ; in South India for solid cart-wheels. The seeds are used in 

native medicine ; they also ^ive a thick, red-brown oil used for burning, and medicinally 

as an application for skin diseases, for which it is said to be very efficacious. The 

leaves are used for manure for rice-fields in Mysore. The tree is easily grown from 

cuttings. 

lbs. 
P 457. Ajmere 45 

C 1133. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 38 

E 411. Sundarbans 43 

12. DERRIS, Loureiro. 

Contains several climbing shrubs or trees, chiefly Burmese. 2>. scandens Bth. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 240; Brandis 154; Kurz i. S39{I)albergia fcandens, Boxh. Fl. Ind. 
iii. 232) Vem. Guni, Pb. ; Noaluta, Beng. ; golari,potra, nalavail, Gondi ; Cheratali 
badu, nala-tige, Tel. ; Tupail, Mar. ; Meekgoung-nway, Burm., is a large climbing 
shrub, common all over India and Burma ; it has a white, hard wood, with regular 
structure. D, uliginosa, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 241 ; Kurz i. 339. Vem. Kelia 
lota, Beng., is a large evergreen scandent shrub of the tidal forests of Bengal and 
Burma, whose stems are used in the Sundarbans for tying logs to boats. Several other 
species, all climbing, occur in Burma, chiefly in tidal forests. 

1. D. robusta, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 241 ; Brandis 154; Kurz i. 
838. Dalbergia Krowee, Roxb. Fl. lud. iii. 229. Vem. Mowhitta, Ass.; 
Bolkakaru, Garo ; Krowee, Sylhet ; Gumbong, Magh. 



134" LEGUMiNOSiE. [ Detrit. 

A deciduous tree. Wood light brown^ hard. Pores large and 
moderate-sized. Medullary rays promiDent^ fine^ wavy^ equidistant. 
Numerous narrow, wavy, conoentric bands of soft texture frequently 
joining the pores. 

Outer Himalaya from the Ganges eastwards, Assam, Eastern fiengal, down to 
Pegu. 

Weight, 53 lbs. per cubic foot. Roxburgh says it grows quickly to a large size. 

Ibi. 
£ 786. Kamrup, Assam 53 



Dalhousiea hracteata. Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 248; Wight Ic. t 265, is a shrub 
of the Ehasia Hills and Eastern Bengal. Calpumia aurea. Lam. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 
251 ; Beddome Izxzix., is a handsome shrub of the hills of South India. JEu^hriita 
Morsfieldii, Bennett ; Hook. Fl. Ind. iL 248, is an erect shrub of the Khasia Hills. 



Sitb-Obdbb II. C^SALPINIE^. 

Contains 17 genera, divided into 5 tribes, ri«.,— 

Tribe I. — EucsesalpinieaB Peltophorum, Mezoneurum, 

Catalpinia, PterolMum^ 
Aerocarpus, Wagaieu^ 
Poinciana and Parkin' 
sonia, 

„ II. — CassiesB Cassia. 

„ III. — BauhiniesB Paukinia, 

„ IV. — Amherstiese Amherstia, Humboldiia, Af" 

zelia, Tamarindus and 
Suraea, 

„ V. — CynometresB Hardwickia and Cfynomeira. 

Mezoneurum and Pierolohium contain only climbing shrubs. The former baa three 
species: M, cucullatum, W. and A.; Brandis 155 ; Kurz i. 409; Gamble 30. (Cased* 
pinia cucullata, Rozb. Fl. Ind. ii. 358) Vem. Biskoprah, Oudh ; Sungray, Nep. ; 
Punggong, yangkup^ Lcpcha ; Ragi, Bombay ; Kyoungchet, Burm., a large climber 
whose stems and branches are armed with strong hooked prickles with a corky base, 
with porous wood, and found in the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sarda east- 
wards. Western Ghdts and Eurma (E. 488, Darjeeling Terai) ; M, enneaphyllum, W. 
and A.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 258, a climber of Cachar, Chittagong and Burma; and 
M, ^labrum, Desf., a large climber of Pegu. The latter has one si>ecies, Pterolobium 
indtcum, A. Rich. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 259 (P. macropterum, Kurz i. 410. CtBsalpinia 
UiceranSt Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 367) Vem. Walekaduda, Tel. ; Kyoungyet-nway, Burm., 
a prickly climber of Burma. The remaining genera contain chiefly trees. 

Peltopkorumferrugineum, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 267 ; Kurz i. 408, is an ever- 
green tree of the coast forests of the Andamans, said by Kurz to have a blackish heart- 
wood. Poinciana contains one indigenous tree, P. elata, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 260 ; 
Rozb. Fl. Ind. ii. 355 ; Beddome t. 178 ; Brandis 157 ; Vem. Pad^narayan, 
Tarn.; Sunkeswar, Tel.; Nirangi, Kan., found in the forests of South India, but 
more often seen planted. Skinner, No. 106, says it has wood of a yellow colour, 
tolerably close and even grained, easily worked, and giving a smooth surface, 
warping slifjhtly, but not subject to crack, well suital for cabinet work ; and 
that its weight is 45 lbs. per cubic foot, and P = 516. It also contains P. 
regia, Bojer, the well-known ornamental tree with crimson and orange flowers 
appearing in the hot season. It was introduced from Mada<ic&8cai*, and is now found 
planted lumost all over India. Kurz says the wood is white, soil, light and loose- 
grained, and that the tree gives a plentiful gum. Parkinsonia aeuhata, Linn. 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 260 ; Beddome xci. ; Brandis 158 ; Kurz i. 403, is an introduced shrub 
or small tree, now almost naturalised in India, especially in the arid zone, where it is 
grown as a hedge plant. The wood is whitish, light and soft, but close-grained and 



Casal/fi/iia.l LEGUMiNOSiE. 135 

poliBhes fairly. Skinner, No. 102, gives W = 40, P = 565. Wagaiea spicata, Dalz. ; 
Hook. El. Ind. ii. 261, is a climbiDg sbrub of the Western Gh4ts. Amhentia nobilis, 
Wdl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind.ii. 272 ; Kurz i. 411. Vem. Thatoha, soka, Barm., perhaps the 
most bea^tiM flowering tree in the world, was discovered by Mr. Crawford and 
Dr. Wallich at Kognn in the Salween Valley ; it is now cultivated in wardens round 
Calcutta and elsewhere, and is usually propagated by layers. Humboldtia contains 
three or four small trees of South India : M. unijuga, Beddome 1. 188, is a handsome 
tree of the Travancore Ghats, said to yield a hard durable timber ; H, Brunonis, Wall., 
is found in the forests of Coorg and South Kanara, and H. Vahliana, Wight, on the 
Nilgiris. 

Altogether, there is scarcely any class of trees with such a variety of species 
with hanosome flowers and generally, at the same time, valuable wood as the sub-order 
CsBsalpiniese. Besides the Indian genera there are numerous others of value such as 
the Logwood H(ematoxylon Campechianum, Linn., (No. 2966,) of Central America and 
the W^ Indies ; the CJopaiba Bfusam Tree, Copaifbra officinalis, and the Carob Tree, 
Ceratonia siliqua, Linn., now almost naturalised m the Salt Range and other parts of 
the Punjab. 

13. CiESALPINIA, Linn. 

Contains 10 shrubs, chiefly climbing and prickly. C Bonducella, Roxb. Fl. 
Lid. ii. 357 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 254. Brandis 156 ; Gamble 30. The Fever Nut. 
Vem. Katicaranj, Hind. ; Naia, Beng. ; Oajkai, Elan., is a common very prickly 
climbing shrub of India» often used for hedges. Its seeds are used in medicine, and 
contain an oil ; they are tonic and antiperiodic. C. sepiaria, Roxb. Fl. Ind» ii. 360 ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 266 ; Brandis 156 ; Eurz i. 406. The Mysore Thorn. Yern. Urn, 
uri, arlu, relu^ karido, aila. Hind. ; Chillar, Mar. ; Hotsiae, Kan., is a lar^ prickly 
climber used for hedges. C. pulcherrima, Sw. Vem. irrishna-chura, Beng., is a hand- 
some shrub cultivated in gardens in most parts of India, C. crista, " J^wood " or 
•• Bresillet," (No. 2963) comes from the West Indies ; C. echinata, "BrazU Wood" or 
" Pemambuco Wood," (No. 2964) from South America, and C, braziltensis, " Brazil- 
etto," from the West Indies and Brazil. C, Coriaria, Willd., is the American 
Sumach or Divi-divi. Weight, 56 lbs. ; P = 724 (Skinner No. 32). 

1. C. Sappan, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 255 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 357 ; 
Beddome xc. ; Brandis 156 ; Knrz i. 405. Vern. Baiam, Hind., Guz., 
Beng.; Paiunga, Tarn.; Bakamu, dakapu, Tel.; Boimo, XJriya; Paitang, 
Mar. ; Paianga, Kan. ; Teing nyet, Burm. 

A small thorny tree. Sapwood white, heartwood red. Pores isolated, 
enclosed in narrow rings. Medullary rays fine ; the distance between the 
rays equal to, or somewhat larger tUhn, the transverse diameter of the 
pores. 

South India, Bengal and Burma. 

Weight, according to Skinner No. 33, 60 lbs. per cubic foot ; Wallich giyes 61 lbs. 
Skinner giyes P ^ 1540 ! The wood takes a fine polish and does not warp or crack ; 
it yields a yaluable dye, which is largely exported. It has been grown in plantations at 

NUambtir and in the Central Proyinces. 

ibt. 
C 3136. Moharliy Central Proyinoes (cultiyated) (sapwood) • . .52 

14. ACROCARPUS, Wight. 

A genus placed by Baker in Flora Indica, Vol. ii., under Mimosea ; but by 
Bentham and Hooker in the Qenera Plantarum as here described. 

1. A. fraxinifolilLS, Wight ; Hook. FL Ind. ii. 292 ; Beddome t. 44 ; 
Brandis 158; Kurz i. 410; Gamble SO. Vern. Mandania, Nep.; 
Madling^ Lepcha ; Mallay kone, TinneveUy ; Kilingi, Burghers ; Hantige, 
belanji, Aatmlige, Kan. 



136 LBGUMiNOSJB. [AcToearpuM. 

A lofty deciduous tree^ with thin^ light-grey bark. Sapwood white ; 
heartwood light red^ moderately hard. Pores moderate-sized to very 
large^ often oval and divided into two to five compartments^ either 
isolated or enclosed in narrow interrupted bands of softer tissue promi- 
nent on a vertical section. Medullary rays fine and moderately broad. 

Hills of the Eastern Himalaya down to Chittagong, asoending to 4^000 feet; 
South India, and Borma. 

Weight, 39 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood is used by planters in Darjeeling for 
tea-boxes and planking, in the Wynaad for building and f umiture, and in Coorff for 
shingles. It is an extremely handsome tree, growing with a fine tall cylindrical 
stem, handsome flowers and large bipinnate leaves, which are red when yonng; 
it reproduces easily and is fast growing. Beddome mentions a tree 27 feet in giiih 
above the buttresses, and Manson states that a windfall tree in the Lower Darjeelinfi^ 
Hills had a bole 70 feet without a branch and measured 11 feet in girth at the simS 
end. 

lbs. 

E 667. Lama Qamba Forest, Darjeeling 39 

D 1085. Madura, Madras 99 

15. CASSIA, Linn. 

A large genus containing 18 species of herbs, shrubs and large trees. It is of con- 
siderable importance, as the trees produce fine timber and some of Uie shrubs and herbs the 
" Senna " leaves used in medicine. C auriculata, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 263 ; 
Brandis 165, Yem. Tarwar, awal, Hind. ; Taroia, Berar ; Tangedu, tangar, Tel. ; 
Avarike, Kan., is a shrub of Central and South India ; its bark is used for tanning and 
dyeing leather, and its seeds as an application for ophthalmia, as are those of C. Absus, 
Linn. C, obovata, Colladon, is a shrub common all over India, and is one of the plants 
furnishing the medicinal senna leaves. C. alata, Linn., is an introduced shrub, now run 
wild, whose leaves are an excellent application for ring-worm. 

C. glaurca. Lam. ; Hook. FL Ind. ii. 265 ; Beddome xci. ; Kurz i. 894, (Senna 
arhorescens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 345) is a large shrub or small tree of the eastern part 
of South India and of Burma. C. nodosa, Ham. ; Kurz i. 392. Yem. Onootiein, 
Burm., and C, renigera. Wall. Yem. Onooshay, Burm., are large trees of Burma» 
the former extending to the Eastern Himalaya. 

Heartwood hard^ heavy^ dark-coloured. Pores moderate-sized and 
large^ in patches of soft texture^ which in some species are confluent and 
form continuous concentric bands. 

1. C. Fistula, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 261 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 883 ; 
Beddome xci. ; Brandis 194 ; Kurz i. 391 ; Gumble 30. Cathartocarpn^ 
Fistula^ Pers. The Indian Laburnum. Vern. Amalfds, Hind. ; Alasi, ali, 
Jtarangal, iidr, kanidr, Pb. ; Raj briksi, kitola, Kumaun ; Ciimiani, Sind. ; 
Gurmala, Guz. ; Sundali, bandarlati, Beng. ; Sandari, Uriya ; Kitwdli, 
kiloli, itola, 8himarra,stm, North- Western Provinces ; Warga, Oudh ; Jag^' 
garwahy raila, Airojak, iarkacia, C. P. ; Jaggra, kanibar, rera, Gbndi ; 
Banag, bangru, Kurku ; Bahawah, baya, bawa, Mar. ; SaJ birij, Nep. ; 
Sonalu, Grdro ; BonurlaH, bonurlauri, persar, Palamow ; Sunaru, Assam ; 
Bandolaty Cachar; Kone, siriione, Tam.; Seylu, rela, suvarnam, ionay, Tel.; 
Kaki, Tam. ; Kakie, Kan. Akalla, Cingh. ; Gnooahtoayy gnoogyee, Burm. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark ^ inch thick, compact* 
greenish grey and smooth when young, dark-reddish brown and rough 
when old, exfoliating in many-sided patches. Sapwood large, heart- 
wood varying in colour from grey or yellowish red to brick-red, very 
hard to extremely hard. Sharp, thin, white, concentric lines which may 
possibly be annual rings. Pores moderate-sized^ uniformly distribatedj 



Cassia. ] 



LEQUMINOS^. 



137 



euclosed in, and joined by, white, wavy, irregular and often interrupted 
concentric bands of soft tissue. Medullary rays very fine, very numer- 
ous, uniform and equidistant, slightly bent, prominent in the dark, firm 
tissue which separates the wavy bands. 

Sub-HimalaYan tract, ascending to 4,000 feet, and throughout India and Burma 
Growth moderate, 9 rings per inch of radius. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following 
experiments : — 



Experiment by whom 
made. 


Years. 


"Wood whence 
produced. 


Weight. 


Number of 
experiments. 


Sise of bar. 


Value of P. 












Ft. In. In. 




Kyd .... 


• •• 


Assam , 


66 




2 X ] X 1 


688 


Skimier, No. 48 


1862 


South India . 


61 






846 


B. Thompson 

Bnmdis, Noe. 33 and 34 


1868 
1862 


Central Prorin- 

ces. 
Burma 


€2 

f 67 
I 66 






• •• 

• •• 


Cental Prorinoee List . 
Bmythlee 


1873 
1878 


Central Proyin- 

ces. 
Different Pro- 

Tinces. 


66 

60 


11 




• •• 



The wood is very durable, but rarely of suAcientlj large size for timber. It makes 

excellent posts, and is good for carts, agricultural implements and rice-pounders. The 

pulp of the pods is a strong purgative, the bark is used in dyeing and tanning, and the 

gum as an astringent. It is a very handsome tree, having long pendulous racemes of 

bright yellow flowers, and a long, straight, cylindrical, indehiscent pod, often one and 

two feet long. It is often cultivated for ornament. 

lbs. 
P 101. Sutlej Valley, Punjab, 3,000 feet \^ 

P 437. Ajmere 

P 439. 61 

O 244*. Garhwal'(1868) . . . .' .' . ! .' ! 62 

O 333. Gorakhpur (1868) . . . - 62 

C 1164. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 66 

B 679. Lohagarhi Forest, Darjeeling Terai 62 

£ 2362. Bamunpokri, Darjeeliog Terai .62 

E 783. Kamrup, Assam 60 

W 864. South Kanara . . . . . . .62 

D2062. Mysore 68 

D1076. North Arcot,' Madras . ; 73 

B2626. Burma (1862) 66 

The difference between the wood of this tree and that of Ougeinia 
dalbergioides consists in this^ that in the former the patches of white soft 
tissue are continuous^ forming belts ; whereas in Ougeinia they are rhom- 
boidai, pointed at the ends^ and form interrupted belts. 

2.'C. marginata, Boxb. Fl. Indii. 838; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 262. 
C. Roxburghiif DC; Beddome t. 180. Vem. Urimidi, uskiamen,Teh i 
Ngoomee, Burm. ; Raloo-icaa, Cingh. 

A small deciduous tree^ with deeply cracked^ brown bark. Heartwood 
light brown^ very hard. Pores moderate-sized and large^ joined by 
narrow^ undulating^ irregular^ white bands of soft tissue. Medullary 
rays fine and very numerous^ uniform and equidistant; prominent in the 

s 



188 LBOUiciNOSJE. ICatiia. 

dark firm tissue which separates the bands of white soft tissue. Stractore 
similar to that of C. Fistula. 

Madras, Ceylon and Burma (Thoungveen forests). ^ 

Weight, Skinner, No. 44, gives 63 lbs. ; our specimen gives 59 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Bkinner gives P=b80. The wood is well adapted for turning, naves of wheeb and 

bandies of tools. 

Ibt. 

B801. Burma (1862) 59 

3. C. siameay Lamk. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 264. ; Kurz i. 892. C.Jlorida, 
Vahl; Beddome t. 179. Senna sumatrana, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 847. Vern. 
Beati^ manje ionne, Tam. ; Sime tangadij Kan. ; Waa, Cingh. ; Maizalee^ 
Burm. 

A moderate-sized tree with smooth bark. Sapwood whitish^ rather 
large. Heartwood dark brown, nearly black, very hard. Pores large 
and moderate-sized, joined by concentric, light-coloured, wavy bands of 
soft tissue which alternate with black belts of firm texture, in which 
the fine, light-coloured, uniform and equidistant medullary rays are 
prominent. Frequently beautifully mottled on a vertical section. 

South India, Burma and Ceylon. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 39, 58 lbs. ; our specimens give 54*5. P = 840. 
Very durable. Used in Burma for mallets, helves and walking-sticks; in Soutii 
India it is little known, but it is considered one of the best kinds of fuel for 
locomotives in Ceylon (Beddome), 

lbs. 
D 1080. North Arcot 58 

B 2526. Burma (1862) 64 

B 2712. Tavoy (WaUich, 1828) 62 

4. C. timoriensis, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 265 ; Beddome xdi. ; 
Kurz i. 393. Vern. Arremene, Cingh. ; Toung maizalee, Burm. 

A handsome^ small^ evergreen tree. Wood dark brown^ nearly black. 
Structure resembling that of C. siamea. 

Burma and Ceylon. 

Weight, 57 lbs., P = 594, according to Adrian Mendis. Used in Ceylon for building 

and furniture. 

lbs. 
No. 4. Ceylon Collection 57 



B 2260, 45 lbs., and B 2295, 46 lbs., sent by Major Ford from the Andamans in 
1866 under the name of Onoogyee^ belong to a species of Cassia, Wood hard, durable, 
olive brown, with a structure similar to that of Ougeinia dalbergioides. It is evidenUy 
a common wood in the Andamans. 

16. BAUHINIA, Linn. 

Contains about 20 to 30 species, almost equally divided into trees and climbers. 
Few of the species reach a very large size, but their commonness renders them im- 
portant. They are easily recognised by their two leaflets being generally joined 
together for a portion of their length, forming apparently a bilobed, palmately veined 
le^. 

Tree section, B. acuminata, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 276 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
324 ; Brandis 159 ; Kurz i. 396. Vern. Kanchan, Beng. ; Kachnar, Hind. ; Makah- 
la^lca phyoo, Burm., is an erect, white-flowered, handsome shrub of South India and 
Burma. B. tomentosa, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 275; Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 823; 
Beddome xcii. ; Brandis 159. Vern. Kachnar, Hind.; Kanchinit Tam., Tel., is a 
shrub or small tree of South India with showy, yeUow flowers, having a purple eye, and 



BatiMnia.] LEGUMINOS^. F^^^ 139 

a ioagb wood, with nearly black heartwood. B, triandra, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 320, is a 
small tree grown in avenues in Bengal. B. monandra, Eurz. Yem. Stoaitan, Burm., 
B. polycarpa, Wall., and B, eloriaata, Eorth., are trees of Burma.^ 

The creepers contain some of the most important plants found in oar forests. B. 
Vahliiy W. and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 279 ; Beddome xciii. ; Brandis 161 ; Eurz i. 401 ; 
Gamble 31. (B. racemosaf Vahl. ; Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 326) Vem. Taur, Punjab ; Malahan^ 
maljdn, main, maurairif jallaur. Hind. ; Sihdr, mahalan, maul, C. P. ; ^or?a, Nep.; 
Chehur, Beng. ; Sungung rik, Lepcha ; Shioli, Uriya ; Paur, beta, Gondi ; Adda^ Tam. ; 
Vhamboli, Dekkan, is perhaps the most gigantic of the numerous large climbers of the 
Indian forests. It is foond in the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab eastwards, 
in Northern and Central India, and in Tenasserim. Its uses are almost more numerous 
than those of any other forest plant except the bamboo. Its large, flat leaves are sewii 
together and usea as plates, cups, rough table cloths, umbrellas and rain-caps ; its pod is 
roasted and the seeds eaten ; its bark is made into rough ropes, and it gives a copious 
gum, which, however, seems to be of little value. The wood is jporous, in broad, irregularly 
broken concentric layers, alternating with red, juicy, bark-like tissue ; the pith is cross- 
shaped. (P 108, SuUg; O 644, DehraDun; £474, E 2954, Darjeeling Tera,i). The 
foliage is very dense and the stems do great damage to the trees they climb over ; it is 
very prevalent in s&l forest, and in many provinces is being systematically cut out. B^ 
<inguxnay Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 328 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 284 ; Beddome xciii. ; Eurz i. 403 ; 
Gamble 31. Vern. Nagput, Sylhet; Naiwilli, Nep., is the Snake Climber of the moist 
forests of Northern and Eastern Bengal, Chittagong, Martaban and South India ; its bark 
is also used in rope-making, and its wood is very soft and porous. The stems are' 
usually very curiously twisted, ^nerally in alternate bends and often with a straight 
thi<^ margm. (£ 482, Darjeehng Tend.) 

Wood red or brown, hard ; no heartwood ; concentric bands of soft 
tissue alternating with bands of finer texture^ in which the numerous 
fine, uniform and equidistant medullary rays are distinctly visible. The 
pores are uniform in size. 

1. B. xnalabarica, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 321; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 277; 
Beddome xcii. ; Brandis 159; Kurz i. 399; Gamble 81. Yem, Jmli, 
umloaay Hind. ; Karmai, Beng. ; Amli taki, Nep. ; Katlra, Ass. ; CAep-^ 
pura, Basavana pdda, Kan.; Amli, Mar.; Kundapula, dhondel, iangali, 
Gondi; Amboiia, ehapa, Kurku ; Bulla dondur, puliMnia^ pulAari,Tel. ; 
Apia, Berar; Bwayg^in, Burm. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark J inch thick, rough, brown, 
exfoliating in linear flakes. Wood light-reddish brown, with irregular 
masses of black or purplish wood near the centre ; moderately hard. 
Pores moderate-sized, generally oval and subdivided. Numerous narrow, 
wavy, white, concentric bands of softer tissue alternate with bands of 
harder and red-coloured wood of equal width, in which the numerous, 
fine, uniform and equidistant medullary rays are distinctly visible. 

Snh-Himalajan tract from the Ganges to Assam, Bengal, Bnrma, Sonth India. 
Weight, the average of oar specimens gives 48 lbs. ; Brandis, 1862, Bnrma List, 
No. 31, 42 lbs. The wood is rarely used. The tree is recognised by its acid leaves 
which are eaten. 

lbs. 

C 1137. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 

2817. Melgh^t, Berar (sapwood) 44 

C 821. Bairagarh Reserve, Berar 47 

£ 590. Khookloong Forest, Darjeeling Terai 61 

E 2350. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai 48 

B 3203. Burma (1862) 

2. B.racemosa, Lam.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 276; Beddome t. 182; 
Brandis 159; Kurz i. 397. B.parviflora^Ysihl; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 323. 
Vern. Kosundra, taur, Fb. ; KaeAndl, giridl^ thaur, asAla, maiiuna^ 
mania, dhordra, Hind. ; Dhondri, dhundera, astra, bosha, Gondi ; Jhinja, 



140 LECirHiNOSjG. [Baukinia, 

Ajmare; Ari , arro, Tel,; Ati, arcii, areia, Tain.; A/jia, sejfdra, Mar.; 
Banraj, Beng. ; Amhhoiay Uriya; Jz/j^/a^ Kan.; Hpalanf Burm. ; Amba 
bidsa, Bhil ; Bossai, Kurku. 

A small deciduous ti-ee. Bark i luch thick, dark brown, very rough, 
with numerous, deep, vertical cracks. Wood light brown, hard, with 
irregularly-shaped masses of darker-coloured and harder wood near the 
centre. Pores moderate-sized, often in radial lines. Narrow, white, irre- 
gular bands of softer tissue alternate with darker bands of somewhat 
greater width, in which the very numerous^ fine, uniform and equidistant 
medullary rays are distinctly visible. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Ravi eastwards, ascending to 6^000 feet ; Oadb, 
Bencral, Burma, Central and South India. 

Weight, Brandis' Burma List, 1862, No. 32, gives 44 lbs. ; B. Thompson, 56 lbs. ; 
our specimens give 60 lbs. on an average. The wood is good, but not useo. The fibres 
of the bark are used to make ropes and slow matches. 

P 453. Ajmere . . . • • . . * . .... 

P 3216. Nagpahar, Ajmere 

O 247. Garhwal (1868) 6S 

O 335. Gorakhpur (1868) 47 

C 200. Mandla, Central Provinces (1869) 56 

C 1170. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 44 

C 2770. Melghat, Berar (sapwood) 41 

3. B. purpurea^ Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 284 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 820 ; 
Beddome xcii. ; Brandis 160; Kurz i. 398; Gamble 81. Vem. Koiral, 
Jtardr, karalli,ffra^, Pb. ; Kolidr, kanidr, kandan, kAairwal, iwillar, ioilari, 
sona, Hind.; KAwairalo, Nep. ; Kaciii, Lepcha; Deva ianckan^ 
rakia kanchay koiral, Beng. ; Kodwari, Gondi ; Koliari, Kurka ; Atmaiii, 
Mar.; Kanckan, Tel.; Pedda are^ maudareA, Tam.; Sarul, kanekhdU, 
Kan. ; Mahalay kani, Burm. 

A moderate-sized decidnous tree. Bark ^ to ^ inch thiek^ ash- 
coloured to dark brown. Wood pinkish white, turning dark brown 
on exposure, moderately hard. Pores moderate-sized, mostly oval, sub- 
divided. Wavy, concentric bands of soft tissue alternating with darker- 
coloured bands of firmer tissue, in which the white, finej uniform and 
equidistant medullary rays are distinctly visible. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Indus eastward. Central and South India and 
Burma. 

Weij^ht, according to Skinner, No. 24, 39 lbs. ; our specimens j^ve an average of 

49 lbs. Wood used for agricultural implements and in construction. The bark ia 

used for tanning, the leaves for cattle fodder, and the flower buds are pickled and 

eaten. 

Ibe. 
P 163. Sain j, Giri Valley, 3,000 feet 42 

O 229. Garhwal (1868) 65 

O 230. „ „ 46 

C 822. Bairagarh Reserve, Berar 60 

C 2792. Melghat, Berar (sapwood) 36 

E 585. Khooklong Forest, Darjeeling Teru . . . . ,50 

4. B» variegata, Linn. ; Hook. PI. Ind. 284 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. iu 
819; Beddome xcii. ; Brandis 160; Kurz i. 897; G^amble 81. Vem» 
KacAnar, kolidr, kurdl, padridn, khwairal^ guridl, gtoiar, baridl. Hind. ; 
Taki, Nep.; Bka, Lepcha; Bakta kanchan, Beng. ; Borara, Urijra; 
Segapu-muntiuri^ Tarn.; Kanchivala'do, Ean»; Bwayckfng, Burm, 



Saniinia,] LEGUHINOSJ;. 141 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark grey, with vertical cracks. 
Wood grey, moderately hard, with irregular masses of darker and harder 
wood in the centre. Pores moderate-sized, enclosed in round or elongated 
and pointed concentric patches of white soft tissue, which often run into 
each other. The intervening tissue is firm and dark coloured, with 
very numerons, fine, uniform and equidistant white medullary rays. 
Distinct, white, concentric lines, which prohably are annual rings. 
Medullary rays distinctly visible on a radial section, giving the wood a 
handsome mottled appearance. 

Sub- Himalayan tract from the Indas eastwards, and throughout the forests of 

India and Burma. Often planted for ornament. 

Weight, according to K. Thompson, 54 lbs. ; our specimen gives 42 lbs. Used for 

agricultural implements. The bark is used for dyeing and tanning, and the leaves and 

flower buds eaten. The flowers are very handsome, somewhat like those of some of the 

AzalecUt but having four white and one crimsou petal. 

Ib8. 

P 1200. Madhopur, Punjab 33 

C 823. Bairagarh Beserve, Berar 48 

E 591. Ehooklong Forest, Darjeeling Terai 47 

£ 2351. Bamunpokri „ „ „ 39 

5. B. retnsa, Ham. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. li. 279; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 822; 
Beddome xciii. ; Brandis 161. Yern. Kurdl, Pb. ; Kandla, kanalla, kuat/ral^ 
gwayralj kanlao, semla, Hind. ; Nirpa, Gondi, Tel. ; Tewar, Palamow. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark \ inch thick, dark brown, 
with a few vertical cracks. Wood reddish white, with irregularly shaped, 
darker masses near the centre, hard. Pores moderate-sized and large, 
scanty, occasionally grouped. Numerous narrow, white, concentric 
bands of softer tissue, alternating witl) harder and darker bands of equal 
width, in which the white^ fine, uniform equidistant and very numerous 
meduUaiy rays are prominent. 

North- West Himalaya from the Beas eastwards, ascending to 4500 feet ; Central 
India. 

Weight, 58 lbs. per cable foot. Wood not nsed. It gives a clear gum called 
Semla Gum, almost exactly resembling gum arable ; it is largely collected and ex- 
ported from the Dehra Dun. Of this gum Capt. Campbell says : — 

"The collection of the Semla gum commences in January and is continued through- 
out February and March. It sells in Dehra at Be. 1-8, Rs. 2 or Rs. 2-8 per maund, 
according to quality, and is utilised as a medicine and in compound with other medi- 
cines. Occasionally too it is eaten in its crude state by the very poorest natives down 
couutry. It is also used to waterproof terraced roofs. The annual export from the 

Dehra Dun is about 2,500 maunds." 

Iba. 
O 532. Dehra Diin 58 

C 1160. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces ^ 

17. AFZELIA, Sm. 

Contains 2 trees : A, retusa, Kurz, is a small evergreen tree of the coast forests of 
the Andamans. The Maraboio wood of Malacca is probably A. palembanica, Baker. 

1. A^bijuga, A. Gray; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 274; Kurz i. 412. Vera. 
Shoondulj hinga, Beng. ; Fyniado, Burm. in the Andamans ; Pirijdd, 
dsagundd, And. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Bark thin, g^ey, peeling off in 
fine, papery scrolls. Sapwood white, moderately hard, large in young 
trees, small in old trees; heartwood reddish brown, hard, close*grained. 



142 



liEGUHINOSiS. 



[ A/ieliay 



Pores moderate-sized^ frequently oval and subdivided^ enclosed in oval 
patches of soft tissue> prominent on a longitudinal section. Medullary 
rays fine^ numerous^ uniform and equidistant^ wavy^ visible on a radial 
section as long narrow bands. 

Sundarbans of Bengal, Andaman Islands and the Malay Archipelago. It will 
probably be found on the coasts of Arracan, Pega and Tenasserim. 

Weight, young wood 36 to 42 lbs. ; old wood 45 to 49 lbs. Brandis' Memorandum on 
Andaman woods, 1874, Nos. 12, 13, gives 50 lbs* A valuable wood, used in the Anda* 
mans for bridge and house building. 



E 
E 
B 
B 



403. 
415. 
315. 
524. 



B2209. 



Sundarbans . . . « 36 

BurmA (lS67){Kohbenff) ' . .49 

Andaman Islands 45 

(1866) 48 



» 



»9 



18. TAMARINDUS, Linn. 

1. T. indica, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 273 ; Roxb. PI. Ind. iii. 215; 
Beddome 1. 184; Brandis 163 ; Kurz i. 414; Gamble 32. The Tamarind. 
Vem. Amli^ ambli, imiiy Hind. ; Tiniiri, Until, tintul, Beng. ; Tiiri, 
Nep.; Teteli Ass.; Tentuli, Aoyaw, Uriya; Pw/f, Tam. ; CAinta, Tel.; 
SiUa, Ailta, Goudi; CAicAa, Kurku; Karangi, kamaly asam, Mysore; 
Hunase, Kan. ; Amli, chitz, Mar. ; Si^embela, Cingh. ; Magyee, Burm. 

A large evergreen tree. Bark \ inch thick^ dark grey, with longi* 
tudiual fissures and horizontal cracks. Wood yellowish white, some- 
times with red streaks, hard and close-grained. Heartwood small, near 
the centre of old trees only, dark purplish brown, with an irregular out- 
line and radiating ramifications, very durable. Annual rings indistinct. 
Pores moderate-sized, uniformly distributed, each pore or group of pores 
surrounded by round patches of soft tissue, which are often confluent, 
forming irregular and oblique bands. Medullary rays very fine, very 
numerous, uniform and equidistant. 

Cultivated thronghout India and Burma as far north as the Jhelum. 
The weight and transverse strength have been ascertained by the following ex- 
periments : — 



Experiinent by 
^bom conducted. 


Year. 


Wood wbence 
procured. 


Weight, 


No. of ex- 
periments. 


Sise of bar. 


Yalneof 
P. 












Ft. In. In. 




Puokle 




Mysore . 


83 


4 


2x1x1 


792 


tSkiniter, No. 121 . 


1S62 


South India . 


70 






864 


Ounnlogbam . 




Gwalior . 


eo 


2 


2x1x1 


61^ sspwood. 


n ■ . • . 




M • » 


79 


2 


2x1x1 


816k beart- 
wood. 


Adrian MendiB, No. 79 . 


1856 


Ceylon . 


80 




2x1x1 


780 




( 


Mysore . 


as 


1 




beaitwood. 


flmytbles 


1878J 


Other Provin- 
ces 


62 


2 







Wood highly prized, though extremely difficult to work. It is used for wheels, 
mallets, planes, furniture, rice-pounders, oil and sugar mills, and is an excellent wood 
for turning. The fruit is used in medicine as a laxative ; it is made into preserves 
and exported to Europe. The leaves are also used in carries, and the seed; ground to 
powder and mixed wiw gam, gives a strong cement 



Tamarindua. ] LEGUMiNOSiB. 143 

It is very largely planted in avenues and topes, and is one of the most beautiful 

of Indian trees. 

lbs. 

C 2811. MelgMt, Berar . •) r 61 

P 461. Aimere . . Jsapwood .J 63 

E 2363. Siliguri, Bengal .3 (. 63 

No^JS: SybrCoU'ection}**®*^^^-}: \ \ \ \ \m 

19. HARDWICKIA, Roxb. 

Contains 2 species, both from Central and South India. 

Heartwood dark coloured^ hard^ heavy. Fores moderate-sized^ filled 
with resin. Medullary rays fine^ very numerous ; the distance between the 
rays being less than the transverse diameter of the pores. 

1. H. binata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 423 ; Hook. FI. Ind. ii. 270 ; Bed- 
dome t. 26; Brandis 162, Vern. Anjan, Hind., Mar.; AcAa, alii, Tam. ; 
Nar yepi, yapa, Tel. ; Kamrd, iaracAi, Kan. ; Chhola dundAera, Gondi ; 
Bone, Kurku; Parsid, Singrowli. 

A deciduous tree. Bark ^ inch thick, dark grey, rough with irre- 
gular vertical cracks, exfoliates in narrow flakes. Sapwood small, white ; 
heartwood extremely hard, dark red, often with a purplish tinge, cross 
and very close grained. Fores moderate-sized, often subdivided, filled 
with resin, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays fine, numerous, undu- 
lating, and frequently bent where they touch the pores, visible on a radial 
section as straight, narrow, white bands. Scanty, fine, concentric lines. 

In dry forests of South and Central India, but not everywhere ; generally gre- 
garious in isolated belts or patches of greater or less extent. Most commonly found 
on sandstone, but also to be met with on trap and granite. Wanting in the western 
moist-zone, and not found in Northern India, though it occurs as far north as the 
Banda District of the North- Western Provinces. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 78, 85 lbs. ; B. Thompson gives 67 ; and the 
Central Provinces List of 1873, 65 lbs. ; our specimens give an average of 82 lbs. Skinner 

fives P = 942. Perhaps the hardest and neaviest wood in India ; it is extremely 
urable, liable to split, but does not warp. It is used for bridge and house posts and 
for ornamental work. It has been recommended for sleepers, but is probably too hard, 
heavy and difficult to work to be much in favour. Out of 9 sleepers laid down on the 
Mysore State Railway and taken up after 7 to 8 years, 6 were found good, 2 still ser- 
viceable, and only 1 bad. About 2,000 have been used on the Holkar and Neemuch 
line. The bark yields a strong and valuable fibre. The leaves are given as fodder to 
cattle. It yields a gum. 

ibf. 
C 800. Punassa Reserve, Central Provinces 84 

C 1147. Ahiri „ „ „ 84 

C 2986. Nimar, Central Provinces . 83 

C 2929. Palamow, Bengal 82 

D 1055. Salem, Madras 83 

D2025. Mysore 77 

No. 31. Salem Collection 82 

2. H. pinnata, Roxb. Fl, Ind. ii. 425 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 270 ; 
Beddome t. 255. Yern. Koldvu, TinneYelly ; Matayen samjprdni, TrsLYtm" 
core; Tenne, Manjarabad {FanSomeren). 

A very large tree. Sapwood large ; heartwood brown, moderately 
hard^ exuding a red, sticky substance similar to copaiba balsam, which 
consists of different resins dissolved in an essential oil. Pores moderate- 



144 LEGUMiNOSiE. [ BardwicHa. 

sized and large^ often subdivided. Medullary rays fine^ nearly equi- 
distaut^ bending where tbey touch the pores. Scanty^ not very pro- 
minent^ concentric lines of soft texture. 

Western Gh&ts from South Easara to Travancore. 

Weight, 47 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood used for building by coffee planters and 
others. For analysis of the gum resin see Mr. Broughton's Keport in Beddome Fl. 
Sylv. Madr. t. 255. 

lbs. 

D. 1064. Tinnevelly 47 

20. CYNOMETRA, Linn. 

Contains 4 Indian species. C cauliflora, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 268 ; Beddome 
t. 315, is an evergreen tree cultivated in Burma and South India; C, travancorica, 
Beddome t. 316 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 267, is a Icily tree of the hills of Travancore and 
Tinnevelly, between 2,000 and 4,000 feet. 

Wood red, hard, heavy ; no heartwood. Numerous, narrow, concentric 
bands similar to those of Bauhinia, 

1. C. ramifloraji Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 267; Beddome t. 315; 
Kurz i. 415. C bijuga, Spanoghe. Vern. Shitigr^ Beng. ; Irapn, Tam. ; 
Myeng kaieng, Burm. ; Gal mendora, Cingh. 

A large evergreen tree. Wood red, hard, close-grained. Pores small, 
uniformly distributed, often oval and subdivided. Numerous wavy bands 
of soft, light-coloured tissue, alternating with narrower bands of bard 
and firmer tissue, in which the fine and very numerous medullary rays 
are distinctly visible. 

Sundarbans, South India and Burma in tidal forests. 

Weight, 66 lbs. ; P = 826, Skinner, No. 62 ; our specimens ^ive 68 lb«. per cubic 
foot ; Nos. 27, 32, of Adrian Mendis' Ceylon Collection bear the names CUil mendora and 
Hal mendara, weight, 66 to 68 lbs. ; P = 740. Skinner says that it is used for house- 
building and carts, and that chips of the wood eive in water a purple dye. It ia used 
in the Sundarbans for posts for native huts and for fuel. 

Ibf. 

E 397. Sundarbans 58 

2. C. polyandra, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 872 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 268. 
Vern. Ping, Cachar, Sylhet. 

A large evergreen tree. Wood light red, hard, close-grained. Pores 
moderate-sized, joined by narrow concentric bands of soft tissue. Medul- 
lary rays moderately broad. 

Khasia Hills, Sjlhet and Cachar. 

Weight, 63 lbs. according to Wallich ; our specimens j?ive 60 lbs. Mann says the 
wood is very useful for scantlings and makes good charcoal. 

lb«. 
E 1276. Cachar 60 

21. SARACA, Linn. 

Three Indian species' are given in the Flora Indica. 8, Lohhiana, Baker; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 272, is a tree of Martaban ; and S. triandra. Baker; Hook. Fl. Ind. 11272 
{Jonesia triandra, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 22^)) of Tenasserim. 

1. S. indica, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 271 ; Beddome t. 57 ; Brandis 
166; Kurz ii. 415. Joneaia Aioca, IU)xh. Fl. Ind. ii, 218. \em. Aioi, 
Hind. ; Asoka, Beng. ; Asei:a, ati, Cuttack ; Diyera iembela^ Cingh. ; 
Ashunkar, Kan. ; Jaisundi, Bombay ; TAaw-ia'Apo, Burm. 



Saraca, ] leouminos^. 145 



a 



Wood lights reddish-brown^ sofl. Pores moderate-sized in radial 
and frequently oblique lines. Medullary rays indistinct^ crossed by 
numerous^ fine^ wavy^ concentric lines. 

Eastern Bengal, South India, Arracan and Tenasserim. 

Weight, 50 lbs. per cubic foot. Oflen cultivated for its handsome flowers. 

lbs. 

No. 23. Ceylon Collection 58 



The Carob tree, Ceratonia filiqua, has a hard wood, with a pink heartwood. 
Pores moderately small, often in groups or radial lines. Medullary rays narrow, 
unequal, irregularly distributed (No. 3266. Saharanpur). 



Suborder III. MIMOSEiE. 
Contains 13 Genera divided into 5 Tribes, viz., — 

Tribe I. — Parkie® Parkia, 

„ II.-^Adenantherese . . . Entada, Piptadenia, Adenanthera, 

Prosopis and Dichroatachys, 
„ in. — EumimosesB . . . Mimosa, l^eucana and Xylia, 
„ IV.— Acaciero .... Acacia. 

„ v.— Ingese . . « . Calliandra, Alhixzia and PithecO' 

labium, 

Parkia contains 3 species from Eastern Bengal and Burma : P. JRoxburqhii^ 
G.Don; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 289 {Mimosa bifflobosa, B/oxh. Fl. Ind. ii. 551). Vem. 
Sapota, Svlhet, is a tree of Assam, Eastern Bengal, Chittagong and Burma, with a grey 
wood witn fine medullary rays and large pores joined by concentric bands of wnite 
tissue (O 3264, Saharanpur). P. insignis, Kurz ; and P. leiophylla, Kurz i. 418, are 
large trees, the first of Martahan, the second of Pegu. JEntada scandens, Bth. ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 287 ; Brandis 167 ; Kurz i. 416 ; Gamble 32 (H. Pursatha, DC, Mimosa 
scandens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 554) Vem. Oilla, Beng. ; Geredi, Uriya; Pangra, 
Nep. ; Taktokhyem, Lepcha ; Crardal, Bombay ; Kongnyin-nway, Burm., is a large 
climber of the forests of Eastern Bengal, South India, Burma and tne Andaman Islands, 
with spirally twisted stems, soft, fiorous, spongy wood (E 477, Darjeeling Terai), 
and broad, flat pods, often 2 to 4 feet long, and 4 to 5 inches broad, containing 
large, flat, ovate seeds, which are eaten after roasting and steeping in water. Children 
play with them, and they may be made into snuff-boxes and other articles. The kernels 
are used also by the Nepalese for washing their hair, and in Bengal hy washermen for 
crimping linen. 

Leuctena glauca, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 290 ; Brandis 172, is a small tree found 
in the outer Talleys of Kumaun and Garhwal. Calliandra Griffithii, Bth., and C, 
umhrosa, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 302, are small trees of the Khasia Hills, Eastern 
Bengal and Chittagong. Pithecolobium contains about 9 Indian species. P. dulce^ 
Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 302 ; Beddome t. ffeS ; Brandis 173. (Inaa dulcis, Willd. ; 
Kurz i. 431 ; Mimosa dulcis, Roxh. Fl. Ind. ii. 556). Vem. Dakkani babul. Hind. ; 
KarhapUly, Tam. ; Sime hunase, Kan. ; Kwaytanyeng, Burm., is a tree introduced 
from Mexico, and commonly cultivated in Inctia and Burma. It has a reddish brown 
heartwood, weighing 40 lbs. per cubic foot (Skinner, No. 82; P = 517); it ooppiees 
well, and is grown as a hed^ plant and for fuel. P. bigeminum, Martins ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 303 ; Beddome xcvi. ; Brandis 173 ; Gamble 34. Vem. Kachhra, Hind., is a 
large tree of the forests of the outer Himalaya from the Ganges eastwards, and of South 
India, giving a dark-coloured heartwood. P. anamallayanum, Beddome 1. 189, is a 
large handsome tree of the higher ranges of the Anamalai Hills, above 5,000 feet. P. 
angulatum, Bth.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 306; Kurz i. 430; Gamble 34 (Mimosa hetero" 
fhylla, Roxb. Fl, Ind. ii. 545-) Vern. Takpyit, Lepcha; Kawahurunt, Sjlhet, is a 
large tree of the forests of Northern and Eastern Bengal and Burma ; while P. Saman 
has been introduced and is likely to be largely cultivated in India on account of its 
extremely rapid growth. Tnga cynometroides, Beddome; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 306. {Cal* 
liandra cynometroides, Beddome t. 317), is a tree of the Tinnevelly and TniTanoore 
Hills. 



146 LEGUMiNOS^. [ Piptadenia. 

22. PIPTADENIA, Benth. 

1. P. oudhensis, Brandis 168; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 289. Adenantkera 
oudiemis, J. L. Stewart. Yern. Gainti, Oudh. 

A moderate-sized tree. Bark | inch thick, grey-brown to dusky red, 
rough with flattish, exfoliating woody scales ; inner bark red, fibrous. 
Wood yellowish or reddish, close-grained, no heart wood, hard, durable. 
Pores moderate-sized and large, often subdivided in patches of soft 
tissue, which are sometimes confluent. Medullary rays short, numerous, 
moderately broad. 

Forests at the foot of the Nepal Hills, Good a division, Oudh, discovered by. Mr« 
R. Thompson. 

O 3084. Gonda, Oudh. 

23. ADENANTHERA, Linn. 

1. A. pavonina, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 287; Roxb. Pl.Ind.ii.370; 
Beddome t. 96 ; Brandis 168 ; Kurz i. 41 7. Vern. Rakta^chandany ranjanaj 
Beng. ; Ani iundamani, Tarn. ; Bandi purivenda, Tel. ; Manjati, Mai. ; 
Thorlaganjy Mar.; Manjddi, Kan. Madateya, Cingh.; Gung^ Magh; 
Ywaygyee^ Burm. ; SecAedd, And. 

A deciduous tree, with grey bark. Heartwood red, hard, close-grained. 
Pores small, scanty, in short radial lines. Medullary rays very fine, 
extremely numerous. 

Bengal, South India, Burma and Andaman Islands. 

Weight, Skinner, No. 12, gives 56 lbs., which is the same as our specimen ; Bennett 
gives 55 lbs. Skinner gives P = 863 ; and Bennett 942. The wood is used in South 
India for house-building and cabinet-making purposes, and ^ives a red dye. Hie seeds 
are worn as ornaments, and are used as weignts by goldsmiths and jewellers as they 
are said to be very constant in weight, viz., 4 grains ; they give an oil. 

lbs. 

B 623. Andaman Islands .56 

24. PROSOPIS, Linn. 

Contains about 18 species, dispersed over the tropical and sub-tropical regions of 
Asia, Africa and America. Of tne five sections which compose the genus, sections 
whose characters are based to some extent upon the shape and structure of the fruit, 
three may be noticed, as they contain species which have lately been introduced into 
India: — 

1 

1. With the pod smooth or l Adenonis 
slightly thickened at the seeds [ ^ 



2. With the pod smooth, 



Contains the two Indian species ; 
P. spicigera, the well-known 
" Jhand " and P. Stephaniana of 
. the Northern Punjab plains and 

J (^Western Asia. 

I r Contains two of the species 

I now bein^ grown, viz,, P. glan' 



•llyfalcau' . . .^ . J [^uthAmirif "^^ '""'^'' "^ 

o -or'Ak *i,^ -.^ .«v:...ii., *) C Contains the true " Mesquit ** 

3. With the pod spirally [strombocarpa . \ Bean, or P. puhescens of texas 

*^^«*^ 3 ( and New Mexico. 

P. ifpiciV^ra, Linn., is here described; P. jS/^Aanwiia, Kunth ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 2S8 ; Brandis 171. Yern. Jemhnt, Arab., is a small thorny shrub of no economic use. 

P. pallida, Kunth, is a native of South America, and has been successfully 
grown in Ceyion. Its pods are considered of high value as a tanning material, con- 



PrOSOpis, ] LEGUMINOSiB. 147 

taining, it is said, as mnch as 90 per cent, of tannic acid. They are known by the 
name of " Balsamocarpon." 

P. glandtdotii. Ton*., the " Mesqnit or Algaroba of Texas/' is a native of the 
mountain re^ons of Western Texas, where it grows into a small tree from 20 to 40 feet 
high, and with a diameter of 18 inches. It has straight or curved, rather flattened, 
almost jointed pods, the interior of which is filled with a sweet pulp. The pods, 
it is believed, are useful for fodder, and are not injurious. It yields an excessively 
bard and durable timber, with a beautiful grain, and is used for furniture picket poles 
and in the manufacture of charcoal. It also affords a large quantity of gum resem- 
bling gum arabic, which exudes from the stem and branches, and has been used as 
mucilage in the making of jujubes, and for other purposes. 

P. puhescens, Bth., the " Screw Bean " or " Screw Mesquit, " is a small tree of 
Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. Remarkable for its screw-shaped pods. These 
pods grow in abundant clusters of 8 or 10 upon the same stem, ripen at all times 
of the year, and contain much nutritious saccharine matter; but great caution is re* 
quired in their use as fodder for horses. 

Another species, a native of Jamaica, and possibly not distinct from P. glandu- 
losa, is the P. juliflora, DC, of the section Algarobia. Its fruits have poisonous 
propextins, though, for other purposes, the tree appears to be useful for planting in 
some localities, as the plants wnen once established go on sending up shoot after shoot, 
and are difficult to eradicate. 

1. P. spicigera, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 288; Beddome t. 56; 
Brandis 169. Adenanihera aculeata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 371. Yern. 
Jhandy khdr, Pb. ; Kandi, iundi, Sind. ; CAaunira, Agra ; Khej'ra, 
Rajputana ; Sanffri, Pertabgarh ; Semru, Aamra, Guz. ; Shemi, saunder. 
Mar. ; SAami, Beng., Uriya ; Perumbe, vunne, jambu, Tarn. ; CAani, Tel. 

A moderate-sized^ deciduous^ thorny tree. Bark | to 1 inch thick, 
grej^ roughs with deep longitudinal fissures and horizontal cracks. 
Sapwood large^ perishable ; heartwood purplish brown, extremely hard. 
Pores very small to moderate-sized, generally imbedded in narrow irre- 
gular concentric bands of soft tissue, filled with resin. Medullary rays 
short, extremely numerous, fine, wavy. 

Arid, northern and southern dry zones. Punjab, Sindh, Rajputana, Guzerat, 
Bandelkhand and Dekkan. 

Brandis says the growth is probably slow, it having 3 feet girth in 30 years 
(Saharanpur) ; this would give about 5 years per inch of radius, which is moderately 
fast 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 108, 72 lbs., but the identification of his 
specimens is doubtful ; DalzcU gives 58 lbs. ; and J. L. Stewart 51 lbs. ; our specimens 

five 58 lbs. Skinner gives P = 981. The wood is tough, but not durable, liable to 
ry rot, and readily oaten by insects. It is easily raised from seed and coppices well. 
It is used for building, cai-ts, well curbs, furniture, and agricultural implements ; but 
is chiefly valuable iot fuel, as its heating power is very great. Brandis gives the 
results of experiment made at Karachi in May 1869, that 1,374 lbs. of its wood were 
consumed in evaporating 11'8 cubic feet of water per hour during 7 hours, the pressure 
of steam being kept at 27 lbs. per square inch, while of Acacia arabica wood 
1,388 lbs., and of Tamarir gallica wood 1,627 lbs., wore required for the same test. 
It is largely used for fuel for locomotives and steamers in the Punjab and Sind, and 
has been planted in the Pan jab plantations. The pods are used as fodder for camels, 
cattle and goats ; and the mealy sweetish substance is eaten, raw or cooked, in parts of 
the Punjab, Guzorat and the Dekkan, and has the flavour of that of the Carob tree. 
It has an enormously long tap root : one specimen of which pieces were sent to tho 
Paris Exhibition of 1878 had a root 86 feet long, penetrating vertically to a depth of 
64 feet. It gives a gum somewhat similar to gum arabic, but which is not used. 

It>8 

P 882. Multan 57 

P 939. „ (rootwood) ^ 

P 1380. Karokpo Forest, Hyderabad, Sind 59 

P 459. Ajmerc (young tree) • • 37 



148 LEGUMIKOSA. [ Biciroiiaci^s. 

25. DICHROSTACHYS, DC. 

1. D. cinerea, W. and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 288; Beddome t. 185 ; 
Brandis 171. Mimosa cinerea, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 561. Vern. Vnrtuli, 
Hind.; Kunlaiy kunrat,kheri,^hdxm9LTr2k] Vadatalla, vadatara, Taxxi. } 
Velturuy yeltUy Tel. ; Segnm kati, Mar.^ Gondi; Andara, Cingh. 

A thoroy shrub or small tree. Heartwood red^ extremely hard. 
Pores moderate-sized^ enclosed in ring^ of soft texture. Medullary rays 
shorty moderately broad^ equidistant^ the distance between the rays equal 
to the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Dry, stony hills in Sonth and Central India, Rajputana. 

Weight, 75 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood used for walking-sticks. 

lb«. 

No. 25. Salem Collection. 79 

No. 3. Ceylon Collection (marked Vachelliafamesiana) • .71 

P 3239. Ajmere . . ... 

P 3229. Nagpahar, Ajmere 

26. MIMOSA, Linn. 

M,pudica, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 291. The Sensitive Plant. Yem. Lajwdnti 
Xumann ; Lajuk, Beng., is now naturalised over the gpreater part of tropical and sub- 
tropical India, where it grows to be a small shrub, and is with difficulty eradicated. 
Jd, hamata, Willd. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 291, is a prickly shrub of South India. 

1. H. mbicaulis, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 291; Brandis 172; 
Gamble 82. M. tnutabilis, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 564. Vern. Mdl, kkair, 
didridr, Pb. ; HajerUy Sind ; Agla^ agl, kingli, kacieyia, Hind. ; Aradi, 
Nep. ; Sibriu, Lepcha ; CiilaUi, Bhfl. 

A largej stragglings prickly shrub with grey bark. Sapwood yeU 
lowish white ; heartwood red; hard. Pores small and moderate-sized, 
frequently oval and subdivided. Medullary rays fine and very numerous. 

Throughout the greater part of India, ascending to 4,000 feet in Kumaun and 
Sikkim. 

Weight, 41 to 62 lbs. Used for gunpowder charcoal. 

lb». 

£ 680. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai .41 

£ 2354. Chunbati, Darjeeling, 2,000 feet 52 

27. XYLIA, Bth. 

1« X. dolabriformis, Benth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 286 ; Beddome, 
t. 1S6 ; Brandis 171 ; Kurz i. 419. Mimosa spylocarpa, Uoxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 548. Inga xylocarpa, DC. The Iron wood Tree of Pegu and Arraean. 
Vern. Jambu, Hind.; Jamba, auria, Mar.; J3qfa,Vnysi;Irul, Tarn.; 
Konda langedu, tangedu, eruvalu, bof'eA, Tel. ; Jambe, tirawa^ Kan. ; 
SAilve, Coorg ; P^nkado, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark ^ inch thick, grey or reddish brown, 
with short cracks irregularly distributed. Sapwood small ; heartwood 
dark brown or reddish brown, extremely hard, beautifully mottled, cross- 
grained, the 6bres on a longitudinal section being wavy. Annual rings 
indistinct, but alternate concentric bands of darker and lighter colour. 
Fores small and moderate-sized, often subdivided into numerous com« 
partments, and then oval or oblong. Pores or groups of pores in irregu- 
lar patches of whitish tissue, which are often arranged in zig-zag lines. 
These patches are separated by hard, dark-coloured tissue in which the 



J//W.] LKOUUISOSa. 149 

very fine and very oumerous medullary rays are distiuctly visible. 
Some of the Bpecimene of this wood have an oily touch. 

Cbuida Ditttiot, South India, AiracBD aod Burma. 

Th« neight ftud traiuvene HtTengtK hare been determined b; the following experi- 





Yd«. 


— ■- — 


f 




SiMollar. 


"5 


PMkl 

UrtotwODdl . . . 

BnmOl.. If D. S7 . . . 

Lulett 

8n.jlhi«. .... 


1B63 

i§sa 
tm 

1878 


MoulmflD 
South India 
BuraiB 

ChlDdl . 

Barm. . 




GS 


" 


n. In. In. 


ara 

IIS3 



The wood it verj dnrsbia — a property it donbtiess onee in gn»,t meamire to the 
nnnom aabBtance contained in it. This reiio ig more abundant in BarmeBO wood 
than in wood ^wii in Sonth India. No. B 14S1, which was bronght by Dr. Wallich 
ftom TaTOj in 1828, is itill bo full of resin tbat it is quite atickj on the onteide, and 
Uie reain ma^ be acraped off with a knife. This eubstance is partially soluble in hot 
water, to which it imparts a reddish colour. 

lie wood is used for boat-building and for i^ricnltnral implements in Banna; 
also for carts and tool bandies. In Sontb India it i* need for railway sUepera, poita, 
boat-building and carts. In Burma and Bengal it has been largelr niwd for 
telegraph poets, for which it has answered welT Tbe large forests in Arnwan, 
of which Dr. Schlich in his report on the ironwood foreBte of Arraoan, dated Ist 
September 1869, bsjb that " a third of the forest Testation consista of 
Pynkido," produce laige nnmbers of telefcraph poles and railway sleepers. H^or 
SeatoD in his report fur 1676-77 said that lO/XKI such sleepere from Arraoan had 
then latdj been sold at Calcutta at Bs. 5 each, and Ur. Bibbentrop's Report state* 
that Pynkado pieces and sleepers are brought out from the forests in Pegu. It is 
Ukely, however, to be found too nard, heavy and difBcult to cat. It is nsefol wood for 
piles and beams of bridges. It exudes a red resin, and the seeds give an oD. 

Um. 

C 1151. Ahiri Reaerre, Central Provinces 60 

W 751. Sonth Eanara 69 

W 761. „ „ 61 

W 867 . 61 

W1222. North Kanara 62 

B SOS. Tharrswaddi, Burma 67 

B 3066. Barma(l862) 66 

B 1161. Tavoy (Wallich, 1828) 62 



28. ACACIA, Willd. 

Contains abont 18 Indian ipeoZes, of which fonr ara climbiiif; or atri^linc thomr 
shrubi, and the rest trees or erect ehrubs. A. XairoauBi, Willd.) Hoe^. PI. Ind. 
ii. 296 ; Beddome xct. ; Brandis 180. (Miwtoia Latrouum, Boib. F1. Ind. ii. 5S9) 
Vern. Bket, Hind. ; Paki-tunta, Tel., is a gregarions, very thorny shrnb of the 



150 LEGUMiNOS J5. [ Acacia. 

southern dry zone. A. Jacquemonti, Bth, ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 293; Brandis 183. 
Vera. Sauza J Aig. ; Kikar, babuls bamul, Pb. ; Murmutti, Berar ; Batabauli, Qaz., is 
a small, busby, thomj shrub of the arid and northern dry zones, ascending in the Suli- 
man Bange and Hazara to 3,200 feet ; it is used for fodder, and the bark of the root in 
the distilubtion of spirits. A, Senegal^ Willd. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 295 (A, rupestris, 
Stocks ; Brandis 184) Yem. Khor, Sind ; Kumta^ Raiputana, is a small thorny tree 
of the arid and northern dry zones, chiefly found in Sina and ^mere. Brandis says, 
" Bark smooth, yellowish grey ; wood light yellow, heavy and hard, with small 
irregular masses of black heartwood in the centre; it takes a beautiful polish, 
and is used for weavers' shuttles." It gives a ^um which is collected and sold in 
Sind with that of A, arabica. A, lenticularu. Ham.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 296 ; 
Brandis 186. Yem. Khin, Kumaun, is a small tree of the Siwaliks, of Kumaun and 
the Raj mehal hills in Bengal. A. Suma, Kurz; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 294; Brandis 
187 ; Kurz i. 421 (A, Catechu, Bth. ; Beddome t. 49, Mimosa Suma, Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 563.) Yem. Saikanta, Beng. ; Mugli, Kan. ; JS^umtia, Pertabgarh ; Dhaula 
khejra, Banswara ; Son kairi, Dangs, is a tree of Bengal, South India, parts of the 
Central Provinces and Guzerat. It is recognised from A, Catechu by its having 
white bark, while that species has a black-coloured bark. It gives cutch, and the 
bark is used for tanning. A, planifrons, W. and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 293 ; 
Beddome xcv. ; Brandis 575. The Umbrella Thorn. Yem. Said, sal, Tel., is a small 
gregarious tree of South India with a strong wood used for agricultural implements 
and fuel. A, concinna, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 296 ; Beddome xcv.; Brandis 188 ; 
Kurz i. 423 ; Gamble 33. (idimosa concinna, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 565). Yem. Aila^ 
rassaul, Oudh; Banritha, Beng.; Sikekai, Dekkan; Qogu, chikai, Tel.; Sige, 
Kan.; Soopwotntoay, Burm., is an extremely thorny scandent shrub of most parts of 
India and Burma, except the arid zone. Its thick fleshy pods are used for washing the 
hair, and the acid leaves are eaten. A. pruinescens,\K\itz i. 424, is a climber of the 
forests of Pegu. 

The true gum arabic is the produce of -4. vera, Willd., a tree of Egypt, Arabia and 
H'orthcm Africa. " Sabicu" is the wood of A, formosa, a tree of the West Indies 
(W = 57 ; P = 994, Laslett). 

The character of the Indian species of Acacia is to have sharp^ promi- 
nent, medullary rays, which are short in A. CaiechUy ferrnginea and tnodesta, 
but long in the others ; as a rule, they are not well marked on a radial sec- 
tion, but A, leucophlosa and arabica form an exception. The pores are, as 
a rule, uniform in size, but in A. eburnea they vary from small to large. 
With regard to their distribution, two series may be distinguished. In the 
first series the pores are isolated and enclosed in very narrow rings of 
softer tissue, and do not form concentric bauds ; to this section belong 
A. arabica, modesta sind/erruginea. In the species of the second series, 
the pores are enclosed in elongated patches of softer tissue, which are 
frequently confluent and form distinct, though often irregular, concen- 
tiic bands. This section includes A, leucophlosay eburnea, peunata and 
Catechu. The Australian species have a different structure, and are all 
marked by short medullary rays. 

1. A. Famesiana, Willd. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 293 ; Beddome t. 52 ; 
Brandis 180; Kurz i. 420. Mimosa Farnesiana, Linn.; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 557. Vern. Vilayati kikar, vilayati babul, pissi babul, gu-kikar. 
Hind. ; Ouj^a babula, Beng. ; Fedda vala, Tam. ; Kusiuri, pikiumi, oda 
sale, murki tumma, Tel. ; Jdli, Kan. 

A thorny shrub. Wood white, hard, close-grained. Pores moderate- 
sized, in oblique and concentric interrupted bands of soft texture. 
Medullary rays fine, numerous. 

Indigenons to America, now cultivated all over India. The gnm is collected in 
Sind. It has vellow, cxtaremely fragrant flowers, from which a perfume is made. It 
makes a good fence. 



Acacia.'] leguminos-e, 151 

Weight, 4d lbs. per cubic foot* 

Iba. 

P 3076. Sabathu, Punjab 49 

2. A. arabida, Willd. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 293 ; Beddome t. 47 ; 
Brandis 180. Mimosa arabica, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 657. Vem. Kiiar, 
Fb. ; Babbar, Sind ; Babul, babur, Hitid. ; Karuvelum, Tarn. ; Tuma, 
nella tiima, Tel. ; Gobli, karrijdli, Kan. 

A moderate-sized or large tree, seldom leafless^ with dark brown 
rough bark. Sapwood large, whitish ; heartwood pinkish white, turning 
reddish brown on exposure, hard, mottled with dark streaks. Pores 
moderate-sized^ sometimes large, oval and subdivided. Medullary rays 
fine and moderately broad, short, numerous, unequally distributed, con- 
spicuous on a radial section. The wood consists of darker and lighter 
coloured bands of an equal width. 

Cultivated or self-sown tbrougbout the greater part of India, except in the most 
humid tracts near the coast. Wild probably in Sind, Kajputana, Guzerat, and the 
Northern Dekkan. 

Brandis says : " In the Punjab it attains a girth of 2} feet in about 12 and 5 
feet in about 30 years. In the forests of Lower and Middle Sind, the average growth 
has been ascertained to be : — 

At 35 years 4 feet girth, at 4 feet from the ground. 
„ oiy ,, o „ ,, „ ,y 

At Jacobabad it has reached 50 to 60 feet high with a girth of 6 to 8 feet in less 
than 30 years." These measurements would give from 2 to 5 rings per inch of radius, 
which would indicate a quick rate of growth. In Minniken's Report on the 
Delhi Bela plantation in 1878, the following data are recorded regarding kikar ;-— 

Age. No. of tree. M-^S^^h. Hel|ht. 

Compartjttent 1. Chandrawal . . 7i 4 23*5 25*30 

3. Kudsia ... 6 4 13*5 25 

„ 4. JaffarKhan . . 6 7 17 18 to 25 

C^andrawdl is probably on better soil than the others, as the rate of growth is 
2 rings per inch as against 2*2 and 2*8 in Nos. 3 and 4 respectively. 

Weight : Cunningham gives 54 lbs. ; Skinner, No. 3, 54 lbs. ; J. L. Stewart, 48 lbs. ; 
our specimens give an average of 54 lbs. Cunningham's five Gwalior experiments with 
bars Is X T' X 1" gave P = 875 ; Skinner gives 884. The wood is very durable if 
weU seasoned. It is used extensively for wheels, well curbs, sugar and oil presses, 
rice-pounders, agricultural implements and tool handles. In Sind it is largely used 
for boat-building, rafters and for fuel ; also occasionally for railway sleepers. The gum, 
which is similar to gum arable, is largely collected and used in native medicine, and 
in dyeing and cloth printing. In Sind and Guzerat large quantities of lac are 
collected on it. The bark is used for dyeing and tanning, and is a powerful astringent ; 
a decoction of it may be used as a substitute for soap. The pods also, when unripe, 
are astringent, and are used to make ink^ and in Anica for tanning ; they are given as 
fodder to cattle, sheep and goats. 

It is largely cultivated in the Punjab and Sind, but it suffers much from frost. 
It comes up well self-sown, coppices well, and may be grown from cuttings. It sends 
down a very long taproot. 

P 1198. Madhopiir, Punjab 58 

P 890. Mult4n 49 

P 1379. Miani Forest, Sind 56 

P 440. Ajmere 

C 843. Amraoti, Berar 56 

D 1051. Salem, Madras 56 

No. 1. Salem Collection 50 

3. A. ebumea^ Willd.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 293 ; Beddome xcv.; Brandis 
183. Mimosa eburnea, Uoxb. Fl. Ind, ii. 558. Yeru. Marmati, Dekkau. 



152 LEQUMiNOs^. [Acacia. 

A short or small deciduous tree, with rough, dark-grey bark. Wood 
hard, yellowish white/ extremely hard, splits in drying. Fores moderate- 
sized and large, often oval and subdivided into compartments enclosed 
in wavy and irregular concentric bands of softer tissue, which are 
frequently interrupted. Medullary rays' fine and moderately broad, 
wavy, prominent in the bands of darker and finer tissue, which alternate 
with those of soft texture. 

Sind, Suliman range, Berar, Dekkan and South India. 

Weight, 62 lbs. per cubic foot. 

lb* 
C 844. Amraoti Reserve, Berar 62 

4. A. leucopUoea^ Willd. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 294 ; Beddome t. 48 ; 
Brandis 184; &urz i. 421. Mimosa leucopAlosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 568. 
Vern. Reru, raunj, karlr, nimbar, ringa, rinj\ rohaniyjhind, safed iiiar. 
Hind. ; Arinj\ Rajputana ; Raundra, runjra, Banswara ; Renuja, Bijera- 
gogarh ; Tumma^ Gondi j Hewar, Mar. ; Velvaylam, veUvaghe, Tarn. ; 
Tella-iuma, harwar, Tel. ; Bilijdlij topal, naibela, Kan. ; Katu andara, 
Cingh. ; Tanoung, Burm. 

A moderate-sized or large deciduous tree. Bark ^ inch thick ; colour 
varying with age, grey and smooth when young, dark brown, almost 
black, and rough when old, exfoliating irregularly in patches and strips. 
Sapwood large ; heartwood reddish brown with lighter and darker streaks, 
extremely hard. Pores moderate-sized, uniformly distributed in patches 
or short irregular concentric belts of white tissue which are prominent 
in, and alternate with, the dark-coloured firm tissue which separates 
the medullary rays. The latter are white, fine and moderate, and often 
slightly bent. 

Plains of the Punjah from Lahore to Delhi, and in all forest tracts of Central and 
South India and Burma. 

Weight, Skinner, No. 6, gives 65 Ihs. ; R. Thompson, 68 lbs. ; and Central Pro- 
vinces List of 187df 45 Ihs. ; our specimens give 50 and 59 Ihs. Skinner gives P =861. 
It seasons well and takes a good polish ; is strong and tough, hut often eaten hy 
insects. It gives an excellent fuel. The hark is eaten in times of scarcity ; it is 
used in preparing spirits from sugar and palm juice, to precipitate by the tannin it 
contains the alhununous substances in the juice. It gives a nhre used for nets and 
coarse cordage. The young pods and seeds are eaten, and the gum is used in native 

medicine. 

ibi. 

P 947. Lahore . . 60 

C 1118. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 69 

5. A. modesta. Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 296 ; Brandis 185. Mimaa 
dnmosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 559, and probably if. obovata, Roxb. I.e. 561. 
Vern. Palosa, Afg. ; Phulahi^ Pb. 

A thorny^ moderate-sized, deciduous tree. Bark rough, with a multi- 
tude of narrow irregular cracks. Sapwood large, white, perishable; 
heartwood dark brown, with black streaks, extremely hard, harder than 
that of A, Catechu. Pores moderate-sized, sometimes joined by narrow 
bands of white tissue. Medullary rays fine, white, short. 

Suliman and Salt Ranges, Sub*Himalayan tract between the Indus and the Sutlej, 
and the northern part of the Puinab plains. 

Growth slow. Weight, according to J. L. Stewart, 66 lbs. ; our specimens vary 
from 67 to 72 ; average 69 lbs. A most beautiful wood, strong and durable ; valuable 
for cart-wheels, sugarcane crushers, Persian water-wheels and agricultural implements. 



Acacia.'] leguminosje. 15S 

It gives a xnm, osad in native medicine. The leaves and fallen blossoms are collected 
for cattle fodder, 

lbs. 

P 164. Hoshiarpur {J. L. Stewart, 1866) ...... 72 

P 944. Gujerat .... ^ .»>... 68 

P 946. Multan 67 

6. A. ferruffinea, DC; Hook. Fl. Iml. ii. 295; Beddome t. 51 ; 
Brandis 185; Kiirz i, 423 ; Gamble 32. Mimosa /errr^inea, Roxh. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 561. Vem. KAour, Nep. ; Kaiser, PanchMehals; San khaify 
Berar ; Kar khair, Gondi ; Phandra Hair, Mar, ; Tc(fri khair, Bhil ; Banni, 
Kan. ; Feivelam, Tarn. ; Ansandra, tetla tuma, to4ni, Tel. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark \ inob thicks roug^. Sapwood large ; 
beartw<K)d dive brown, extremely hard, bai-der than A. Caicckn. Pores 
moderate-sized, generally single, in small rounded patches of sofler 
tissue, which are often confluent and joined into short interrupted concen- 
tric bands. Medullary rays short, white, fine, numerous. 

Northern Bengal, Central and Sonth India, Guzerat. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No, 4, 60 lbs. ; onr specimens give 70 lbs. Skinner 
gives P = 798. A fine timber, but little nsed. Beddome says it is used for building, 
carts and agricultural implements. It gives a good gum, similar to gum arabic. 

C 872, Bairagarh Reserve, Berar 70 

£ 2357. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai 67 

D 1081. North Arcot 73 



A piece of red wood, B 2629 (67 lbs.), collected in Burma in 1862 and marked 8ha^ 
has large and moderate-sized pores filled with resin ; they are often subdivided 
and their transverse diameter is greater than the distance between the fine, closely 
packed and prominent medullary rays. It evidently belongs to a species of Acacia, and 
m structure resembles A.jferruginea, which has not yet been described from Burma. 

7. A. Catechn, Willd. ; Hook. Fl. Ibd. ii. 295 ; Brandis 186 ; Kurz i. 
422 ; Gamble 32. A. Sundra, Beddome t. 50. Mimosa Sundra, Roxb. 
Fl. Ind* ii. 562. Vem. KAair, Hind.; Kkoira, koir, Ass.; Kkoim, 
Uriya ; Karangalli, hdgdy Tarn. ; Sandra, nalla iandra, Tel. ; Kagliy 
Kan. ; Rat kikiri, Cingh. ; Ska, Burm. 

A moderate-sized, gregarious, thorny, deciduous tree. Bark dark 
grey or greyish brown, rough, exfoliating in long narrow strips. Sap- 
wood yellowish white ; heartwood either dark or light red, extremely 
hard. The wood grown in the Himalayan valleys shews the annual 
rings marked by a whitish line and by a larger number of pores in the 
spring wood. Pores moderate-sized and large, often subdivided occasion- 
ally in radial groups of 2 or 3, and surrounded by narrow rings of softer 
tissue wliich are often joined and form interrupted concentric bands. 
Pores frequently filled with a white substance, uniformly distributed 
except that they are more numerous in the innermost part of each 
annual ring, distinctly marked on a longitudinal section. Medullary 
rays short, moderately broad, numerous, bent where they touch the 
pores, which are often larger than the space between two medullary 
rays. 

Common in most parts of India and Burma, extending in the Sub-Himalayan 
tract westwai-ds to the Indus. 

The growth of the llimalayan trees, whose rings it is possible to count, is moderate, 
being 5 rings per inch of radius. The tree grows quickly when young, and its 



154 LEQUMiNOSJS. [Acacia. 

reproduction on newly formed sandbanks is sometimes very remarkable. A specimen 
in the Bengal Forest Museum, from the Mahanadi Forest, shews 24 well-marked rings 
on a mean radius of 6} inches, or 3*8 rings per inch, which is fast 

Weight: the confusion between this tree and A, Suma and the fact of this tree 
having two varieties has caused some uncertainty in the weight. Skinner describes 
two woods, r»«.— 

Weight YalaeofP. 
No. 10, P. 32. A, Suma {T^lla sandra, Tel.) . . • 77 lbs. 801 
No. 11, P. 33. A. Sundra (Nalla sandra, Tel) . . « 81 „ 915 

The latter is probably our A. Catechu; the former A. Suma, Cunningham's experi- 
ments with bara of wood 2^ X 1*^ X l'^ irom Gwalior gave weight 70 lbs. P= 779. 
Brandis, in his Burma List of 1862, gives two varieties — 

Ibt. 

No. 29, Var. A. . • « « . 56 

No. 30, Var. B .70 

both of which are probably A^ Catechu, and both here described, the ordinary red- 
wooded A, Catechu being Var. B. B. Thompson gives 75 lbs., while the Oentral 
Provinces List of 1873 gives 79 lbs. ; ou rspecimens of Var. B. vary from 48 lbs. to 64 lbs., 
while our specimens of Var. A. give an average of 67 lbs. The wood seasons well, takes a 
fine polish and is extremely durable. It is not attacked by white ants or by teredo. 
It is used for rice pestles, oil and sugarcane crushers, agricultural implements, bows, 
spear and sword handles and wheelwrights' work. In Burma it is used for house 
posts, and very lar^ly used as firewood for the steamers of the Irrawaddy FlotiUa. 
In Northern India it is used for charcoal, and is one of the best woods for that purpose. 
It has been found good for railway sleepers, and it is probably only the smallness of 
the tree and the consequent waste in cutting up that has prevented its more general 
use. A number of sleepers were cut for the Northern Bengal State Railway in 1876, but 
no report has yet been made of their quality. The cliief product of the tree is Catechu 
(cutch or Katha), which is obtained by boiling down the wood cut into chips, it is 
extensively manu^tured in Kumaun, Oudh and in Burma, but not in Northern Bengal 
or Assam. Cutch is used by natives in India to chew with the betel-leaf, and is largely 
exported to Europe for dyeing and tanning. Medicinally it is used as an astringent 
for fevers and in other maladies. 

lb«. 
H 938. Hazara, Punjab 

P 604. Kangra, „ 54 

P 1196. Madhopur, Punjab . . • 63 

P 98. Sutlej Valley, Punjab 63 

XT 4m/0. AjIUcVe .••••••••« ... 

O 256. Garhwal (1868) 53 

C 2758. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces 64 

E 663. Rakti Forest, Daijeeling Terai 59 

E 2356. Mahanadi Forest, Darjeeling Teru 48 

The variety of A, Catechu with darker coloured wood, which probably oorre- 

?K>nds to the variety A. of BrancQs' Burma List of 1862, is found m the Central 
rovinces, Darjeeling Terai and Burma. There is some uncertainty regarding its 
identification, but apparently it is only a variety of A, Catechu, with darker coloured* 
less heavy and less hard heartwood, and a slightly different structure as above. The 
wood is not quite so hard as that of the ordinary form, and in structure it differs by 
having larger pores, and finer and more pronounced medullary rays. To this form 
belong — 

)b8. 

C 189. Mandla, Central Provmces (1866) 59 

C 203. „ „ „ 63 

E 625. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai (locolly, kankar) , . . 59 

F 2o55. 9* * ft tt ft • • • 70 

B 1454. Prome, Burma 75 

No. 2. Salem Collection .76 



C. 1308 (75 lbs.) and C. 1310 (76 lbs.), called Khoiru and Seme, from Gumsdr, 
differ from A. Catechu by smaller and more numerous pores, and finer and more 
numerous medullary rays. They may very probably belong to A* Suma, Buch. 



Aeacia.l lsouminos^; 155 

8. A. Intsia, Willd. ; Hook. PI. Ind. ii. 297 ; Kurz i. 423. 4. casta, 
W. and A. ; Beddome xcv. ; Brandis 189 ; Kurzr i. 4^ ; Gkimble 33. 
Mimosa etssia, Rozb. FL Ind. ir, 565. Vern. Arhai^ka-bil, Sutlej ; 
Katrar^ Kumann ; Harrari, Nep, ; • Payir rii, ngraem rii, Lepcba ; Ko^ 
rinta, Tel. ; Jarri, chilor, Mar. 

A large climbing shrub with reddish grey bark, with usually five 
flated, spirally-twisted grooves ; woed white, soft, porous. Fores small 
and large, en dosed in irregular concentric bands which run into each 
other, and which separate the narrow belts of firmer and darker-coloured 
tissue in which the white, fine, medullary rays are prominent. 

Sub-Himalajan tract from the Chenab eastwards, ascending to 4,000 feet, through- 
oat India and Burma. 

The bark is used by Lepchas in Sikkim as a substitute for soap in washing the hair. 

B 478. Rakti Forest, Darjeeling Terai. 
E 2379. Chunbati, Darjeeling, 2,000 ft. 

9. A. pexmata, WiHd. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. li. 297 ; Beddome xcv. ; 
Brandis 189; Kurz i. 424?; Gamble 83. Mimosa pennata, Rozb. Fh 
Ind. ii. 565. Vern. ^i^/a^ ^it^^a/^ Kumaun ; BiswtU, Hind.; ^ir/t^^Nep. ; 
Tol rit, Lepeha ; 8ooj/>ity Burm. 

A large climbing shrub. Bark reddish brown, \ inch thick, with, 
horizontal cracks. Wood porous, moderately hard. Pores oval or oblong, 
occasionally subdivided into 2 or 3 compartments, from small to extremely 
large and very numerous, surrounded or enclosed in an irregular net- work 
of white tissue, which separates the patches of darker-coloured and 
firmer tissue, in which the white, moderately broad medullary rays are> 
distinctly visible. 

Oudh, Kumaun, Nepal, Eastern Bengal, Burma and South India. 
Weight, 60 lbs. pet cubic foot. Growth £ast, 3 to 4 riug^ per inch of radius. 

ibf. 

£ 476. Balasun Forest, Darjeeling Terai 

E 2368. Sivoko „ „ ,,. 60 

10. A. dealbata, Link. ; Beuth. Fl. Austr. ii. 415; Brandis 180. 
The Silver Wattle. 

A tree spreading rapidly by numerous root-suckers. The wood i» 
moderately hard, light brown, but warps considerably. Pores small, 
often in short linear groups. Medullary rays short, fine and moderately 
broad, well marked on a radial section. 

^ Indigenous in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania. Introduced on the- 
If ilgiris, and now naturalised since 1840. 

The wood is extensively used in Australia for timber, and the bark for tanning. 
It is being tried in plantations in the hills of the Punjab, North- Western Provinces 
and Sikkim. Oar specimen was cut from a tree II years old and 4f6 feet high, and wav 
about 12 inches in diameter. Colonel Beddome, in his Report on the Nilgiri plantations 
of April 1878, says that this Wattle grows very readily from the stool, but comes up 
in a dense mass of small twig-like stems, so that it oan only be depended on for 
very small firewood. 

W 1099. Nilgiri IliUs. 

11. A. melano^lon, R.Br.; Benth. Fl. Austr. ii. 415.; Brandis 
180. Australian Blackwood. 

A large tree with hard and durable wood ; heartwood dark brown 
and beautifully mottled^ sof tj shining, even-grained ; pores mostly oval. 



JbS LEOUMiNOSJ?. [Acaeia. 

moderate«sized and divided into compartments conspicuoasly marked on 
a vertical section. Medullary rays short and fine. 

New South Wales, Victoria, TaBmania and South Australia. Introduced on the 
Nilgirifl since 1840 and now completely naturalised. Also being grown in the hills of 
the Punjab, Kumaun and Sikkim. 

With regard to its rate of growth, Colonel Beddome, in his Beport of April 1878 
on the Nilj^iri plantations, says that in the Bleakhouse plantation, Wellington, the 
arerage girth of the trees in the portion which is 21 to 22 years old, taken from the 
measurement of 30 tiees as they came, was 35 inches at 6 feet from the ground (about 
4 rings per inch of radius), the girth of some of the largest trees being 66, 55, 50, 
46 and 44 inches. Our specimen was cut from a tree 20 years old and 90 feet high ; it 
gave a plauk 2 feet broad. The wood seems to be reo^arded on the Nilgiris as very 
inferior to that of Encalypttia Globulus, either for timber or firewood ; its growth is 
much slower and it is attacked bv species of Loranthus, which parasites in time kill 
the tree. It does not coppice well, unless cut very young. 

Weight, according to Mr. Newbery (Timbers of Victoria, 1877), 41 to 48 lbs. per 
cubic foot ; our specmien gives 36 lbs. 

It is used in Australia for cabinet work, coach-building, railway carriages and 
i^icultural implements ; on the Nilgiris chiefly for firewood. Its tark is i^ed for 

tanuing. 

lbs. 
W 1100. Nilgiri Hills , , • . 36 

Besides A, melanoxt^lon and A. (fea/^to, there are several other species of Wattle, 
some of which are cultivated in India. A. decurrens, Willd., the " Common " or ** Black " 
Wattle, is a small or medium-sized tree ; larger in moist localities. According to Mr. 
Newbery, the wood weighs 45 to 48 lbs. per cubic foot. It is being grown in several 
places in India. ^./jycnan^Aa, Bth., the *'€k>lden" or "Broad-leaf" Wattle, is the 
most valuable species for tanner's bark and gum. Its wood weighs 51*511)6. per 
cubic foot. A. komalophylla, A. Cunn., is the Myallwood, a small tree with a hard, 
dark wood with the scent of violets. 

Wattles grow in almost any soil, but their growth is best in loose, sandy places or 
whore the surface has been broken for agricultural or other purposes. It is wdl, before 
sowing the seed, to soak it for a short tune in warm water ; this moistens the outer 
shell and induces more speedy germination. The seeds generally germinate in from 
7 to 10 days, and are apt to damp off if too carelessly watered. 

29. ALBIZZIA^ Durazzini. 

Ooutahis 10 Indian species, most of which are common large trees fbund over the 
greater part of India, and are here described. A, mvriophylla, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 
300 -, Kurz i. 426, {Mimosa microphylla, Rozb. Fl. £id. li. 549) Yern. TetUij^a, Sylhet, 
is a small evergreen tree of Sikkim, the Ehasia Hills, Eastern Bengal and Tenasserim. 
A, elegans, Eurz i. 427, is a large evergreen tree of the tropical* forests of the P^u 
Yomas ; while A, lophantha, Bth. Fl. Austr. ii. 421 ; Brandis 174, is an Australian 
tree of rapid growth, which has now been completely naturalised on the Nilgiri Hills. 
Baron von Miiller says that it seeds profusely and germinates most easily, and is very 
valuable for re-clothing desert tracts, where it is important quickly to create shade, 
nhelter and copious vegetation. The bark may be used for tannins. A new species has 
lately been discovered in the Chanda district, CentnJ Provinces, oy Mr. R. Thompson, 
called Silari, It is a large tree with short trunk, spreading branches and large fruit. 

The structure of Albizzia is characterised by large or moderate-sized 
not very numerous pores, which are exceedingly prominent on a verti- 
cal section, the pores of successive concentric strata being not parallel, but 
runniug obliquely into each other. The medullary rays are not generally 
prominent, and the wood is softer than that of most species of Acacia. 

1. A. Lebbek, Bentb.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 298 ; Beddome t. 58; 
Brandis 176; Kurz i. 427. Mimosa Sir issa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 544. 
The Siris Tree, Vern. Siris, airin, sirdi, iahis, tanlia, ^arso, Hind. ; 
$irisAaj Beng. ; Harreri^ Fanch Mehals; Vaghe, kat vaghe^ Tarn.; 



Mbhzia. ] 



;i£ai;iiii»03£. 



157 



Siraaan, darthana, kal vage, pedda ducAirram, Tel. ; Kat 6agii, betigha, 
Eao. ; Chickola, Mar. ; Kokoh, Burm. ; Bei/madd, gackodd, And. 

A Urge deciduous tree. Bark grey or brownieli grey, rough, with 
nmnerous, ehort, irregular cracke. Sapwood large, white \ heartwood dark 
brown, hard, ehitiing, mottled, with deeper coloured, longitudinal streaks. 
The annual rings in trees grown in tlie Punjab are marked by a distinct 
line. Pores large, not numeroue, oflen subdivided and enclosed in patches of 
seder whitish tissue, which are frequently arranged in short bands. Fores 
prominent on a longitudinal section. Medullary rays fine, very numerous. 
9, aacending to 6,000 feet ; Bengal, 



Fnnjab liave 2} fnet girth in 12 years 4) feet in 30 juara, and that trwe at Sakhar 
in 8md 17 jeara old have reached 6 to 6 fe«t in girth. This wontd give from 1 to 3 
rings per inch of radius, which is Terj faat. 

The weight and tranavene strength have been determined from the following 
eiperiment« : — 



WBdKl^. 


Yen. 




1 


11 


Bluofbu. 


'-I- 


rucUc 

Itakcr 

Bklimer. So, 7 , . . . 


18H 

IBS* 
1883 


Burau. 

Bonnl. 
Ceyl™. 

PWimb. 

Durm. 






S3 

M 

to 

K 

» 

4S 

■ia 

4S-5 


i 
I 


Ft. In. Id. 
I- 1 Kl 


BSe 

180 

em 

7BJ 
8U 


Bnndl^No.W . . . . 
A.Uendia 

Bn.jil,i« . . . . 


1061 

18U 

IBTsj 


;: 



It seasons, works and polishes well, and is fairl; durable. It is used for sugarcane 
cnuhem, oil-mills, furniture, well curbs and wheel-work ; in South India for boats. In 
the Andkmans where trees of large size are procurable, it is used for building, but more ' 
UBUall; for honae-poats. It is often grown as anaveuue tree, but ita roots do not pene- 
trate ver; deep. It grows easily from cuttings. It gives a gnm which is not soluble ii) 
water, botmerelj forms a jcUy. The leaves and twigs are given as fodder to camels. 

lb*. 

P 1193. Madhopur. Pnnjab 47 

P 96. Bhajji, Sutlej Vallej, 3,000 feet 43 

P 881. Mnltan 49 

F 468. Ajmera 66 

South Kanara 



W 748. 
W 751. 



61 

44 

B 1463. Promc, Burma 48 

B 8208. Andaman Islands 43 

Mo. 61. Cejlou Collfction (marked Acacia tpeeiota) .... 13 



158 LfeGUMiNOS^; [Alhizzia. 

2. A. odoratissima, Beuth.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 299; Beddome t. 
54; Brandis 175; Karz i. 427; Gamble 33^. Mimosa odoralissima; 
Broxb. Fl. Ind. ii, 546. Vera. £airin, iarambru, polacA, Pb. ; Siris, 
siran, bhandir^ bersa, bus, bassein, bansa. Hind.; Chichwa, cAic^olcr, 
yerjooietta, Gondi ; CMcAora, Eurku ; Kali harrefiy Panch Mehals; Tedong, 
Xiepcha ; Jati^koroi, Ass. ; Maroi, Caiohav ; Kal^tAurini/i, kar vaghe, bilwara, 
solomanim, sela vanjai. Tarn. ; SAinduga, ehindu, telsu, yetyucAinta, karu 
ffage, Tel. ; PuUibagAi, billawar, Kan. ; BorAi, cAicAua, cAieAanda^ Mar. ;- 
JIaore mora, Cingfa. ; TAitmagyi, Burm» 

A laro^e deciduous tree. Bark i ineb thiek^grey, witb irregular cracka 
and patches of darker colour. Sapwood large^ white ; heartwood dark 
brown with darker streaks, very bard. Dark, narrow, concentric bands 
(annual rings?), alternating with bands of lighter colour. Pores large,, 
often double, uniformly distributed, enclosed in very narrow rings of 
soft tissue and sometimes arranged in interrupted lines, very prominent 
on a longitudinal section. Medullary rays fine, wavy, short, mdistinct.. 
This species is characterised among common Albizzias by its greater 
hai'dness and short and less prominent medullary rays. 

Snb-Himalayan tract from the Indus eastwards, ascending to 3,000 feet ; Bengal,. 
Burma, Central and South India. 

Growth rapid, 4 rings per inch of radius. Weight, Wallich gives 45 lbs. ; Kyd,. 
40 lbs. ; Skinner, No. 6, 46 lbs. ; Brandis, 52 lbs. ; our specimens give an average of 
54 lbs. Kyd's experiments with Assam wood with bars 2' X l'^ X 1'^ gave P = 547 r 
Brandis found P = 984 ; and Skinner 800. The wood seasons, works and polishes 
well, and is fairly durable. It is used for wheels, oil-mills and furniture. It gives & 
dark-brown gum. The leaves and twigs are lopped for eatUe fodder. 

F 3223. Nflgpahar Forest, Ajmere 

O 205. Garhwal (1868) 43 

\J wAcf. „ ff . . . . » . . • . •••■ 

C 184. Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) 

C 1122. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 60- 

C 2748. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces 

E 2360. Bamuiipokri, Darjeeling Terai 59» 

W 725. South Kanara 59 

AV llo9. „ „ ••.....»• 4m» 

D 1084. North Arcot 52 

B 290. Burma (1867) 53 

B 3121. „ (1862) &F 

B 1427. „ ...*...... 57 

B 2231. Andamans (1866) . 56. 

No. 8. Salem Collection 62 

3. A, procera, Benth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 299; Beddome xcvi. ; 
Brandis 175; Kurz i. 428; Gamble 3*^. Mimosa elata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 546. Vern. Safed sins, gurar, karra, iaro, karanji, gurbdri, gurkur, 
baro, karolu, gar so, Hind. ; Karallu, kini, kilai, kili, liAiri, Bombay ;. 
Takmur, Lepcha; Koroi, Bengf., Ass.; Kili, Garo; Sarapatri, Uriya; 
Passerginni, Gondi; Kinni^ Bhil; Gurar, Mar.; Konda vagAe,Tamr, Pedda 
patseru, iella sopara, tella cAindagu, Tel. ; CAikul, Kan. ; CAoi, Magh ;. 
Seel, Burm. ; Birdd, And. 

A large, deciduous, fast-growing tree. Bark i inch thick, yellowish 
or greenish white or grey, smooth, with horizontal lines. Sapwood 
large, yellowish white, not durable ; heartwood hard, brown, shining, 
with alternate belts of darker and lighter colour. Fores moderate-siz^ 
and larg9, enclosed in narrow rings of softer tissue^ uniformly distributed. 



Albizzia, ] leguminoSwE. 159 

very prominent on a longitudinal section. Medullary rays fine. The 
difference in structure between A, Lebbek and the woods of A. procera is 
very slight. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jnmna eastwards, Bengal, Satpora Range in the 
Central Provinces, Guzerat, South India and Burma. 

Growth very rapid. Brandis says that it attains in 12 years 3 to 4 feet, and in 
30 years 4 to 6 feet girth. This would give about 2 rings per inch of radius, which 
is very rapid. Our specimens are of somewhat slower growth, 6 riuss per inch. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 3, 39 lbs. ; Brandis, No. 28, 48 lbs. ; oar specimens 
give an average of 46 lbs. Skinner gives P = 884 ; Brandis 750. The wood is straight 
and even-grained, seasons well, and the heartwood is durable. It is used for sugarcane 
crushers, rice-pounders, wheels, agricultural implements, bridges and house posts. It 
ia used bjr tea planters for stakes for laying out tea gardens, as it is found to split well, 
and oceasionally for tea boxes and for charcoal, for which it is found to be very good. 
It gives a copious gum. 

Ibi. 

O 220. Garhwal (1868) 41 

O 3004. „ (1873) • . 44 

C 2740. Jamui Forest, Berar (sap wood) 26 

E 2361. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai 37 

£ 949. Eastern Duars, Assam 5L 

E 1263. Tezpiir, Assam 68 

E 2194. Nowgong, Assam 42 

E 1965. Chittagong 43 

B 329. Burma (1867) 39 

B 811. , 60 

B 2527. „ (1862) 41 

B 606. Andaman Islands 53 

B 618. „ „ 46 

B 2247. „ „ (1866) 41 

4. A. lucida, Benth.; Hook. Fl. Ind. li. 299; Brandis 174; 
Kurz i. 429; Gamble 83. Mimosa lucida, Roxb. Fl. Ind. li. 544. 
Vern. Sil ioroi, Beng. ; Tapria-siris, Nep. ; Ngraem^ Lepcba ; Meu^guch, 
Ass.; Ounhi, Magh; Thanihaiy Burm. 

A large deciduous tree. Heartwood hard^ brown, with dark streaks 
and alternating dark and light coloured, concentric bands. Pores moder- 
ate-sized, numerous, enclosed in round patches of soft tissue. Medullary 
rays fine and very numerous. 

Eastern Bengal, Burma. 

Weight, average of our specimenn, 501bs. per cubic foot. Wood hard and good^ 
but not used. Lac is obtained on it in Assam. 

lbs. 

E 660. Bamunpokri, Daijeeling Terai 65 

E 677. „ „ „ ••••.. 61 

5, A. Jnlibrissin, Boivin ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 300; Brandis 177. 
Mimosa Kalkora, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 547 (?). Pink Siris. Vern. Sirin, 
iurmrUfSuranffrUfSMrsA, sAisAi^buna, tanddi, matAirsii, brindj Pb. ; Lai 
airiiy baraulia, barau, bhokra^ Hind.; Kalkora (?), Beng. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark dark grey, with long hori- 
zontal wrinkles. Sapwood large ; heartwood dark brown, almost black 
in old trees, beautifully mottled, shining. Annual rings distinctly 
marked by a sharp line. Pores large, often double, very prominent on a 
longitudinal section. Medullary rays fine, short, red, appearing as nar- 
row, dark, straight bands on a radial section. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Sikkim, ascending to 5,000 feet. 

Growth rapid, 3 to 4 rings per inch of radius (Brandis)\ our specimeiifl give 6 rui^^ 



160 LSOUHIKOSJS. [Mbizzia. 



• 



Weight, 43 to 62 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood is nsed to make fumitare. The tree* in 
extremely handsome when in flower, with its innumerable pink tassels of delicate silky 
blossoms, from which it derives its name ffuldb^rMham, rose silk. 

Ib«. 

H 97. Sutlej Valley, Simk, 4,000 feet 62 

H 152. Sainj, Simla, 4,000 feet . . . . ^ . . . .43 

6. A. Stipnlata, Boivin ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. SCO ; Beddome t. Fl. ; 
Brandis 178; Kurz i. 426; Gamble 84. Mimosa slipulacea, Koxb. 55, 
Ind. ii. 549. Vem. Oi, oe, sirin, skirsAa, kaair, Pb. ; Siran, kanujer a. 
patlia, samaundra. Hind. ; Kala siriSy Nep. ; Singriang^ Lepcha ; 
Sow J Ass. ; Selchoy Oaro ; Chakua, amluii, BeDg. ; Kat turanji, Tarn. ; 
Konda chiraguy cAindaga, Tel. ; Kal haghi^ kote iagki, Kao. ; Kabaly 
Cingh. ; Pokok, Magh ; Boomaiza, Burm. 

A large, deciduous, fast-growing tree. Bark grey, with numerous 
short, vertical wrinkles and a few larger horizontal furrows, with promi- 
nent edges, darker when old. Sapwood large, white; heartwood brown, 
generally not durable, soft, shining. Annual rings distinctly mtu'ked. 
Pores large, often oval and subdivided, very prominent on a longitudinal 
section. Medullary rays fine, short, reddish, not very distinct. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the ludus eastwards, ascending to 4,000 feet ; Oudh, 
Bengal, Burma, South India. 

Growth very rapid. Roxburgh sajs that a tree he planted in the Botanic Garden 
«t Calcutta measured 48*5 inches in girth at 4 feet above the ground when 7 years old ; 
this would give a rate of growth of slightly less than 1 ring per inch of radius. 
Stewart, m " Punjab Plants, p. 66," says tnat a tree in the Saharanpur Gardens was 
7 feet in girth at about 17 years of age, which gives rather over 1 tm^ per inch of 
radius. Our specimens give 3 to 4 rings per inon of radius. A round in the Bengal 
Forest Museum from a young tree, shews 11 rings on a mean radius of 6 inches or I'lB 
rings per inch of radius, llie growth may be &ken therefore at 1 to 4 rings per inch 
of radius, which is very rapid. Weight, according to Skinner, No. 9, 55 lbs. ; according 
to Brandis' Burma List of 1862, No. 27, 66 lbs. ; our specimens give only 33 lbs.; and 
Kyd (Acacia marginata. Ham.) 28 lbs. Kyd g^ves P = 222 ; and Skinner gives 
F = 823 ; but it is doubtful if his experiments were really from wood of A. Hijndata, 
The wood is said by Beddome, probably quoting Skinner, to be used for building and 
for naves of wheels. Kurz says it is good for cabinet work, furniture and similar pur- 
DOses. Brandis' Bnrma List, 1862, No. 27, savs it is prized for cart wheels and for the 
bells of cattle. In Bengal it has been inriea for tea-boxes, for which purpose it will 
probably suit well ; also for charcoal. It gives a gum which exudes copiously from 
the stem, and is used by Nepalese for sizing tiieir " Daphne " paper. The branches are 

lopped for cattle fodder. 

Ibfl. 

H 603. Kangra, Punjab 29 

O 217. Garhwal (1868) 28 

€ 2989. Jubbulpore, Central Provinces (1863) 39 

E 647. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai ...... 26 

E 2362. „ „ , 29 

E 788. Kamrdp, Assam 40 

E 1956. Chittagong 25 

B 809. Burma 36 

B 2528. „ (1866) 33 

B 2221. Andaman Islands (1866) 45 

7. A. amara, Boivin ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 301 ; Brandis 178. A. amara 
and d. Wightiiy Qrah.; Beddome t. 61, xcvi. Mimosa amara and 
Jf. pnlcAella, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 548, Vern. Lallei, Dekkan ; Thuringi, 
tounja, suranfi, sAekram, Tarn. ; Nallarenga, sAeirani, sikiai, narlingij 
Tel.; Bel'kAambiy Kan.; Kadsige, Coorg; Oosulay, Mai. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Sapwood large ; heartwood pur- 



AlbUzia,^ lequminos^. 161 

plish-brown^ beautifully mottled, extremely hard, with alternate, con- 
ceutric, light and dark bands. Pores small, in patches of white tissue, 
which are frequently joined, forming concentric bands. Medullary rays 
very fine, very numerous. 

South India and Dekkan. 

Skinner, No. 1, gives the weight at 70 lbs. ; our specimens weigh 61 to 62 lbs. Skinner 
also gives P = 1284, and says, ** The wood is strong, fibrous and stiff, close-grained, 
hard and durable, superior to s41 and teak in transverse strength and direct cohesive 
power ; " also that it is used for the beams of native houses and carts, the wood of the 
crooked branches for ploughs, and the leaves for washing the hair. Beddome says it is 
a good fuel, and is extensively used for the locomotives at Salem and Bangalore. 

Ibg. 

D 1052. Salem, Madras 61 

No. 6. Salem Collection 62 



B 2705 (59 lbs.) from Tavoy (Wallich, 1828) is a dark-red specimen of a heavy 
brown wood of Albizxia structure, which cannot be identified. 



Order XII. BOSACEJE. 

Contains 2()genera of Indian trees, shrubs or climbers, chiefly found in the colder 
regions of the Himalaya and other mountain ranges. It is divided into 7 iSribes, 
viz, — 

Tribe I. — Chrysobalanese . . . Parinarium and Parastemon, 

„ II.— PrunesB Prunus, Maddenia, Pygeum 

and Prinsepia, 

„ III. — Spirsese Spiraa and ^eillia, 

„ rV. — Rubese Mubus, 

„ V. — PotentillesD .... Potentilla, 

„ VI. — Boscse Mosa. 

„ yiL — Fomeffl Cydonia, Docynia, Eriobotrya, 

Pyrtu, Photiniat Paurtkiaa, 
Stranviena, CratiSffus and 
Cotoneasier, 

Parinarium contains 3 species : P. Chnffitkianum, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 810, 
is a tree of Tenasserim and the Andaman Islands ; P. indicum, Beddome t. 191, is a 
tree of the forests of the Wynaad, between 2,000 and SyOOOfeet ; and P. travancoricum, 
Beddome, is a tree of the hills about Courtallum. Parastemon uropkyllum^ A. DC. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 312, is a shrub or small tree of Tenasserim and the Andamans. 
Maddenia contains two species : M, himalaica. Hook, f . and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 
818, a small tree of the Sikkim and Bhutan Himalaya from 8,000 to 10,000 feet ; and 
M.pedicellata, Hook, f ., of the Mishmi Hills. Neillia thyrsijlora, Don ; Gamble 35, 
is a common shrub of the Sikkim Hills. Potentilla can scarcely be said to contain 
woody species, though P. fruticosa, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 347 ; Gamble 36 
{miBS^ltJrutescens), is a small shrub common on rocks at high elevations from 
Kashmir to Bhutan, with a hard wood and annual rings marked by a line of very 
small pores ; and P. Salessovii, Steph. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 348, occurs as a small shrub 
above 11,000 feet in Lahoul and Northern Kashmir. 

Cydonia vulgaris, Pers. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 369 (Pyrus Cvchnia, Linn. ; Brandis 
205). The Quince. Vem. JBihi, Hind. ; JBamtsiint, bamsutu, Kashmir, is cultivated in 
Afghanistan and the North- West Himalayas up to 5,500 feet. Docynia contains 2 
species : D* indica. Dene ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 369 {Pyrus indiea, Wall. ; Boxb. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 511 ; Kurz i. 441 ; Gamble 37). Vera. Mehuly passy, Nep. ; Likv^ng, Lepcha ; 
Sopho, Khasia, is a tree of the hills of Sikkim, Bhutan and Assam, with a yellow, 
edible, though harsh-tasting fruit ; and, according to Aikin's description of Wallich 's 
specimens, a compact, moderately hard, fine-grained wood ; and D. Mookeriana, Dene ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 369, of the Khasia HiJls. Photinia contains 6 species as re-arrangod 
in the Flora Indica ; P. Lindleyana, Wight and Am. ; Hook. FL Ind. IL 380 \ B^dssotf^ 



16:1 ROSACEJE. [rruHUs, 

xcviii., is a small tree of the Nilgiris ; P. Notoniana, Wight and Arn. ; Beddome t. 
192 (Eriobotrya integrtfolia^ Kurz i. 442) Vern. JS^addi bikki. Burghers, is a small 
tree of Eastern Bengal, South India and Burma ; P. inte^ifolia, Lindl. ; P. Griffithiif 
Dene ; and P. mollis, Hook, f., are trees of the North-East Himalava. Pourthiaa arguta. 
Dene ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 382, is a small tree of the Khasia Hills and Sikkim Terai. 

Wood close and even gprained ; that of most species apt to warp. 
Fores small to extremely small. Medullary rays generally fine to ex- 
tremely fine. 

1. PRUNUS, Linn. 

Contains 18 species including the Almond, Peach, Apricot, Plum and Cherry. 
P. prostrata, LahilL ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 313 ; Brandis 193. Yem. Tdra, ter, talle, 
Ph., is a small shruh of rocky places in Afghanistan and the arid parts of the North- 
West Himalaya, generally ahove 7,000 feet. . P. Mahaleh, Linn. ; Brandis 195, is 
cultivated at Khelat. P. rufa, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 314 (P. sp.. Gamble 36) 
Yem. Kamhiy Bhutia, is a tree of the inner Sikkim Himalaya above 10,000 feet. 
P. punctata. Hook, f . and Th., is a small tree of the Khasia Hills ; and P. Jenhinsii, 
Hook. f. and Th., a small tree of Upper Assam. P. tomentosa, Thunb. ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 314, is a shrub of Kashmir ; and P. Jacqtiemontii, Hook, f., a shrub of the 
inner North- West Himalaya in Kunawar and Garhwal. 

P. AmygdaliM, Baillon ; Brandis 190. {Amy^dalus communis, Willd. ; Bozb. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 600.) The Almond. Yem. JBaddm, is cultivated in Afghanistan, Persia, Kash- 
mir and the Punjab. P. Cerasus, Linn. ; Brandis 193. The Cherry. Yem. Alii balu, 
Pers. ; Kerasya, Arab. ; Gilds, olchi, krusbal. Ph., is generally cultivated in the 
North-West Himalaya between 6,000 and 8,000 feet. P. Persica, Bth. and Hk. f . ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 313 ; Brandis 191 ; Kurz i. 433 ; Gamble 34. {Amygdalus persica, 
Willd.; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 600). The Peach. Yem. Ghwareshtdi, Mg,; Sh^ alu, 
Pers. ; Aru^ aor, chinannu, beinni, beimu, rek, Pb. ; Aru, Hind. ; lUkpo, Lepcha, is 
commonly cultivated everywhere throughout the Himalaya and in Upper Burma. 

The species here described have a distinct heartwood ; the pores are 
small or very small. The medullary rays are generally of two classes^ fine 
and moderately broad. The annual rings are marked either by a con« 
tinuous line of pores or by more numerous pores in the spring wood. 

1. P. annenia>ca, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 313; Brandis 191; 
Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 501. The Apricot. Vern. Hdri, gardalu, jaldaru, 
sAiran, ckeroli, cher iusA, seriuji, sAari, Pb. ; Iser, Kashmir ; CAiiari, 
zardalu, kAoobani, Hind. ; Mis Amis A, Pers. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark dark brown, rough, with 
nan'ow longitudinal clefts. Sapwood white; heartwood greyish brown, 
mottled with dark-brown streaks, moderately hard, ^nual rings 
marked by a narrow continuous belt of pores, which are larger than 
the very small scattered pores in the outer portion of the ring. Medul- 
lary rays of two classes, numerous ; very fine rays between fewer mode- 
rately broad ones. 

Cultivated in the North-West Himalaya. Growth moderate, 4 to 8 rings per inch 
of radiuB. 

Weight, 49 lbs. per cubic foot ; Mathieu, PI. For. p. 131, gives 58 lbs. Wood hand* 
some, used for various purposes in the Punjab Hills. In Lahoul and Upper Kanawar 
it is the chief firewood. The fruit, fresh or dried, is extensively used for tood, and an 
oil is extracted from the keraels which is used to bum, in cooking and for the hair. 

ibi. 

H 781. Bathri, Chamba, 3,000 feet 49 

H 20. Madhan, Simla, 6,000 feet 49 

H 2876. MatiyAna, Simla, 7,000 feet . . ^ . 

r 

2. P. communis^ Huds.;Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 315; Brandis 192. 
The Plum. Vern, AlucAa,olcAi, er, aor, gardalu, Pb. 



Pmnus,] KOSACE^. 163 

A moderate-sized tree. Wood reddish brown, hard, very close- 
grained, warps and splits. Annual rings marked by a belt of small, 
closely packed pores. Pores in the main portion of the annual ring 
extremely small, in groups. Medullary rays of two classes, moderately 
broad^ numerous, with very fine rays between them. 

Cultivated (or indigenous, Hook. Fl. Ind.) from Garbwal to Kashmir in the 
Western Himalaya, from 5,000 to 7,000 feet. 

Growth fast, 2 to 3 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 52 lbs. per cubic foot. The 
wood is smooth to work, and is used in Kashmir for the skeleton of the so-called 
papier-mach^ boxes. 

lbs. 

H 161. Giri Valley, Simla, 4,000 feet 62 

3. P. Puddum, Roxb.j Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 314; Brandis 194; Kurz 
i. 484. ; Gamble 34. Vern. CAamidri, amalgich, pdja, pajia, Pb. ; Paddam, 
pdjfa, Hind. ; Kongki, Lepeba. 

A moderate-sized (in Sikkim, a large) deciduous tree. Bark peeling 
off in thin, horizontal, shining layers. Sapwood large, greenish white. 
Heartwood reddish, beautifully mottled on a radial section by narrow, 
wavy, shining, medullary rays, moderately hard. Annual rings dis- 
tinctly marked by an irregular and not continuous belt of numerous 
pores. Pores small; those of the spring wood very small, fre- 
quently arranged in oblique lines intersecting the medullary rays at an 
angle. Medullary rays of two classes ; numerous, very fine rays alter- 
nating with fewer, short, moderately broad rays, which are broader than 
those of P. Padus. Scent pleasant, resembling that of P. Mahaleh, 

Wild in the Himalaya, from the Indus to Assam, between 2,500 and 7,000 feet ; 
Khasia Hills. 

Growth variable, from 4 to 22 rings per inch of radius, the average being 12. 

Weight, the average of our specimens give 44 lbs. per cubic foot. Gamble says 40 
to 45 lbs. 

The wood is used in the Punjab Himalaya for walking-sticks ; in Darjeeling 
occasionally for furniture. It deserves to be better known, and to be more extensively 
used, as, at any rate in Sikkim, it is common and reaches a large size. It gives an 
abundant gum, not used. 

lbs. 

H 46. Nagkanda, Simla, 7,000 feet 52 

H 234. Garhwal Hills (1868) 46 

E 683. Sepoydura Forest. Darjeeling, 6,000 feet .... 42 

E 2363. Kurseong, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet 41 

E 2364. Tukdah Forest, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet .... 48 

E 1447. Mishmi Hills (Griffith, 1836) 37 

4. F. Fadns, Linn. ; Hook. Y\, Ind. ii. 315; Brandis 194; Gamble 
85. The Bird Cherry. Vern. Paras, kalakat, gidar^ddk, bart^zum, zam, 
zambuyjamu, ciule, dudla, irunjVh. ; Jamana, Hind.; Likh-arUj arupatli, 
Nep. ; Hlo sa hloUkung, Lepcha, 

A moderate-sized decidnous tree, with dark, rough bark. Sapwood 
large, whitish. Heartwood reddish brown, with an unpleasant smell, 
beautifully mottled on a radial section by the shining medullary rays, 
moderately hard. Annual rings distinctly marked by a narrow belt of 
continuous, closely arranged pores. Pores small, in irregularly shaped 
groups, which are uniformly distributed. Medullary rays short, moder- 
ately broad. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Sikkim, between 4,000 and 10,000 feet. 

Growth, var}'ing from 4 to 30 rings per inch of radius ; the average of cm* »^«oi- 



164. R0SACEJ8. [PrUHUS. 

mens gave 13 rings. Average weight 41 lbs. per cubic foot, Matbieu FL For. p. 128, 
gives an average of 41*5 lbs. The wood has oiten a very handsome grain and deserves 
to be better known ; it is scarcely ever used. 

H 916. Hazara, 7,000 feet . . ; 38 

H 22. Matiy&na, Simla, 7,000 feet 42 

H 58. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 43 

E 696. Bangbdl Forest, Daijeeling, 7,000 feet .... 41 

E 2369. „ „ „ 42 

The two Darjeeling specimens are perhaps P. uepalensis, Ser. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
316. 

5. P. acnminata, Wall.; Hook. PI. Ind. ii. 317; Gamble 85 
{wrongly Roxb.). 

A tree with thin dark bark. Wood reddish brown. Pores small^ 
sometimes in groups or radial lines; medullary rays of two classes; 
numerous^ very fine rays, alternating with fewer, short, broad ones. 

Eastern Himalaya and Khasia Hills from 4,000 to 7,000 ft. 
£ 3309. Snreil, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet. 

6. P. martabanica, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 316; Knrz i. 434. 
Vern. Thitmanku, 'Bxxxm. 

No. B 1975, collected by Kurz in the Andamans in 1866, bears this 
name. Tt is a heavy, cross-grained, red wood, with moderate-sized pores, 
often subdivided, and fine, closely packed, uniform medullary rays. 

2. PYGEUM, Gaertn. 

No. 28, Adrian Mendis' Ceylon Collection, marked Cryptocarya Jloribunda, and 
Galmorre, Cingh., is a close-grained yellow wood with a stnicture resembling that of 
Eriobotrya, It is probably IPyaeum zeylanieum, Gaertn. ; Hook. PI. Ind. IL 321 ; 
Thwaites Enum. Fl. Zeyl. 102. Vern. Galmora, Cingh. (Weight 65 lbs. per cubic 
foot.) A large tree of South India and Ceylon, which gives a good firewood for burning 
bricks or lime. There are 8 other species oi this genus. P. acuminatum, Colebr. ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 318 ; Kurz i. 436 ; Oamble 35, is a tree of the North-East Himalaya, Khasia 
Hills, Eastern Bengal and Chittagong, in which regions are also found JP. ylaherrimum. 
Hook, f.; and P. montanum, Hook. f. P. Andersani, Hook, f., has been found on tibe 
summit of Para8n4th in Behar at 4,000 ft. ; P. Wightianum, Bl. (P. ceylanicum, 
Beddome t. 59) and P. Oardneri, Hook, f ., are lar^ trees of South In£a ; while 
P. arboreum, EndL, and two other species are found in the forests of Burma, chiefly 
in Tenasserim. 

8. PRINSEPIA, Royle. 

1. P. utilis, Royle; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 828; Brandis 196. Vern. 
Bhekalj bekkra^ karanga, ckerara, dhateUy jhatela, Hind.; Ourinda^ 
Hazara ; Tatua, piulwara, Rajaori ; JTinti, Chenab ; Bekling^ Kanawar. 

A deciduous, thorny shrub, with thin brown bark, peeling oflf in small 
vertical flakes. Sapwood white ; heartwood red, very hard and compact, 
close and even grained, but much liable to split. Annual rings marked 
by a narrow continuous belt or line of larger pores ; the pores outside 
this belt are small. The pores are sometimes filled with a white sub* 
stance. Medullary rays very fine and numerous. 

Outer Himalaya, from Hazara to Bhutan between 2,000 and 9,000 feet. Khasia 
Hills. 

Growth slow, 12 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 69 lbs. per cubic foot The 



PriHsepia,'] BOSACEiS. 165 

wood is only used for fuel and occasionally for walking-sticks. An oil is expressed from 
the seeds which is used for food and for burning. 

lbs. 

H 49. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 69.' 

H 2868. 



i> >y ft 



4. SPIRiEA, Linn. 

Contains 11 species found in the Himalaya, chiefly at elevations above 6,000 feet. 
They contain both herbs, such as the " Meadow Sweet" found in Kashmir ; aud shrubs, 
few of which attain any size. The two described are the most important. 

1. S. sorbifolia, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 324. S. Lindle^ana, DC. 
Vern. SarbaaAtai, kiiri, bafu, Pb. 

A shrub, with reddish grey bark. Wood hard, compact, even-grained. 
Annaal rings distinctly marked by a belt of more numerous pores. 
Pores small, scanty in the outer part of each annual ring. Medullaiy 
rays moderately broad. 

North-West Himalaya, from the Sutlej to Kumaun, above 7,000 feet. 

Growth moderate, 12 rings per inch of radius. The largest growing species. 
Recognised by its pinnate leaves from the other shrubby species. It is chiefly found 
in shady damp woods. 

H 82. Simla, 7,000 feet 49 

H 3014. Hattu Forest, Simla, 8,000 feet ^ 

2. S. canescens, Don. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 325. Vern. CAain, tain, 
Simla. 

Structure similar to that of S. sorbi folia. 

North- West Himalaya, from Murree to Kumaun. 

Growth moderate, \i rings per inch of radius. Found chiefly on open hill-sides as a 
stiff bush. Very handsome in flower in the spring. 

Ibi. 

H 159. Simla, 7,000 feet 47 

H 2827. Mahasu, Sinda, 8,000 feet ^ 

5. RUBUS, Linn. 

Contains 40 species of erect, trailing or climbing, generally thorny shrubs. Many 
species are known on account of their edible fruits, the best of which is perhaps 
it, elliptieus, B. fmticosu^, Linn.; Hook. FL Ind. ii. 337; Brandis 197. The 
Blackberry or Bramole. Vern. Ankri, alish, kanachi, chench, pakhdna, Ph., is found 
in Afghuiistan, the Salt Range and the Punjab Hunalaya as far east as the Bavi. 
B, rosafolius, Sm.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 34 1. ; Kurz i. 439 {B, SikhtmemU, O. Kze; 
Gamble 36), is a small shrub found in the Himalaya from Kumaun to Sikkim, in the 
Khasia Hills and in the hills of Burma. It has a large, red, edible fruit, wluch is 
sold in the bazar in Daijeeling. B.paniculatus, Sm, ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 329 ; Brandis 
196; Gamble 36. Vern. Kala akki, Eangpra; Anehtt,pattarola, hala hisaiu. Hind. ; 
Numing rik, Lepcha, is a simple leaved species with leaves covered beneath with dense 
white tomentum, common throughout the Himalaya. B. bi/hrus, Buch. ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. i. 338 ; Brandis 198. Vern. Chdnch, kaniauch, khanidra, Kashmir ; Karer, 
akhreri, akhe, Ravi ; Dher, Simla, is a white-stemmed shrub of the Himalaya from 
Hazara to Bhutan. B. niveus, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 336 ; Brandis 199 ; Gamble 
35. Yem. Kalga, Sutlej, has the same distribution. JB. moluecanui, Linn. ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 330 ; Kurz L 439 ; Gamble .39. Yem. Bipemkanta, Nep. ; St^ok-ji, 
Lepcha, is a large shrub, with simple, rugose leaves, and red edible fruit, found in the 
North-East Himalaya and down to Burma. B, racemosus, Bozb., and two other 
species occur on the Nilgiris. There are many other interesting species, but too small 
and too numerous for mention here. 



166 ROSACEJ;. [liubui. 

1. B. ellipticnSy Smith ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 336. R. flavus, Hara.^ 
Brandis 197; Kurz i. 4558; Gamble 35. R. Gotoreephul, Roxb. Fl. 
Indj ii. 517. Vern. Akhi, ankri, kundchi, gurachay pukana, Pb. ; Etar, 
Aiskalu, kisalu, Kumauu ; Tola aselu, escalu, cesi, Nep. ; KasAyem, 
Lepcha. 

A large thorny shrub with brown bark and moderately hard, light- 
brown wood. Pores small ; medullary rays short, very broad and 
moderately broad. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Bhutan, between 1,500 and 8,000 feet ; Ebasia Hills 
and Assam. 

The fruit is yellow and with the flavour of the raspberry ; it is commonly eaten 
and made into preserves in the Himalaya, and is certainly one of the bast of the wild 
fruits of India. 

E 2367. Tukdah Forest, Darjeeling, 6,000 foet. 

2. B. lasiocarpnSy Smith; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii: 339; Brandis 198; 
Kurz i. 439 ; Gamble 86. Vern. Gunac/ia, pukana, Hazara; Kandidri, 
kharmuch, surganch, Kashmir ; Tulanchy Chenab ; Ni&y kalliaehiy Beas ; 
KlenchUygalkay^vK^^i'y iTa/^a^ Sutlej ; Kalawar, kala Aisalu, Kumauu; 
Kala aseluy Nep. ; Kajutalam, Lepcha. 

Bark smooth. Structure similar to that of R, ellipticus, 

Himalaya, Ehasia Hills, Burma, South India and Ceylon. 

The f nut has a glaucous blue-black colour ; it is small, but of good flavour. 

E 2368. Tukdah Forest, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet. 

3. B. lineatuSy Reinw. ; Hook. Fl. Ind.ii* 333 ; Gamble 36. Vern. 
Oemp6 aselu, Nep. 

A large thornless shrub with red bark peeling oflT in papery flakes. 
Wood yellowish brown, in structure resembling that of R. eWpticns, 

Sikkim Himalaya, 6,000 to 9,000 feet. 
Stems used to make fences. Fruit red, edible. 

E 3307. Darjeeling 7,000 feet. 

6. ROSA, Linn. 

Contfdns 9 species without including those cultivated in India, full account of 
which is ffiven m Brandis' Forest Flora, and referred to in the Flora Indica ii. 363. 
Ito»a invoTucrata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 513, is a sub-scandent shrub of the banks of streams 
in the Gangeticplain, westward to Mount Aboo and eastward to Burma. R. JEglanteriay 
Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 366 (R. lutea, Mill. ; Brandis 201), is a shrub of the 
arid parts of the inner Himalaya, with yellow flowers. R, Wehhianay Wall ; Hook, 
fl. Ind. ii. 366 ; Brandis 202. Vern. Kantidn, shingdri, Hazara ; Shikand, skawali, 
fnanayar, brazen, Chenab ; Chua, Lahonl ; 8ia, Ladak, Piti ; Ringyal, Kanawar, 
is a pmk-flowered erect shrub of the same region. R, anserituBfoliaf Boibb*; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 365, is a common, wild and cultivated, white-flowered rose of Afghanistan. 
R, longicuspis, Bertol. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 367, is a climber of the Ehasia Hills from 
2,000 to 5,000 feet ; and R. Leschenaultiana, W. and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 368, a 
climber ol the Nilgiri and Pulney Hills. 

1. E. moscliatay Mill. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 367 ; Brandis 201. Vern. 
Kujiy kajei, karer, ktoia, kwiala^ Hind. ; Phulwara, chal, Kashmir. 

A largre, thorny, climbing shrub. Bark greyish brown. Wood moder- 
ately hard, porous. Annual rings marked by a continuous line of large 
pores in the spring wood, the pores in the autumn wood being scanty 
and small. Medullary rays broad to very broad. 



Bosa.'l ^ ROSACE.B. 167 

North- West Himalaya, from Afghanistan to Nepal, ascending to 11,000 feet. 
A tall climber, very sweet scented, and very ornamental when in flower in May and 
June. Flowers white. Growth slow, 16 rings per inch of radius. 

H 116. Bhajji, Simla, 6,000 feet. 

2. E. sericea, Lindl.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 867; Brandis 202 ; Gamble 86. 
A thorny bhrub with greyish brown bark^ peeling off in papery 

flaked. Wood very hard, darkening on exposure. Annual rings marked 
by a continuous line of very small pores in the spring wood, the pores 
in the autumn wood being extremely small. Medullary rays short, 
moderately broad to broad, prominent. 

Himalaya, from the Sutlej to Bhutan, from 9,000 to 14,000 feet 
Growth slow, 18 rings per inch of radius. Flowers white or pink. . 

£ 2366. Suburkum, Darjeeling, 11,000 feet. 

3. E. macropliyllay Lindl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 866 ; Brandis 203. 
Vem. Guldb, ban-guldb, Hind.; Tikjik, Chenab; Akhiari, Ravi; Breri, 
bankoij Simla. 

A thorny shrub. Bark blackish brown, peeling off in thin flakes. 
Wood hard and compact*; annual rings marked by a belt of numerous 
small pores in the spring wood ; pores in the rest of the wood extremely 
small. Medullary rays moderately broad to broad, prominent. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Sikkim, between 3,500 and 10,000 feet. 
Growth slow, 13 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 57 lbs. per cubic foot. Flowers 
pink. It makes good hedges. 

ibt. 
H 50. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 

H 2872. „ „ „ ...... 56 

H 2847. Mahasu, Simla „ 59 

7. ERIOBOTRYA, Lindl. 

Contains 9 species. E, Japonica, Lindl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 372 ; Brandis 575 
{Mespilus japonica, Banks ; Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 510). The Loquat, is cultiyated in most 
parts of India (Weight 46 lbs., Wallich). U. petiolata, Hook, f . ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 370, 
18 a tree of Sikkim and Bhutan at 5,000 to 9,000 feet. E, hengalensis, Hook. f. ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 371 (E, dubia, Kurz i. 443. Mespilus bengalensis, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 510) 
is an evergreen tree of Northern and Eastern Bengal and Burma. The remainder 
are shrubs or small trees. 

1. E. dubia. Dene; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 371. Photinia dubia, Lindl. 
Gamble 37. Vern. Berkung, Lepcha. 

A small tree. Bark light brown, 4 inch thick. Wood white, soft, 
even grained. Pores very small. Medullary rays of two classes, 
numerous very fine rays closely packed between fewer moderately broad 
rays. 

North-East Himalaya, from 5,000 to 6,000 feet. 
Weight, 46 lbs. per cubic foot. 

E 2365. Rangbul, Darjeeling, 7,000 feet. 

2. E. elliptica, Lindl.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 872. Photinia sp. 
Gamble 37. Vern. Mihuly mya, Nep. ; Yelnyo, Lepcha. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Bark greyish brown, \ inch thick. 
Wood reddish brown, compact, hard, apt to warp slightly. Pores small 
and very small. Medullary rays fine and very fine, very numerous, 
prominent on a radial section. 



168 ROSACEiB. [Uriobolr^a, 

Sikkim and Bhutan Himalaya, from 6,500 to 8,000 feet. ^ 

Growth moderate. Aikin, describing Wallich's specimens gives 8*4 rings ; our speci- 
mens shew 10 rings per inch of radios. Weight, 57*5 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood good, 

but not used. 

lbs. 
£ 366. Rangbul, Darjeeling, 7,000 feet 68 

E 3109. Daijeeling, 7,000 feet 57 

8. PYRUS, Linn. 

Contains 22 species, all found in the Himalaya and Khasia Hills, one only 
extending southward to Burma. The genus is divided into 5 sections : Malu9, 3 species ; 
Pyrus, 4 species ; Ariay 2 species ; SoAits, 5 species ; and Micromeltu, 8 species. 

In the section Malus, besides P. baccatOy Linn., P. Malus, Linn. ; Hook. FI. Ind. 
ii. 373 ; Boxb. Fl. Ind ii. 511 ; Brandis 205. The Apple. Yern. Shewa, Afg. ; Sku, sun, 
ckunt, khajir, bisir, palu, Pb. ; £ugku, Ladak ; Seo, seb, Hind., is apparently wild and 
commonly cultivated in the North- West Himalaya. It is also cultivated in gardens in 
Berar, Central India, the Punjab and Sind. P. sikkimenns, Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 373, is found in the Sikkim Himalaya. 

In the section Pyrus, besides P. Pcuhia, Ham., P. communis, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
iL 874; Boxb. Fl.Ind. ii. 510; Brandis 203. The Pear. Yern. Tang, btUana, ndk, bo, 
sunkeint, charkeint, Ii, Pb. Hills ; NdsApdti, ndk, Pb. Plains ; Amrud, Arab, is 
apparently wild in Kashmir and cultivated in the Himalaya. The fruit is generally 
hard, but good for baking and preserves. P. Kunuumi, Dene ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 374 ; 
Brandis 2&, and P. Jacquemontiana, Dene ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 374 ; Brandis 205, 
are found in l^e North- West Himalaya ; they much resemble P. Paskia, 

In the section Aria, two species only occur ; they are here described. 

In the section Sorbus, besides P. joliolosa, P. Aucuparia, Gaertn. ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 375, the Mountain Ash, is found in the North- West Himalaya from 11,500 feet 
to 13,000 feet from Eashmir to Kumaun ; and P. microphylla, WalL, P. WdUickii, 
Hook, f., and P. imignis. Hook, f., in the Sikkim Himalaya. 

In the section Micromelus, P. Orijffithii, Dene. ; P. rhamnoides. Dene ; and P. 
Thomsoni, King, are described from high elevations in the Sikkim Himalaya ; P. fer- 
ruginea, Hook, f ., from Bhutan ; and 4 species : P. kkasiana. Dene, P. granulosa, 
Bertol. (Yern. Dingsopha, Khasia), P. potycarpa, Hook, f ., and P. cuspidata, Bertol., 
from the Khasia mils. 

Wood compact and close-grained^ marked by very small pores and 
fine medullary rays. The wood of the Pears (sections Pjfrui and Malus) 
warps and cracks, whereas that of the sections Sorbus and Aria seasons 
better. 

1. P. baccata, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 373 ; Brandis 205. The 
Siberian Crab. Yern. Ban meAal, gwdlam, Hind. ; Baror, li4, Ihijo, 
Ktoar, Pb. 

A small tree with grey bark. Wood white, with pale-brown heart- 
wood, warps considerably. Structure similar to that of P. Pasiia, but 
medullary rays slightly broader. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Bhutan, between 6,000 and 11,000 feet; Khasia 
Hills. 

Growth slow, 12 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 53 lbs. per cubic foot Fruit 
edible. 

lbs. 

E 967. Chumbi Valley, Tibet, about 10,000 feet 63 

2. p. Pashia, Ham. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 374; Kurz i.441. P. vario^ 
losa, Wall. ; Brandis 204, 575 ; Gamble 36. Yern. Tang, batangi, ieint, 
ikindar, katdri, kitiu, iu, shegul, Pb. ; MeAal, mol, Hind. ; Pasii, Nep. ; 
Zi, Lepcha. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark dark brown, exfoliating in 



P^rui. ] ROSicsJi. 169 

small rectangular scales. Heartwood light reddish brown^ haixl^ close and 
even-grained^ cracks and warps. Annual rings marked by a dark line. 
Pores very small. Medullary rays very fine and very numerous^ uniform 
and equidistant. 

Outer Himalaya, from the Indus to Bhutan, between 2,600 and 8,000 feet. 

Growth moderate, 8 rings per inch of radius. Weiglit, 47 lbs. per cubic foot. The 
wood is used for walking-sticks, combs, tobacco pipes and various other purposes. The 
fruit is only eaten wheu half rotten, like the Medlar, but even then is not sweet. 

Ibf. 

H 3185. DungagalH, Hazara, 7,000 feet 

H 23. Madhan, Simla, 6,000 feet 47 

H 236. Garhwal HUls (1868) 

3. P. lanata, Don ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 375. E. Aria, Ehrh. ; Brandis 
206. Yern. Guft palos, A(g.; Doda, chola^ c/iilana, maila, pallUj ban 
j)dla, ianffAi, tAdn&i, morphal, marpol, Pb. ; Gallon, mduli, paltu, ban 
palti, Hind. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree with dark-brown bark. Wood 
white, moderately hard, close and even-tjrained, seasons well. Annual 
rings marked by a narrow belt without pores, on the outside of each ring. 
Fores very small, most numerous in the spring wood. Medullary rays 
fine. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Bhutan, between 5,000 and 10,000 feet. 

Growth slow, 22 rinp^s per inch of radius. Weight, 40 to 47 lbs. per cubic foot; Mathiea 
gives 46 to 58 lbs. It might be useful for boxes and other purposes for which a close 
and even-grained wood is required. Fruit large, eaten wheu half rotten, like that of the 
Medlar (P. germanica, Ldl.). 

Ibt. 

H 64. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 47 

H 2887. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 40 

H 3186. Dungagalli, Hazara, 7,000 feet 

4. P. vestita, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 375. P. lanata, Don ; 
Gamble 37. Vern. Mayhell, guhor, Nep. ; Singka, Bhutia. 

A deciduous tree. Wood reddish with brown streaks, moderately 
hard. Annual rings distinct. Pores very small. Medullary rays fine, 
numerous, not distinct. 

Eastern Himalaya, between 8,000 and 10,000 feet. 

Growth slow, 20 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 44 lbs. per cubic foot. Fruit 
edible. 

lbs. 

E 380. Tonglo, Darjeeling, 10,000 feet 44 

6. P. foliolosa, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 376; Brandis 207; 
Oamble 37. Vern. Kharsani, Nep. 

A shrub or small tree. Wood white, with small, darker coloured heart- 
wood. Annual rint^s distinct. Pores very small, more numerous in the 
spring wood. Medullary rays fine, very numerous. 

Eastern Himalaya, between 7,000 and 10,000 feet. 

Growth slow, 23 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 45 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Ibfl. 

B 378. Tonglo, Darjeeling, 10,000 feet 45 

6. P. nrsina, Wall.; Brandis 206. P./oliolona, Wall.; Hook. EU 
Ind. ii. 376 (in part). Vern. Sdlia^Hlia, Pb, ; fPompii lUVi,\i^Qvi\« 



170 mofiACBJB. [Pyrui. 

A small tree with smooth^ reddish grey bark^ peeling off in horizontal 
papery strips. Wood white, with a small, brown heartwood. Structure 
similar to that of P./oliolosa. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Sikkim, between 6,000 and 12,000 feet. 
Growth Blow, 32 rings per inch of radios. Weight* 54 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Ibf. 

H 134. Lahoul, 10,000 feet . . 

H 3020. . Hattu, Simla, 10,000 feet 54 

9. STRANV^SIA, Lindl. 

1. S. glaucescenSy Lindl.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 882; Brandis 210. 
Vern. GarmeAal, tund, Kumaun. 

A small evergreen tree. Bark ^ inch thick, rough, dark coloured. 
Wood light coloured when fresh cut, turning reddish brown on exposure, 
fine and even grained ; annual rings marked by a thin line. Pores very 
small, numerous. Medullary rays numerous, uniform, very fine, equi- 
distant. 

Central Himalaya, Kumaun and Garhwal from 3,000 to 8,000 feet, Nepal, Khatia 
Hills. 

Growth moderate, 7 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 48 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Ibfl. 

H 2970. Naini T&l, 6,000 feet 48 

10. CRATAEGUS, Linn. 

Contains 3 species. C Oxyacantha, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 383 ; Brandis 207 ; 
Gamble 37. The Hawthorn. Vern. Ring, ramnia, pingyat, jphinddk, patakkan, 
Pb. ; Bansanjli, sur sinjli, Jhelam, is a small tree of Afghanistan and tie Western 
Himalaya, from the Indus to the Ravi ; elsewhere cultivated. C. Clarkei, Hook. f. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 383, is a small tree of Kashmir. 

1. C. crennlata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 509; Hook. PI. Ind. ii. 384. 
C, Pyracantha, Persoon; Brandis 208. Vern. Gingarn, gianru. Hind. 

A large spinescent shrub. Wood white, liard, very close and even 
grained. Annual rings marked by a belt of harder and darker-coloured 
wood on the outer edge of each ring. Pores very small, numerous. 
Medullary rays very fine, numerous. 

Himalaya, from the Sutlej to Bhutan, from 6,000 to 7,000 feet, descendinir ia 
Kumaun to 2,600 feet. 

H 2967. Naini T41 JS* 

11. COTONEASTER, Linn. 

Contains 10 or 11 species, many of which are merely small prostrate shrubs. 
They are all Himalayan, one only extending to the Nileiris and one (ooubtfully) to the 
Khasia Hills. C. frigida. Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 385 ; Brandis 209, is a small 
tree of the Central and Eastern HimahiTa. C. buxifolia, Wall. ; Hook. II. Ind. 
ii. 387; Beddome xcvii.; Brandis 210. Vern. Hurunny, Nilgins, is a rigid shrub 
or small tree of the Nilgiri and Pnlney Hills, with a dense elastic wood used by the 
Todas to make clubs. The remaining species not here described are all small. 

Wood harder and more compact than that of Pyru9 ; also marked by 
f xtremely small pores. 



Cotoneaiter, ] 



ROSACEJI. 



171 



L C. bacillaris, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 884; Brandis 208. Vern. 
Bij riu, lin, lun, rdu, reHshy rishj Pb. Hills ; SuinsA, Jaunsar Bawur. 

A small deciduous tree with bluish grey, nearly smooth bark. Wood 
white, turning; light red towards the centre, smooth, very hard, close 
and even grained, but splits and warps much. Annual rings marked by 
the darker colour of the outer portion of each ring. Pores extremely 
small, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. 

Salt Bange above 1,500 feet, North- West Himalaya, from the Indus to the Sarda, 
between 6,000 and 10,000 feet, Sikkim and Bhutan. 

Growth moderate, 11 rinffs per inch of radius. Weight, on an average, 57 lbs. per 
cubic foot. The wood is used for making walking-sticks : the '* alpenstocks " sold at 
Simla are usually made of it. 



H 65. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 

H 2890. „ ,f „ 

H 26. Madhan, Simla, 6,000 feet 

H 124. Kulu, about 7,000 feet . 

H 925. Hazara „ „ 

H 3177. Dungagalli, Hazara, 7,000 feet 



lbs. 

61 

• • t 

68 
62 
66 
••• 



2. G. acnininatay Lindl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 885 ; Brandis 209. 
Vern. Biii, rduns, rius, niinsh, Hind. 

A deciduous shrub. Wood hard^ structure like that of C hacillarii. 

Himalaya, from the Beas to Sikkim, between 4,500 and 10,000 feet. 
Growth slow, 16 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 64 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood 
used to make walking-sticks, like that of C. bacillaris. 

Ibi. 

H 120. Jalaori Pass, Kulu, 9,000 feet 64 

H 2889. 



H 3013 ] Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 



3. C. micropliylla, Wall.; Hook. R Ind. ii. 887; Brandis 209; 
Gamble 37. Vern. Khdriz, luni, Kashmir; Oarri, Kumaun. 

A small procumbent shrub. Wood hard^ similar to that of 
C bacillaris, but with slightly larger pores. 

Himalaya, from Kashmir to Bhutan, from 4,000 to 8,000 feet in the North-West and 
above 10,000 feet in Sikkim. Often planted for ornament in £ngland. 
Growth slow, 24 rings per inch of radius. 
H 2823. Simla, 7,000 feet. 



Order XLII. SAXIFBAGILS. 

An Order of about 8 Indian arboraceous genera, chiefly Himalayan. It is divided 
into 3 tribes of woody plants, viz., — 

Tribe I. — HydrangesB Hydrangea^ Pileottegiat 

Diehroa, Deutzia and 
Pkiladelpkua, 
II. — Escallonieee ..... Ilea and Poly ot ma. 



>f 



a 



III. — Ribesieee 



Mihes, 



Five of these genera are here described. JPileosteqia vibumoides. Hook. f. and 
Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 405, is a shrub of the Elhasia Hills. Itea contains three speeies 
of shrubs or small trees of the Himalaya and Khasia Hills, of which /. nuiam, 
Royle ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 408 ; Brandis 213. Yem. Lelar, Eaghan ; Oarkatkt 
Kumaun, is a small tree of the North- Western Himalaya firam the Indui to Nepali 



172 SAXiFRiGEJ!. [ Hydrangea. 

between 3,000 and 6,000 feet. J. macrophylla, WalL ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 408 ; Gamble 
38. Yem. Teturldumm, Lepcha is a small tree of the valleys round Darjeelin^i^ and in 
the Ehasia Hills. /. Chinensis, Hook, and Am. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 408, is a small 
tree of the Kbasia Hills between 4,000 and 6,000 feet. Polyoatna integrifolia, Bl. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 409. {P. Wallichii, Bennett ; Korz 444) is a small tree of the 
Xhasia Hills, found also in the Andaman Islands. 

Pores small to extremely small. Medullary rays often of two classes^ 
moderately broad and very fine. 

1. HYDRANGEA, Linn. 

Contains 5 Indian speciee. Besides those described, the chief is JT*. altissima, 
Wall. ; Brandis 211 ; Gamble 38. lYem. Sema, Lepcha, a large climbing or erect 
sbrub of the Himalaya from the Sutlej to Bhutan above 5,000 feet ; its bark is used as 
a substitute for paper. M. aspera, Don, and JST. stylosa. Hook. f. and Th., are small 
trees of the Sikkim Himalaya. The Garden Hjdran^a, or Chinese Guelder Rose, so 
commonly cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the Hills, is H, Hortensia, DC. 

!• H. vestita, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind.ii.405 ; Brandis 211; Gamble 
88. Vern, Kulain, Bhutia ; PoiuKia, Nep. 

A small deciduous tree with light brown, rather corky bark. Wood 
pinkish white, moderately hard; annual riog^ indistinct. Pores 
extremely small. Medullary rays very fine. 

Himalaya, from Eumaun to Sikkim between 5,000 and 11,000 feet. 

Weight, 45 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Ibf. 
E373. Tonglo, Darjeelmg, 10,000 feet 45 

2. H. robnstay Hook. f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 404 ; Gamble 
38. Vern. Bogoii, Nep. 

A small, handsome, deciduous tree, with thin, brown, papery bark, peel- 
ing off in large flakes. Wood white, moderately hard, close-grained. 
Fores very small. Medullary rays of two sizes, moderately broad, short 
and very fine, prominent. 

Eastern Himalaya, Sikkim, from 5,000 to 7,000 feet, generally as undergrowth 
in the oak forests. « 

Weight, 42 lbs. per cubic foot. 

lb*. 
£2370. Eangbtil, Darjeeling, 7,000 feet 42 

2. DICHROA, Lour. 

1. D. febrifoga. Lour. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 406 ; Gamble 38. Adamia 
cyanea, Wall. t. 213. Yem. Basai, bamuk, Nep.; Gebokanaky Lepcha; 
Singnamukf Bhutia. 

An evergreen shrub, with yellow bark peeling off in flakes. 
Wood white, moderately hard, with small pores and moderately broad to 
very fine medullary rays. 

Common in the forests of the Eastern Himalaya, from Nepal to Bhutan and in 
the Khasia Hills, above 4,000 feet. 

The sboots and bark of the roots are made into a decoction and used as a febri- 
fuge by the Nepalese. It is a very handsome shrub, with blue flowers and bright blue 
berries, coming up on clearings in the oak forests. 

E 2371. ^Daijeeling, 7,000 feet 41 



Leutzia. ] saxifraO££. 1 7S 

8. DEUTZIA, Thunb. 

Contains 3 species. D. macrantha, Hook, f . and Th. is a shrub of the Kumaun 
Hills aboTe 5,500 feet. 

1. D. corymbosay Brown ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 406; Brandis 212. Vern. 
Daloutchi, deufschy hhujru^ Simla. 

A shrub. Outer bark yellowish grey, peeling off in long thin papery 
rolls, leaving the smooth, thin, greenish brown inner bark exposed. 
Wood, white, soft, even-grained. Pores small, very numerous. Medul- 
lary rays moderately broad, alternating with numerous very fine rays. 

Himalaya, from the Sutlej to Bhutan, from 6,000 to 10,000 feet. 

lb*. 

H 2850. Mahasu, Simla, 7,000 feet 46 

H2898. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 

2. D. staminea. Brown ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 407 ; Brandis 212. Vern. 
Muneii, Kumaun ; Deutsch, Simla. 

A shrub. Baik grey, soft, peeling off in small strips, but to a less 
degree than in D, cort/mbom. Wood white, soft j structure similar to that 
of D. corymbosa, 

Himalaya, from Kashmir to Bhutan, from 6,000 to 8,000 feet. 

lbs. 

hIsiQ. ] Simla, 6,000 feet 43 

4. PHILADELPHUS, Linn. 

1, P. coronarius, Linn.^ Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 407 ; Brandis 212. Vern. 
Balunchiy bhoj, Simla. 

A shrub with soft, light grey bark. Wood soft, white, with large 
pith. Pores small and very small, more numerous near the inner edge 
of each annual ring. Medullary rays of two classes, very fine and 
moderately broad. The structure of the wood of the Indian shrub 
is the same as that of the European shrub, the '' Syringa '' of gar- 
dens. 

Himalaya, from Kishtwar to Sikkim, from 6,000 to 10,000 feet. Often planted 

for ornament. 

lbs. ^ 
H3038. Nagkanda, Simla, 7,000 feet 44 

5. RIBES, Linn. 

Contains about 8 species of Himalayan'shrubs. M. Orossularia, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 410 ; Brandis 213. The Gooseberry. Vern. PiUa, pilikcha, kdnsi, teila^ 
amlanch, Upper Chenab and Lahoul, is indigenous to the arid parts of the North-West 
Himalaya above 8,000 feet, and is cultivated in the hiUs. S, nigrum, Linn. The Black 
Currant. Yem. Papar, Kumaun, is found in Kashmir, Kunawar, Garhwal and 
Kumaun above 6,(XX)feet. H. rubrum, Linn. The Red Currant. Vern. Niangha^ 
Lahoul, occurs in the Himalaya between 5,000 and 12,000 feet. It, orientale, Poiret; 
Brandis 214. Yem. Gwaidokh, kaffhak, KhghBXi; Nangke, nydi, phulanch, Chenab; 
Askuta^ Ludak ; Yanae, Piti, is a shrub of the Safedkoh and arid trac^ of the 
Inner Himalaya. S. dentnocarpum, Hook. f. and Th., M, luridum, Hook. f. and Th., 
and S. Griffiihiif Hook. f.andTh. are all shrubs of the Sikkim and Bhutan Himalaya. 

1. B. glaciale, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 410; Brandis 214 ; Gamble 
88. Vern. Robhay^ Bhutia. 



174 SAXiFBAORJi. [Ribei. 

A small shrub with shiQing bark^ peeling off in papery flakes. Wood 
white, compact, moderately hard. Pores extremely small, in narrow inter- 
rupted wavy, concentric lines. Medullary rays scanty, short, broad and 
very broad. 

Himalaya, from Kashmir to Bhutan, between 7,000 and 11,000 feet. 
Weight, 58 to 631b8. 

llM. 

H 3021. H 3022. Hattu, Simla, 10,000 feet 63 

H 2908. H 2912. Nagkanda, Simla, 9,000 feet 

H 3C25. Matiy4na, Simla, 9,000 feet ^ 

E 973. Chumbi Valley, Tibet, about 10,000 feet 68 



Order XLIII. HAMAMELIDEJE. 

Contains 7 genera of Indian trees or shrubs. Distylium indieum^ Bth^ SyeopsU 
Orifflthiana, Oliv., and Loropetalum chinense, Oliv., are all shrubs of the Ehasia 
Hills ; while Corylopsis himalayanay Griff. ; Hook. Fl. Ind, ii. 427, is found in the 
Eastern Himalaya and Khasia Hills, between 6,000 and 6,000 feet. Liquidambar 
orientalcy Miller, a tree of Asia Minor, yields the fragrant resin "Storax" used in 
medicine. 

Wood close-grained. Pores small and very small^ numerous and 
uniformly distributed. Medullary rays numerous^ fine and very fine. 

1. PARROTIA, C. A. Meyen 

Besides the species described, P. persica, C. A. Meyer, is a shrub of the low 
forests on the south coast of the Caspian Sea. 

1. P. Jacquemontiana, Deeaisne ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 426; Brandis 
216. Vern. Paser,j)esAora,po, kildr, kirru, Punjab. 

A large deciduous sbrub or small tree^ with tbin^ grey bark. Wood 
light piukish red, hard^ heavy, very close-grained. Pores extremely smAll. 
Medullary rays fine, numerous. 

North- West Himalaya from the Indus to the Ravi, between 2,800 and 8,500 feet. 

Growth slow 12 to 16 rings per inch (Brandis). Weight, 56 Ihs. per cubic foot. 
Wood highly esteemed for walking-sticks, tent pegs, charpoys and rice pestles, also 
for native bows for throwing pellets. But its chief use is in basket-work and in 
the making of bridges over the Himalayan rivers. The twigs are very tough 
and flexible, and are twisted together into thick ropes, often 300 feet long. The 
bridges consist of one large rope to walk on and two smaller side ropes, one for each 
hand, with smaller ropes connecting the hand ropes with the foot rope, (P 2000 was a 
fine specimen sent to the Paris Exhibition of 1878 from the Ravi.) 

lbs. 
H3178. Dungagalli, Hazara, 6,000 feet 

H 933. Hazara, Punjab. 6,000 feet 56 

H 905. Upper Chenab, Punjab ^ 

2. BUCKLANDIA, R. Brown. 

1. B. populnea, R. Br. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 429 ; Kurz i. 445 ; 
Gamble 38. Vern. Pijpli^ Nep. ; Singliang, Lepcba ; Dingdah, Khasia. 



Buchlandia.'l hamamblidsje. 175 

A large evergreen tree with rough, brown bark. Wood greyish 
brown, rough, moderately hard, close-grained, durable. Pores small. 
Medullary rays fine, very numerous, uniform and equidistant. 

Eastern Himalaya, Khasia Hills and hills of Martaban, from 3,000 to 8,000 feet. 

Growth moderately fast, 6 to 7 rings per inch of radius. Weight, on an average, 
45 lbs. per cubic foot. Is very much used in Darjeeling for planking and door and 
window frames, and is in great demand. It is a very ornamental tree with tough 
poplar-like ieaves, and thick, fleshy stipules. It is easily grown from seed, but the 
young plants are rather delicate. 

lbs. 

E 699. Sepoy dura Forest, Darjeeling, 6,600 feet . . , .41 

E 2372. Raugbdl „ „ 7,000 „ .... 49 

E 2373. „ „ ,) » >f * . . . 46 

3. ALTINGIA, Noronha. 

1. A. ezcelsa, Noronha ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 429 ; Kurz i. 446. Vern. 
Jutili, Ass, ; Nania^op, Burm. 

A lofty deciduous tree. Bark smooth, light gfrey, exfoliating in 
large thin flakes. Wood soft, reddish grey with lighter streaks. 
Annual rings marked by a narrow belt of firm wood without pores. 
Pores small, uniform and uniformly distributed in lines between the 
medullary rays. Medullary rays fine, equidistant, prominent on a radial 
section. 

Assam and Tenasserim. 

Growth moderate, 6 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 46 lbs. per cubic foot. 
Wood used in Assam for building and ordinary domestic purposes. 

Ibf. 

E 1269. Lakhirapiir, Assam 46 

B 2704. Brought from Tavoy by Dr. Wallich in 1828. Resembles this 

in structure 48 



Order XLIV. EHIZOPHOEEjB. 

Contains seven Indian genera of trees, chiefly coast plants and known by the general 
name of "Mangroves." They form forests, binding together the mud, in the estuaries of 
the Indus, Ganges and Irrawaddi, as well as along the coasts of Malabar, Arracan, 
Tenasserim and the Andaman Islands. The Order is divided into 2 Tribes, viz., — 

Tribe I.—Rhizophoreae .... Bhizophora, Ceriops, Kandelia 

and Bruguiera, 

t$ If' — Legnotideas Carallia, Gynotroches, Weihea 

and Blepharistemma* 

Blepharistemma corym5o*tf»i. Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 441; Bcddome ci. is a 
small tree of the hills of Tellicherry and Coorg ; Gh/notroches axiUarut, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 440; Kurz. i. 451, is a small tree of Upper Tenasserim ; &nd\Weihea ceylanica, 
Baill. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 441 ; Bcddome 1. 194, a small tree of Mysore and the Carnatic. 
The remaining genera are here described. 

Rhizophora, Ceriops and Bruguiera have small pores and equidistant, 
fine or moderately broad rays. The pores are sometimes joined by in- 
terrupted concentric bands. The structure of Kandelia is different. 
Carallia and Aimophyllea differ by having two classes of medullary rays : 
numerous very fine rays between fewer moderately broad rays. 



176 BHizoPHOREiB. [Rhizophora. 

1. RHIZOPHORA, Linn. 

The Mangroves. Two species. R. conjugata, Linn. ; Hook.FLInd. ii. 436 ; Bed- 
dome zciz. ; Brandis 218 ; Eorz i« 447 is a small tree usually associated with that 
here described. 

1. B. mucronatay Lamk.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 435; Beddome xcix. ; 
Brandis 217 ; Kurz i. 44-7. B. Mangle^ Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 459. Vern. 
JBiara, Beng,; Kama, Sind; Upoo-poma, Tel.; Byoo, byooma, Burm.; 
Bairada, jumuda, And.; Kadol, Cingh. 

A small evergreen tree. Sapwood light red ; heartwood dark red, 
extremely hard, splits and warps a little in seasoning. Pores small, 
numerous, uniformly distributed ; each pore surrounded by a narrow ring 
of soft tissue. Medullary rays fine, wavy, numerous, uniform, equidis- 
tant ; the distance between the rays equal to about twice the transverse 
diameter of the pores. 

Muddy shores and tidal creeks of India, Burma and the Andaman Islands. 

Weight, 70*5 per cubic foot. The wood is good, but is rarely used. It is durable, e,g, 
B 2721 has been Kept 50 years in Calcutta and is still quite sound. The bark is used 
for tanning, and the fruit is said to be edible. Of the quick germination of the 
Mangroves, Eoxburgh says, "The great length of the seed gives in a very shoi-t 
time a young tree ; for if the apex from which the root issues is only stuck a 
little way into a wet soil or mud, the leaves quickly unfold at the opposite end." 
The seeas often germinate while yet on the tree and drop as young plants into the 
mud. The roots also progress and form constantly fresh stems supported by the 

buttressed roots standing out of the mud. 

Ibt. 

B 2721. Tavoy (Wallich, 1828) 69 

B 502. And£unan Islands 67 

B 2240. „ „ (1866) 73 * 

B2273. „ „ „ 73 

Ko. 9. Ceylon Collection {Rhizophora sp., Caddol) . . . .65 
1^0. 36. 9, I, {Rhizophora sp., Hiri Kaddol) . . 49 

2. CERIOPS, Arn. 

Contains two species. C. Roxburghiana, Arnott; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 436; 
Kurz i. 448. Yem. Kapyaing, Burm. is a large shrub of the coast forests from Chitta- 
gong to Tenasserim. Weight 46 lbs. (Wallich, No. 173, Rhizophora decandra), 

1. C. CandoUeanay Arnott ;;Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 436; Beddome xcix. ; 
Brandis 218; Kurz i. 448. Vern. Kirrari, chauri, Sind; Goran, Beng.; 
Madd, And. 

A small evergreen tree, with dark red bark; wood red, hard. Pores 
very small. Medullary rays fine, slightly wavy, uniform and equidistant. 
Pores joined by fine, wavy, interrupted concentric bands. 

Muddy shores and tidal creeks of India and the Andaman Islands. 

Wood used in Sind for the knees of boats and other purposes ; in Lower Beng^ 
for house-posts and for firewood. The bark is used for tanning. Weight, 63 lbs. 
per cubic foot. 

Ibi. 

B 1985. Andaman Islands (Kurz, 1866) 63 

8. KANDELIA, Wight and Arn. 

1. K. Eheedii, W. and A.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 437; Beddome c; 
Brandis 218 ; Kurz i. 449. Vern. Giiria, Beng. 



Kandelia,] rhizophorsje. 177 

An evergreen shrub or small tree. Wood soft^ close-grained. Pores 
very small^ very numerous. Medullary rays very short, moderately 
broad, promineutly marked on a radial section ; the distance between the 
medullary raya being many times broader than the transverse diameter 
of the pores. 

Muddy shores and tidal creeks of Bengal, Burma, and the Western Coast. 
Weight, 38 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood used only for firewood. Bark used in 
Tavoy in dyeing red, probably as a mordant. 

Ibt. 

£ 407. Sundarbans 38 

4. BRUGUIERA, Lam. 

Contains five species. B. eriopetala, W. and A., B. malabarica, Am., 
B, catyophylloidest and B, parviflara, W. and A., are all trees of the shores of 
Malabar, Bengal, Arracan, Tenasserim and the Andamans, the last species being also 
found at Masulipatam on the Coromandel Coast, and in the Sundarbans. 

1. B. gynmorlliza^ Lam. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 437; Brandis219; 
Kurz i. 450. B. Hheedii, Bl. ; Beddome c. Bhizophora gymnorhiza, Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 460. Vern. Kakra, kankra, Beng. ; Byoo-bo, Burm. 

An evergreen tree, heartwood small, red, extremely hard. Pores 
small, oval, and subdivided; medullary rays moderately broad, fine, very 
numerous. 

Muddy shores and tidal creeks of India, Burma, and the Andaman Islands. 
Weight, 54 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood is used for firewood, house-posts, planks 
and articles of native furniture. 

ibi. 
£ 412. Sundarbans 64 



B 2217 (62 lbs.) and B 2222 (60 lbs.) are specimens which were received in 1866 
from the Andamans under the respective names of Garcinia and JlfaZ/o^iM, but they are 
probably the wood of another species of Bruguiera, The pores are moderate-sized, 
oval and subdivided and the medullary rays are moderately broad and fine, nearly 
equidistant and prominent on a radial section. The pores are joined by narrow, 
interrupted, concentric lines. 

5. CARALLIA, Roxb. 

Contains two Indian trees. C lancetrfolia, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 481 ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 439, is an evergreen tree of the forests of Upper Tenasserim. 

1. C. integerrima, DC; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 439; Beddome t. 193; 
Brandis219; Gamble 39. C. /tt«rfa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 431 ; Kurz i. 
451. Vern. Kierpa, Beng*. ; Palantkaf, Nep. ; Ktijiteira, Ass. ; Karalli, 
Teh; And ipunar, K2Ln.; Pttuschi, BomhAy; Dawaia, Cingh. ; Bya, Arra- 
can ; Maneioga, Burm. 

An evergreen tree witb thin, dark-grey bark. Sapwood perishable ; 
heartwood red, very hard, durable, works and polishes well. Pores moder- 
ate-sized to lar^e, often subdivided. Medullary rays long, of two classes, 
extremely broad and fine, numerous fine rays between each pair of broad 
ones, marked on a radial section as broad, irregular, shining plates. Fine 
bars of soft tissue across the rays. 

Y 



178 EHIZOPHOBEJI. [ CaraUia. 

Eastern and Western moiat tones, Eastern Himalaya, Bengal, Burma, South 
India and the Andamans. 

Weight, according to Benson and Skinner, No. 37, 44 Ihs ; A. Mendis, 42 lbs. ; 
Brandis* Burma List, 1862, No. 106, 6011)8.; our specimens give an average of 47 lbs. 
Benson's experiments with bars 3 feet X 1*4 inch X 1*4 inch, gave P = 797 ; Skinner 
gives P = 6o6. 

Wood used in South Kanara for furniture and cabinet-making and in Burma for 
planking, furniture and rice-pounders. 

W 743. South Kanara 42 

B 308. Burma (1867) 47 

B 816. Burma 61 

B 2630. Burma (1862) 47 

B 2210. Andaman Islands (1866) 47 

B 1600. Burma ^ 

No. 19. Ceylon Collection (marked C. zeylanica) .... 42 



2. No. 90. Adrian Mendis, Ceylon Collection, weight 61 lbs. P = 4'64. 
Vern. Vkbeirii/e, Cingh., is probably C. cal^cina, Bth.; Thwaites Euum. 
121 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 439. The wood is brick-red ; in structure it 
resembles that of C. inlegerrima, but the pores are fewer, and the broad 
rays are narrower and at regular distances. 

6. ANISOPHYLLEA, Br. 

1. A. zeylanica, Bib.; Hook. PI. Ind. ii. 442; Thw. Enum. 119; 
Beddome t. 195. Tetracrypta einnamomoides, Gard. and Ch. Vern. 
Wellipiyanne, Cingh. 

A tree. Wood greyish brown, moderately hard. Pores moderate- 
sized and large, filled with a white substance, prominent on a vertical 
section as white streaks. Medullary rays of two classes, numerous 
but indistinct, fine, between fewer moderately broad rays. Bars of 
soft texture and the same width as the rays crossing these and dividing 
the wood into numerous rectangular unequal figures. 

Iba. 
No. 96. Ceylon Collection 36 



Oeder xlv. combeetaceje. 

An Order containing 8 Indian Genera of trees, shrubs or climbers, containing some 
of the most important of the timber trees of the Indian forests. It is divided into 
2 Tribes :— 

Tribe I.— Combreteae Terminalia, Calyeopteris, Ano- 

geiwus, Lumnitzera, Com' 
bretum and QuisqualiM, 
„ II.--Gyrocarpe8B Uligera and Ctyrocarpui. 

Four of these genera are here described, most of the remainder contain climbing 
shrubs. Lumnitzera contains two small ever^^reen trees. L, racemosa, Willd. ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 452; Beddome ciii.; Brandis 221; Kurz i. 468 (Petaloma altemifolict, 
Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 372) Vern. Kripa, Kir^a, Beng. ; Baireya, Cingh. ; Ten<jyi, Barm., 
is a tree of the muddj creeks and tidal forests of the Suodarbans, Malabar, Arracan, 
Tenasserim and the Andamans, also found by Beddome at Balasore. ' It has a strong and 
durable wood used for house-posts, and in Calcutta for fhel (Boxbnrgh). X. eoccinea. 



Terminalia,] C0MBRKTACSiB« 179 

W. and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 452. {L. littorea, Yoigt ; Eurz i. 469), is a small tree of the 
mangrove swamps of Tenasserim. Combretum comprises 16 large shrabs, generally 
dimbin^^, found in tbe moist zones of India and fiurma, of which the most common is 
C. decandrum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 232 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 462 ; Brandis 221 ; Kurz i. 
460; Gamble 40. Vem. Punk, pharsia, dhohela, Hindi. ; JTa/t/ara, Nep. ; Pindik^ 
Lepcha; ArikotUy Tel. ; Thama-ka-nwajt/, Burm., an evergreen scandent shrob, with 
whitish-jellow floral leaves, climbing to the summits of the highest trees, and found in 
the intermediate and moist zones of India and Burma. It has a whitish grey bark, and 
■oft light-brown wood, having lar^e pores and moderatC'Sized, evenly distnbuted 
medullary rays (E 3301, Darjefling Terai). QuisqualU indica, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 427, 
is the " Rangoon Creeper," Vem. Ddwaihmine, Burm., a climbing shrub with red 
flowers, indigenous in Tenasserim and cultivated in gardens in other parts of India. 

Uligera contains 3 species : /. Coryzademia, Meissn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 460 
(/. nppendieulata, Bl.; Kurz i. 469) of Tenasserim and the Andamans; /. Kurzii,Q. B. 
Clarke, of Burma and the Khasia Hills ; and /. khasiana, C. B. Clarke, of the Khaaia 
Hills: all scandent shrubs. 

Wood moderately hard to very hard^ with a distinct dark-coloared 
heartwood in some, but not in all species. Pores varying^ in size. 
Medullary rays uniform, equidistant, fine or very fine, very numerous, the 
distance between tbe rays less than the diameter of the pores. The 
wood of Oyrocarpus is anomalous. 

1. TERMINALIA, Linn. 

Contains about 12 Indian trees, mostly of very large size, and furnishing valuable 
timber as well as other products. T. procera^ Roxb. JFl. Ind. ii. 429 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 414; Kurz L 454 is a lofty tree of the AndamaU Islands. T. foBtidigtima, Griff. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 415, is a tree of Mergui. T. pyrtfolia, Kurz i. 457 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 448. Vem. Leinben, Burm., is a Burmese deciduous tree, with wood weighing 39 lbs. 
per cubic foot. 

Wood moderately hard to very hard. A distinct, dark-coloured, very 
hard heartwood in T. iomentosa, Arjuna, myriocarpa, and paniculata ; 
dark-coloured, but not well-defined wood near the centre in T. Chehula 
and cUrina ; no heartwood in the remaining species. Pores moderate- 
sized to large, prominent on a vertical section. Medullary rays fine, 
numerous, uniform and equidistant, the distance between two ravs 
being less than the transverse diameter of the pores. Concentric bands 
of soft texture continuous in T, belerica, bi-alata, alata and Catappa ; in- 
terrupted and sometimes wanting in the other species. 

L T. belerica, Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. 431 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 445 ; 
Beddome t. 19; Brandis 222; Kurz i. 455; Gamble 89. Vern. 
Babela, beleyleA, Pers. ; Bahera, bhaira, beiara, Hind. ; Boiera, Beng. ; 
Baheri, Rajbanshi ; Kan(nn, Lepcha ; CAirora, Gdro ; HullucA, bauri. 
Ass.; TAara, Uriya; Tani, kaitu efupay, Tam.; Tani, iandi, toandi, 
tAandra, Tel. ; AAera, jAera, Hyderalmd ; Santi, Kan. ; Bherda, baAera, 
Mar. ; Balra, balda, Dekkan ; BeAedo, Mandevi ; TaAaka, taka, banjir, 
Gondi; TeAera, Bhfl; Bulu, Cingh.; SacAenp, Magh; TAiUein, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree ; bark ^ inch thick, bluish grej, with numer- 
mi8 fine vertical cracks. Wood yellowish grey, hard, no heartwood, not 
durable ; readily attacked by insects ; annual rings indistinct. Pores of 
two sizes, large and small ; the large onesfrequently subdivided, joined br 
irregular, wavy, concentric bands of softer tissue, which contain the small 
pores. Fine, uniform and equidistant medullary rays are distinctly visibls 



180 COMBBSTACKiB. [ Ttrminalia. 

in the harder and darker portions between the bands^ and on the radial 
section. 

This wood distantly resembles in structure that of Ougeinia dalbergi* 
cidei, but the bands of soft tissue are more continuous^ and the medul- 
lary rays are less prominent. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from near the Indus eastwards, forests of India and Burma. 

Growth moderate to rapid, 3 to 7 rings per inch of radins. Weight, according to 
Kyd's Assam experiments, 4& lbs. per cubic foot ; Central Provinces List, 39 lbs. ; Brand is' 
Burma List, 1862, No. 47, 40 lbs. ; the average of our specimens gives 48 lbs. Eyd gives 
P = 378. The wood is used for planking, packing cases, canoes, and in the North- 
Western Provinces for house-building after steeping in water which has the effect of 
making it more durable. In the Central Provinces it is used for plough shafts and 
carts when bijcudl is not available. In South India it is used for packine-cases, coffee- 
boxes, catamarans, and grain measures. The fruit is one of the myrabolans, and is 
exported to Europe to be used in dyeing cloth and leather and in tanning. Native ink 
is made of it, and it is used in medicine as a purgative and for other purposes. The 
kernels of the fruit are eaten, but are said to produce intoxication if eaten in excess 
(Hunter's Statistical Account of Bengal, xvi. p. 51), and an oil is obtained from them 
which is used for the hair. The fruit is eaten by monkeys, deer, goats, sheep, and 
eattle. The tree gives a copious gum, which does not seem to be of much use. The 
leaves according to the Indore Forest Report of 1876-77 have been used as an antiseptic 
to impregnate sleepers of Salei (see under Boswellia thurifera, p. 66), which are said, 
after soaking for five months in a tank filled with Bahera leaves and water, to have 
been rendered durable. 

Ibi. 

P 1190. Madhopur, Punjab 36 

O 534 DehraDun 58 

O 2996. Garhwal(1874) 69 

349. Gorakhpur (1868) 62 

C 176. Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) 

G 1126. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 42 

C 2737. Moharli Reserve, Central f^ovinces 44 

C 2773. Melghdt, Berar 

E 663> Bamurpokri, Darjeeling Terai 46 

W1188. South Kanara 44 

B 2532. Burma (1862) 

No. 53. Salem Collection (marked Wrightia antidytmUriea) . . 62 

8. T. ChebtQa, Betzius ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 446 ; Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
488; Beddome t. 27; BraDdis223; Kurz i. 466 ; Gamble 89. Vern. 
Harra, har, iarara, Hind. ; HiliMa, Ass. ; Hariidkiy BeDg. ; Silim, 
Lepcha; Karedia, Uriya; Halra, Aarla, Dekkan; Karka, iir, karro, 
maioia, Qondi ; Kadaiai, Tam. ; Karaia, iaduiar, Tel. ; Heerda, Kan., 
Mar. ; AlaU, Mysore; Kajo, Magh ; PangaA, Burm.; Aalu, Cingh. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark \ inch thick^ dark brown, with numerous 
generally shallow vertical cracks. Wood very hard, brownish grey, with 
a greenish or yellowish tinge, fairly smooth and close-grained, fairly dur- 
able, seasons well. No regular heartwood, but frequently irregular masses 
of dark purple wood near the centre. Annual rings indistinct. Pores 
small and modtrate-sized, uniformly distributed, often subdivided ; each 
pore or group of pores surrounded by a narrow ring of soft tissue. 
Medullary rays very fine, uniform, equidistant, very numerous, distinctly 
visible on a radial section. The stnicture of the wood differs from that 
of T, (omentosa^ chiefly by smaller pores. 

Sub-Himalajan tract from the Sutlej eastwards, ascending to 6,000 feet ; Bengal* 
Assam, Chittagong, Central and' South India. 



Terminalia, J 



COHBUKTACEJB. 



181 



Growth moderate, 6 to 10 rings per inch of radios. The weight and tranayerse 
strength have been determined by the following experiments : — 



Name of person con- 
ducting experiment. 



Benson 

B. Thompson 

Brsndis 

„ No. 48 
Skinner, No. 189 

„ No. 126 
Wallich 
Smjthies 
Kyd 



Year. 



1868 
1864 
1862 
1862 
1872 

1878 
1831 



Wood whence 
procured. 



Burma 
Satpuras 
India 
Burma 



>f 



South India 
India 

See list helow 
(ioalpara 



Number 

of ex- 

perl- 

ments. 



10 
1 



Size of bar. 



Ft. Id. In. 
8 X 1-4 X 1*4 



3x1x1 



Various 



2x1x1 



Weifht. 



Value 
of F. 



b8 
63 
66 
63 
60 
54 
42 
63 
66 



loss 

1000 

1032 
826 

850 



(T. HUkka. 



The wood takes a good polish and is fairly durable ; it is nsed for furniture, carta, 
amcultural implements and house-building. Beddome says it is cross-g^rained and 
difficult to work. It is being tried for sleepers in Bengal. The bark is nsed for tan- 
ning and dyeing. The fruit gives the black myrabolans, which are of a rather better 
quality than those of T, belerica. They are largely exported from Bombay to Europe. 
So valuable is this trade. in the Southern Circle of Bombav that the Forest Department 
of that Circle clear annually at least Rs. 60,000 clear profit from it alone. In 1877-78 
the net profit was Rs. 77,000, in future years it is expected to average a bih. The unripe 
fruit is used for tannine, dyeing, and in medicine (Balhar zengi, zangihar^ kalchar. 
Hind ; KoJci, Nep.). The fruits give with alum a yellow dve, and with iron-clay give 
a good 8ort of ink. Astringent galls form on the young twigs, which are also usea for 
vSl and in dyeing and tanning. The kernel gives a transparent oil. 

lbs. 
Garhwal (1868) 66 

Dehra Diin 66 

Gorakhpur (1868) 60 

Mandla, Central Provinces 57 







c 



213. 
628. 
336. 
181. 
1169. 



Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces (1870) 



C 

C 842. Bairagarh Reserve, Berar 

C 1247. Gumsur, Madras 

E 671. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai 

£ Zo74. „ ff n 

D 1074. North Arcot, Madras 

No. 60. Salem Collection 62 



66 
68 
60 
67 
63 



3, T. citrina, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 435 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 446; Kurz 
i. 4f56. Yern. HarilaH, Beng.; Hiliia,siliiia, Ass.; Hortueki, Cachar; 
Kyoo, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark light grey, exfoliating with few large 
irregular flakes. Wood grey, darker towards the centre, hard. Struct- 
ure similar to that of T, Chebula. 

Assam, Eastern Bengal, Burma and Andamans. 

Weight, Wallich gives 60 ; our specimens 49 lbs. per cubic foot. Used for planks 
and general purposes of building in Assam ; also as a dye-plant. 

lbs. 

E 2198. Nowgong, Assam . 49 

B 1988. Andaman Islands (Kurz 1866) ^ 



182 coMBRKTAC£JE. [ Terminalid. 

4. T. Gatappa, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 444; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
430 ; Beddome t. 20 ; Kurz i. 454. The Indian Almond. Vem. Badam, 
Beng. ; Taree, Elan. ; Nat vadom, Tarn. ; Fedam, Tel. ; Adamarram, Mai. ; 
Catappa^ Malay. 

A large decidaous tree^ with whorled branches^ leaves turning red 
in the cold season. Wood red, with lighter-coloured sapwood, hard. 
Pores moderate-sized, scanty, joined by wavy, short and concentric bands 
of soft texture. Medullary rays fine. 

fieach forests of the Andaman Islands ; cultivated in most parts of India and Barma. 
Weight, according to Skinner, No. 126, 32 lbs. per cubic foot. P = 470. Wdlich 
also gives 32, while our specimen gives 41 lbs. Beddome says the wood is used for 
various purposes in Madras. The kernels of the nuts are eaten at dessert ; they are 
remarkaole for the spiral folds of the cotyledons ; the bark and leaves pve a black 
dye. It is one of the trees on the leaves of which the " Tasar" or " Katkora" silkworm 
(Antkeraa Faphia) is fed. 

Hm. 

E 3005. Calcutta ^ 

B 1983. Andaman Islands (Kurz, 1866) 41 

5. T. panicnlata, W. and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 448 ; Beddome 
t. 20 ; Brandis £26. Pentaptera panieulata^ Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 442. 
Vem. Pe-karakai, Tarn.; Neemeeri, Tel.; Kinjal, iindal, Mar.; Honal, 
kuluvdy hulviy Kan. ; Poo mardd, pillai mardd, Anaroalaip, 

A large deciduous tree. Wood grey, with dark heartwood, very hard. 
Pores large and moderate-sized, oval, numerous. Medullary rays very 
fine, uniform and equidistant, wavy« very numerous; the transverse 
diameter of the pores many times larger than the distance between two 
medullary rays. Pores surrounded by faintly marked patches of soft 
tissue, often arranged in oblique and wavy lines. 

Western moist zone ; forests of the western coast from Bombay southwards. 

Weight, 61 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood valuable, though not quite as good as that 
of 21 tomentosa. It is improved by beinjj kept under water. It is fairly durable. 
It makes good planking and is used for the handles of ploughs in Ratnaghin. 

lb«. 
W 1221 . North Kanara 57 

D 1280. Anamalai Hills 65 

6. T.bialata, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 449; Kurz i. 456. Pen^ 
iaptera bialala, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 441. Vem. Leinbsn, Bnrm. 

A large deciduous tree. Wood grey, beautifully mottled, moderately 
hard. Structure the same as that of T. belerica, 

Burma and the Andaman Islands. 

Weight, Brandis' Burma List, 1862, No. 49, gives 39 ; our speoimeos give 48 lbs. 
per cubic foot. Skinner No. 124 gives weight 64 lbs., and P = 1012, bat there may 
nave been some mistake. 

lbs. 
B 1417. Tharrawaddi, Burma 48 

7. T.tomeiltosay W. and A.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 447; Beddome 
t. 17; Brandis 225; Kurz i. 458; Gamble 89. Pentaptera crenulala, 
eoriacea and tomentosa, Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. 488-440. Vem. 8(tj, 9ein, 
a^an, assain, assaina, asna, sadri, Hind. ; Piatal, usan, Beng^. ; JTAau, 
Rajbanshi ; Amari, Ass. ; Taisor, Lepcha ; Sahdju, kala saMJu, Uriya ; 
Barsajy Bijeragogarh ; Karra marda, karu marithi, anemui, Tam. ; 
Maddi, halla naddi, neHa-madu, Tel. ; Mattij kari matH, banapn, Kan. 



Terminalia. ] 



COMBRBTACUS. 



188 



Mvrada, tali maruiAai, Arcot; Eariaya, sadara, Aolda, dudi maddi, 
Hyderabad ; Ain, madat, yin, Mar. ; Saja, Baigas ; Maru, Gondi ; Madge, 
Bhfl; Toukki/an^ ^xxxm, ; Ch(mchong,^ii\emg; Kumbuk, Cm^h. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark one inch thick^ grey to blacky with 
loDg^ broad^ deep, longitudinal fissures, and short, shallow, transverse 
cracks ; inner substance red when fresh. Sap wood reddish white, 
heartwood dark brown, hard, beautifully variegated with streaks of 
darker colour, shewing on a radial section as dark streaks which are 
generally wavy or undulating, durable, seasons well and takes a good 
polish. Numerous concentric wavy lines unequally distributed. Pores 
moderate-sized and large, uniformly distributed, each pore enclosed in 
an irregularly shaped and generally elongated patch of soft tissue; 
these patches are often arranged in concentric lines and frequently 
joined by thin, white, wavy, concentric bands. Medullary rays not 
distinct, very fine, numerous, uniform, equidistant, often wavy, the 
transverse diameter of the pores many times larger than the distance 
between the rays. In the sapwood the patches of soft tissue enclosing 
the pores are more distinct, and the medullary rays more prominent. 

Sab-Himalayan tract from the Havi eastwards, ascending to 4,000 feet in places : 
Ben^l, Central and Soath India and Burma. 

The weight and ^transverse* strength have been determined by the following experi- 
ments : — 



ExperlmeDt by whom 
conducted. 



Year. 



Packle 

(List) 

(Ust) Paris Exhibition 

B. Thompson . 
bkinner, * No. 127 . 
„ tNo. 128 . 
Baker 
French 



Balfour . 
Benaon 
Brandis, Vo. SO 



Smjthies 



1859 
1883 
1862 

1809 
1862 
1862 
1828 
1861 



Wood whence 
procured. 



1862 
1864 
1878 



Mysore 



Central Pro 
Tinces. 

» II 

South India 

ti If 
Jynaghur 



South India at 
Erode. 



Burma 



II 



I* 



See list below . 



Number of 
experiments. 


Size of 
scantling. 


Weight. 


Value of 
P. 


Ft. In. In. 






3 


2x1x1 


66 


1.010 


• a • 


• • • 


67 


... 


t • • 


• ■ • 


iO 


••• 


... 


••• 


66 


•*• 


• • • 


Various 


60 


860 


• •• 


ft 


66 


840 


4 


7x2x2 


62 


677 


... 


16 X 1 X 1 


60 


882 


3 


7x2x2 


66 


67ft 


• •• 


3 xl-4xl-4 


71 


1,001 


• •• 


• •• 


M 


•*. 


8 


3x1x1 


66 


«8 


16 


... 


ei 


• •• 



* T. ooriacea, Skinner, p. 148. 



t T. glabra. Skinner, p. 160. 



Its durability is uncertain ; in Burma the heartwood decays rapidly, in North India 
beams are sometimes found to last well, at other times to perish from dry rot or be 
eaten bj insects. The wood is largely used for house-buildini^, carts, rioe-pounders, ship 
and boat building;. It has been tried for railway sleepers. Five sleepers laid down on the 
Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway in 1870 were reported in 1876 to M in capital preservik 
tion, but having been cut from small trees the sapwood has been eaten and the experi- 



181 OOMBRBTACBJB. [ Terminalia. 

inent cannot be considered as gpood as if the sleeper had been from large trees and with- 
oat sapwood. In 1876« 720 sleepers were cat in the Sukna forests, Darjeeling:, and laid 
down on the Northern Bengal State Railway, the result of the experiment will be very 
useful. The wood splits, however, veir much, unless thoroughly seasoned. The wood 
is an excellent fuel and makes good charcoal. The bark is used for tanning and for 
dyeing black, and the ashes of the bark give a kind of lime which is eaten by the 
na^ves with betel leaf. The " tasar " silkworm {Antheraa Paphia) feeds on its leaves, 
and lac is occasionally gathered from its branches. It gives a brown gum. 

O 207. Garhwal (1868) 62 

O 2996. „ (1874) • . 65 

O 874. Enmaun Bhabar 53 

889. Oudh _ 

O 891. Oudh 54 

O 393. Oudh 56 

C 332. €k)rakhpur (1868) 53 

C 174. Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) 61 

C 2924. Seoni, Central Provinces 70 

C 1104. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 67 

2743. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces (sapwood) . .48 

C 1241. Gumsdr, Madras 64 

E 662. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Tend 49 

E 2375. Sukna, Darjeeling Terai 56 

W 755. South JELanara 60 

D 1059. South Arcot ^ 

D 1077. North Arcot 64 

D 1281. Anamalai Hills 69 

B 2531. Burma (1862) 59 

J}erminalia alata. Roth., is synonymous with T. tomentosa, W. and A. ; but the 
wood sent under this name from the Andamans (B 522, 46 lbs.) is evidently, judging 
from its structure, a different species. Wood brown, with dark purple streaks, verj 
hard, smooth. Annual rings doubtful. Pores small, uniformly distributed. M edul- 
lary rays short, prominent, moderately broad and fine, joined by numerous, very fine, 
white, transverse lines. Medullary rays distinctly visible on a radial section as long 
shimng plates. The wood of this specimen differs from that of T. tomentosa, chiefly 
by the tnmsverse bars and the small pores. 

8. T. Aljnna, Beddome t. 28; Hook. R. Ind.ii. 447; Brandis 224. 
T. erenulala, Roth.; Kurz i. 458. Pentaptera Arjuna and glabra, 
Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 438, 440. Vern. Anjan, arjun, arjUna, anjani, arjan^ 
jamla, ioAa, kowa, iahua Hind. ; Jrjun,Ben<r,-, Hanjai, Cuttack; fella 
marda, vella tnaUi, vella maruthu, Tarn. ; Aryun, anJan, sadura, Mar. ; 
Maddiy billi matti, Mysore; Yermaddi, 6rra tnaddi, tella madu^ Tel.; 
Kaiu, Baigas ; Mangi, ioAa, Gondi ; Touifyan, Burm. 

A larg^e deciduous tree. Bark i inch thick, smooth, pinkish grey, 
the old layers peeling off in thin flakes. Sapwood reddish white; 
heartwood brown, variegated with darker coloured streaks, very hard. 
Annual rings doubtful. Pores moderate-sized and large, sometimes 
very large, uniformly distributed, more numerous and larger than in 
T. tomenlosa, often subdivided into 2 to 4 compartments, each pore sur- 
rounded by a ring of soft tissue. Numerous thin, wavy, concentric 
lines, which frequently anastomose. Medullary rays very fine, very 
numerous. Pores prominent on a longitudinal section. 

Sub-Himalayan tract (not common), Oudh, Bengal, Burma, Central and South 
India. 

Weight, Skinner's experiments, Nos. 123, 103, give 48 and 54 lbs. ; the Central 
Provinces List 47 lbs. ; while the average of our specimens is 67 lbs. Skinner gives 
P = 806 and 820. The wood is apt to split in seasoning and is not easy to work. It 



Terminalia, ] oombretackb. 185 

18 Qfled for oftrts, agrioaltaral imDlements, boats and for building. It gives a brown 
transparent gam. The bark is osea as a tonic and to heal wounds. 

Ibi. 

C 179. Mandia, Central Provinces (1870) 64 

1111. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 60 

C 2760. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces .... 



••• 



9. T. myriocarpay Heurck and Muell. Arg. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 447 ; 
Kurz i. 455. T. m^riopteron, Kurz; Gamble 39. Vern. PanisaJ, Nep. ; 
Sungloch, Lepcha ; Hollock, Ass. 

A very large evergreea tree. Bark greyisli brown, rough, peeling off 
in yertical flakes. Sapwood white, not broad ; heartwood brown, beauti- 
fullj mottled with dark streaks. Structure that of T. tomentosa. 

Eastern Himalaya and Assam, in Sikkim np to 5,000 feet. 

Growth moderate, 6 to 7 rings per inch of radios. Weight, 51 to 54 lbs. per cnbic 
foot. Used for building and tea -boxes, also for charcoal. 

lbs. 

E 500. Khookloon^ Forest, Darjeelinjop Terai 54 

E 2376. Bamonpokri, Darjeeling Terai • . • . . .51 

E 2315 cut from a log of wood which had been lying for many years in the bed 
of the Chauwa Jhora, near Sivoke, in the Daijeeling Terai, and is now perfectly 
black, may be this speciep* 

2. CALICOPTERIS, Lamck. 

Contains two climbing shrubs. C. nutans, Kurz i. 468 (Gefonia nutans, Boxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 428). Vern. Kywotnay ntoay, Burm., is a large scandent shrub of Burma. 

1. C. floribnnda, Lam.; Hook. Fl. Ind, ii. 449; Brandis 220. 
Oetonia floribunda, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 428. Vern. Kokoranj, C. P. ; 
Bandi murududu, Tel. ; Marsada boH, Mysore. 

A large climbing shrub. Wood yellowish white, moderately hard. 
Fores small to large, numerous. Medullary rays very fine, very numer- 
ous, uniform and equidistant ; the distance between the ravs being less 
than the transverse diameter of the pores. Numerous broad medullary 
patches of soft, pith-like texture* 

Central and Southern India. 
Weight, 45 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Ib0. 

C 2755. Moharli lleserve, Central Provinces 45 

8. ANOQEISSUS, WalL 

Contains 4 Indian trees. A, philU/retBfolia, Heurck and Moll. Arg. ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 451, is a small tree of Burma. 

Pores small. Medullary rays fine, uniform, sharply defined, equidis- 
tant, the transverse diameter oi the pores equal to, or slightly larger than, 
the distance between the rays. 

1. A. latifolia, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 4,50; Beddome t. 15'; 
Brandis 227. Conocarpus latifolia, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 442. Vern. Dhaura, 
dJiauri, dhau, dhdwa, dhauia, doAu, baila, bakli, Hind. ; G6lra, goldia, 
dhaukra, dhokri, dau, Rajputana ; Khardkdwa^ Banda ; Vellay naga, namme, 
veckali, Tam. ; Ckirimdn, sieriman, yettama, tirman, yella maddi, Tel. ; 
Doiu, dhobu, Uriya ; Dhdori, dkamora, dkaunda, dandua, dkavada, Mar. ; 

z 



186 COMBRETACEJE. [Auo^eissus. 

Dinduffa, dindlu, be;alu, dindal, Kan. ; Armay yerma, Gondi ; Dhawa, 
Baigao ; Dhanndak, Bbd; Dhauray Kurku; JDaawoo, Cingh. 

A large tree with smooth, whitish grey bark, J inch thick, with 
shallow, irregular depressions, caused by exfoliation. Wood grey, hard, 
shining, smooth, with a small purplish brown, irregularly shaped^ 
extremely hard heart wrood. Sapwood in young trees and branches yellow. 
Annual rings marked by darker lines. Fores small, very numerous^ 
uniformly distributed, often subdivided. Medullary rays very fine, 
extremely numerous, uniform, equidistant, distinctly visible on a radial 
section, often giving the wood a mottled appearance. The transverse 
diameter of the pores equal to the distance between the medullary rays. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Ravi eastwards ascending to 3,000 feet, Central and 
South India. 

Growth moderate, 7 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 66 lbs. (Puckle and 
Skinner, No. 51) ; 61 (R. Thompson) ; 64 (Central Provinces List) ; 76 to 80 lbs. 
when green ; our specimens give an average of 62 lbs. Skinner gives P = 1220, while 
French of the Madiras Biulway ^ves 762 and Puckle from 3 experiments with bars 
2' X 1" X 1", 870. The wood is highly valued on account of its great strength and 
toughness, but it splits in seasoning and unless kept diy is not very durable. It b 
nsed for axe handles, poles for carrying loads, axles in the construction of furniture, 
agricultural implements [and in ship-building. It has been recommended for 
sleepers. Out of 18 sleepers which had lain 7 to 8 years on the Mysore State 
Railway there were found, when taken up, 4 good, 10 still serviceable and 4 bad. 
It gives a good fuel and an excellent charcoal. It gives a gum which is extensively 
■old for use in cloth-printing. The leaves are used tor tanning. 

Ibt. 
P 446. Ajmere 

O 233. Garhwal (1868) 68 

O 2997. .. (1874) 64 

O 631. DehraDtln 62 

O 394. Oudh 62 

C 2776. Melgh4t, Berar 69 

C 190. MandU, Central Provinces (1870) 68 

C 1121. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 66 

C 2744. Moharii Reserve, Central Provinces 66 

C 1244. Gumsdr, Madras 66 

D 1282. Anamalai Hills, Madras 66 

No. 21. Salem Collection 69 

2. A. acuminata, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 450; Beddome t. 16; 
Brandis 228 ; Kurz i. 466. ConoearpM acuminata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
443. Vern. Chaktoa, Beng. ; PancAi, past, Uriya; Numma, Tam. ; 
PdcH mdnu, pancAman, paunchinan, bucha iarum, pasii, pansi, Tel. ; 
PhaSy Mar. ; Saikamehhia, thekri napay, Magh ; Yungy sehoong, Arracan ; 
Tungben, Burm. ; Pkassi, Mar. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark i inch thick, dark grey, rough, 
granulated when old. Wood grey, sometimes yellowish grey with a 
greenish tinge, shining, in structure moderately hard, resembling that of 
Anogeissus latifolia, but the pores considerably larger and the trans- 
verse diameter of the pores greater than the distance between two rays. 

Chanda District, South India, Chitta^ng and Burma. 

Weight, according to Skinoer, No. 60, 69 lbs., 63 lbs. (Brandis* Burma List, 1862, 
No. 61). Our specimen ^^ave 67 lbs. Skinner gives P = 880. The wood warps and 
cracks in seasoning, and is not very durable especially where exposed to water. Used 
in Burma and in Madras for building. Boxburgh says it is durable if kept dry, but 
toon decays if exposed to wet. The leaves are used for tanning in Qumsdr. 



JnOffeisSUS.} COllBAETACBiE. 187 

lb0. 

C 1143. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 57 

B 3204. Burma (1862) 

B 3095. Prome, Burma 

The Central Provinces and Borma woods correspond exactly in structure. 

3. A. pendnla, Edgw.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 451; Braudis 229. 
Conocarpu8 myrtifolia, Wall. Vern. DhaUy dhaukra, kala dhaukra, Mey- 
war; Kardahi, Hind. 

A small gregarious tree with pendulous branches, leaves turning 
copper-coloured in the cold season. Wood hard^ yellowish white, with a 
small, irregular, blackish-purple heartwood. Annual rings indistinct. 
Pores very small and extremely small, often in groups between the very 
fine^ very numerous, uniform and equidistant medullary rays. 

Arid and northern dry zones, Rajputana, Malwa Plateau as far as the Kerbudda 
in Nimar, Mandla District on the Nerbudda (P) 

Cunningham's 5 experiments made at Gwalior with bars 2' X l"' X V*, give 
the weight at 59 lbs. per cubic foot and P = 837 , the average of the 5 experiments 
which ranged from 697 to 1,034. It coppices well, but the wood is not in general use. 

P 454. Ajmere. 

4. GYROCARPUS, Jacq- 

1. G. Jacquini, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 445; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 461; 

Beddome t. 196 ; Kurz i. 470. Vern, Zaitun, Hind.; Tanaiu, kumar 
j)ulki, Tel. ; Pinlai/ tAUkouk, Burm. 

A deciduous tree. Wood grey, soft. Pores large and moderate-sized, 
often subdivided, uniformly distributed, well marked on a longitudinal 
section. Medullary rays very short, moderately broad, the distance 
between them greater than the transverse diameter of the pores. 

South India, Tenasserim and Andaman Islands. 

Weight, 23 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood used in South India to make boxes and 
toys. It is preferred to all others for catamarans. The seeds are made into rosaries 

and necklaces. 

lbs. 
D 1079. North Arcot, Madras 23 



Order XLVI. MTETACEJE. 

An Order containing II Indian Genera, including Eucalyptus, some species of 
which are now almost naturalised. The Indian Genera belong to 3 Tribes :~ 

Tribe I. — Leptospermese .... Melaleuca, Eucalyptus and 

Tristania, 

II. — Myrtese JPsidium, Shodomyrtus, Bho* 

damnia, Decaspertnum and 
Eugenia, 

III.— Lec^thidesB Bamngtonia, Carey a and 

Planchonia* 

Of these genera, 7 are here described. Tristania contains 3 trees of Tenasserim ; 
one only, T. burmanica, Griff. ; Hook. Fl.Ind. ii. 466 ; Kurz i. 474. Vem. Toungy* 
ohpyeezeng, Burm., extending northwards to Martaban and the Eng forests of the 
Pegu Yomas. 

Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, DC; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 469; Beddome cvi. Vem. 
Thaontay, Burghers^ is a large shrub, abundant in the higher ranges of the 



»> 



>f 



J/r:. - J. 









.-zi'ir.us. iine, 



Aarz i. 472. 

^ f in ri-tf:^ 
. , . 1 . . — 



- •: T.'m *Le 



.1 LI L "^"'' '^^ 
• ..•"-'« "..13 

••tn ■ « 

■ . AT 

• • •» . r 

• • • ». • - 

h • • ♦ • , m^ 

t , % • 



L-L.:.. 






• ■ 



% 

^lvual aiv :uvs tine, verv 
,.,. <4U«iii«4- -uau the diameter of 






Eucalyptus.] myrtaoba. 189 

the pores. Pores marked on a longitudinal dection^ and medallary rayg 
visible as narrow bands on a radial section. 

Gregarious iu Victoria and the south of Tasmania. Introduced on the NOgiris, 
and now completely naturalised. 

Of the Eucalyptus Globulus several successful plantations hare been established 
on the Nilgiri HiUs. There are 22 plantations in all, but some of them are exclusively 
of " Wattles" or Australian Acacia ; others contain only a small proportion of Eucalyp" 
tus, while others have not been successful owing to bad locality or other reasons. 
The chief good plantations are- 
Near Ootacamund — 

1. Aramby 38 acres planted 1863-65 

2. Governor's Shola 80 „ „ 1870-72 

(part, however, is Aeaeia Mslanoxylon). 

3. Norwood 26 „ „ 1872-73 

4. Calljr 14 « „ 1870 

5. Amikal 11 » f» 1878 

6. Baikie 33 „ ,, 1874 . 

Near Wellington— 

7. Newman 36 „ „ 1870-71 

8. Old Forest 200 „ „ 1872-73 

or, including smaller ones, about 500 acres altogether. Colonel Beddome in hiB Beport 
of 12th June 1876, from which the above is ttucen, says that in Aramby the growth 
is very unequal, some being 30 to 40 inches in circumference, others only 3 to 4 
inches ; that about 504 were then found per acre. Measurements of 15 of the 
lai^st trees, made by Mr. Gass, gave an average girth of 34 inches, height 85 feet» 
and average contents 23 cubic feet, but these cannot be taken for an average. 

Mr. Gass found in the Newman plantation, then 5 to 6 years old, an amount of 
material of 152 tons per acre, and Colonel Beddome is of opinion (Report of 20th July 
1878) that the best treatment of Eucalyptus plantations, so as to get the greatest 
profit, will be to cut for coppice every 5 or 6 years, obtaining at the outtmgs at 
least 100 tons per acre. The growth of Eucalyptus is sometimes very fast. Captain 
Campbell Walker in his paper on the " PlanUtious and Firewood Beserves in the 
Madras Presidency," read at the Forest Conference of 1875, says that the growth is 
often 1 foot per month during the first few years ; and Colonel Beddome in his Report 
of July 1878 says that a Eucalyptus tree 12 years old, recently felled at Ootaoamund, 
gave 144 cubic feet, which amounts to 1 foot per month, which is the samens was stated 
by Captain Campbell Walker. It would he extremely useful, however, before definitely 
IxBksing the working plans of the Nilgiri Eucalyptus plantations on simple coppice 
with a 5 or 6 years' rotation to make further and careful measurements of the 
amount of material per acre at different ages. 

The Eucalyptus Globulus has been tried at numerous {>laces all over India, chiefly 
on account of the reports that it would prevent malaria, and that it was valuable 
in reclaiming marshy land. Whatever may be the truth about these questions, the 
tree has almost universally failed in the plains, and in the Himalaya it has only 
succeeded in a few localities. At Simla, whether from frost or for what reason, 
it seems to die down yearly, sending up vigorous shoots to replace the dead stem ; 
at Darjeeling its growth has been slow, and the trees formed merely thin poles, prob- 
ablv the effect of too much damp ; while its chief success has been at Ranikhet and 
Abbottabad. At Shillong, in the Khasia Hills, it had been said to be a failuie, but 
in his review of the Assam Forest Report for 1876-77, Colonel Keatinge called atten- 
tion to the fact that the E, Globulus, though a failure at the Shillong phmtation, had 
yet grown well in other situations in that station, and that several self-sown seedlings 
were thriving under the old trees. 

The seeds of Eucalyptus are usually ver^ small, those of E, Globulus being 
perhaps the largest of the species usually tried m India ; the seed, .if good, germinatee 
well usually, and the plants at onoe begin to grow fast, but they are very tender of 
transplanting, so that that operation has to be very carefully done. On the svljeot ^ 




190 MTBTACE^. [ Eucalyptus, 

the transplanting of Eacalyptos, the following memorandum was drawn np by Colonel 
H. R Morgan, Deputy Conservator of Forests, Madras : — 

** The seed, which should beprocured in January or February, should be placed in 
beds in rows 6 inches apart. When the plants are 6 inches high, they should be taken 
np and placed 6 inches apart in beds ; the roots should be shortened to 4 inches. 
When 3 feet in height, the plants are taken up with a ball of earth round their roots, 
moss is bound tightly round the ball, and the plants are lefl in beds well earthed np 
about the roots, and watered till the young rootlets show through. They may then 
be put out. April is the best month for planting, as the plants are then able to make 
strong roots before the monsoon. When moss is not available, bamboo pots may be 
naed, taking care to keep the large end of the joint for the top cf the pot ; the hole at 
the bottom to be plugijed with grass. The plants should be placed in the pots when 8 
inches in height, and left till they are 2 feet high and the roots show through ; then 
thrust the roots through, and the plant comes out with a ball of earth attached to the 
roots. Pits should be 18 inches cube." 

Weight, Mr. Newbery's " Descriptiye Catalogue of the Specimens in the Museum 
at Melbourne, illustrating the economic woods of Victoria," givps 41 lbs. on an average ; 
our specimen gave 43 lbs. The weight and value of P., calculated from the average 
of the six experiments given at page 203 of Laslett's " Timber and Timber Trees," 
were W = 64 and P = 634. Wood strong and tenacious, durable, extensively used in 
Australia for beams, railway sleepers, piers and bridges ; also for ship-building. The 
wood from the Nilgiri plantations has scarcely been used, except for firewood or 
charcoal. The leaves give an .essential oil used in mediciue, and paper has been 
made of the bark. 

Ibf. 

W 1094. Nilgiri Hills, 7,400 feet age 18 years, height 95 feet . 43 

W 1096-7. „ „ 6,000 „ „ 2, 3, 4 „ „ 42, 43, and 60 feet ... 



8. PSIDIUM, Linn. 

1. P. Guava, Raddi; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 468; Brandis 232; Kurz i. 
476; Gamble 40. P. pomiferum and P. pyriferum^ Willd. ; Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 480. The Guava Tree. Vern. Amr&t, amr&dy ia/rudm, Hind.; 
Teyarg,y Beng. ; Amuk, Nep. ; ModAuriam, Ass. ; Piyara, Beng. ; Segapu, 
koayay Tarn.; /a»»a, (?(?ya, Tel. ; P^/a, Mai. ; 5^5^, Kan. ; Malakabeng, 
Burm. 

A small evergreen tree, with smooth and thin greenish grey bark, 
peeling oflF in thin flakes. Wood whitish, moderately hard, even- 
grained. Pores small, numerous. Medullary rays moderately broad, 
short, the distance between them many times greater than the transverse 
diameter of the pores. 

Introduced from /Lmerica and now cultivated and occasionally semi-wild allover 
India. 

Weight, Wallich gives 44 lbs. ; our specimen 42 lbs. ; Skinner 47 lbs. and P = 618. 

Cultivated for its frait. The bark is used in medicine as an astringent, and 
(or the leaves) for dyeing in Assam. Skinner says that the wood works well and 
smoothly, that it is used for wood-engraving and for s^ar handles and instruments. 

lb« 
1371. Gonda, Oudh 42* 



4. EUGENIA, Linn. 

One of the largest of the Indian genera of trees. It contains about 77 trees, chiefly 
found in the moist zones of North-East and South India and Burma ; 33 occur in South 
India, and 30 to 40 in Burma, 4 in the North- West and Central India, and a large 
number in Eastern Bengal. Few of them are, however, of very great importance ; and 
besides those here descnoed, it will suffice to mention only one or two of the most 



Eugenia.^ vyrtaceje. 191 

common. A list taken from Mr. Duthie's description in Yolnme II. of the Flora 
Indica, pages 471 to 506, is, however, given for the sake of the references : — 

SECTION I.— JAMB08A. 

1. M.formosat Wall North-East Himalaya 

down to Burma. 

2. E. amplexicaulis, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 483 ; Eurz Chittagong. 

i. 493. 

3. E. malaccensis, Linn. (Cultivated). 

4. E. polypeiala, Wight ; Eurz i. 493 (E» angus- Ehasia Hills, Eastern 

iifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 490). Bengal, Chittagong. 

6. E. diospyrifolia, WalL Khasia Hills, Sjruiet. 

6. E, Munronii, Wight ; Beddome ciz. . . Khasia Hills, Western 

Gh&te. 

7. E, aquea, Burm. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 492 ; Chittagong, Burma, Cey- 

Beddome cix ; Eurz i. 494. Ion. 

8. E, Jambos, Linn.; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 494; (Cultivated). 

Beddome cix. ; Brandis 233 ; Eurz i. 495 ; 
Gamble 40. 

9. E, macrocarpa, Eoxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 497 ; Eurz i. Eastern Bengal, Burma. 

492. 

10. E, Javanica, Lamk. ; Eurz i. 494 {E, alba, Andaman Islands. 

Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 493). 

11. E, Wallichii, Wight North-East Himalaya 

down to Burma. 
Yar. E, lanceafolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 494 ; Gamble 40 North and East Bengal. 

12. E. grandig, Wight Eastern Bengal, Burma. 

13. E, lepidocarpa. Wall.; Eurz i. 490 (under Burma. 
E. grandis), 

14. E. Beddomei, Duthie l^nnevelly. 



15. E, pachvphglla, Karz i. 400 

16. E. tristts, Eurz i. 490 

17. E, hemisphijerica, Wight ; Beddome t. 203 

18. E, lanceolaria, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 494 

19. E. bifaria. Wall. (E. laurifolia, Roxb. Fl 

ii. 489). 

20. E, Eurzii, Duthie .... 

21. E. albiflora, Duthie ; Eurz i. 491 

22. E, Iceta, Ham. (E, Wlghtii, Beddome cix.) 

23. E, ramosissima. Wall. ; Gamble 40 . 



24. E, Helferi, Duthie . 

25. E, mangifoliay Wall. . 

26. E. inophylla, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 496 



Teuasserim. 

Ditto. 
Western Gh^ts, Ceylon. 
. Sylhet. 
Ind. Ditto. 



North-East Himalaya to 

Burma. 
Burma. 

Western Gh&ts. 
North-East Himalaya to 

Sylhet. 
MerguL 

Assam, Eastern Bengal. 
Eastern Bengal, Burma. 



SECTION II.-8YS5YGIUM. 



27. E. Thumra, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 495 ; Eurz i. 488 . Burma. 

28. E. rubens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 496 ; Eurz L 488 • Chittagong, Burma. 

29. E, cgmosa. Lam. ; Eurz i. 486 . . . . Eastern Bengal, Burma. 

30. E. toddalioides, Wight [J^. toddaliafolia, Sikkim, Meigui. 

Wight ; Gamble 41 (Misprint)'], 

31. E, myrtifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 490 ; Eurz i. 486 Eastern Bengal, Burma. 

32. E. acuminatissimay Eurz i. 487 .... Merg^. 

33. E, Amottiana, Wight ; Beddome cvii. Yem. Western Gh&ts. 

Nawal, 

34. E. clavijlora, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 488; Eurz i. North-East Himalaya 

480 ; Gamble 41. down to Burma, Anda- 

mans. 

35. E. Uptantha, Wight ; Eurz i. 480 . . . Sikkim, Burma, Anda- 

mans. 



192 MTiTiciiB. \^Eugenia. 

36. R WlghUama, ITiglit ; Beddome (K Umeeolata, WMiern GhAtt, Ceylon. 

Wight; Beddome ex). 

37. JB. peUucida, Dnthie (E. eoniracta, Karz i. 481) Banna. 

38. E. zeylamca, Wight ; Enrz i. 481 (E, tpUata, Eastern Bengal, Borma, 

Lam. ; Beddome t. 202. E, glandultfera, Andamans, Western 

Boxb. FI. Ind. ii. 496). Ghats. 

39. E» grata, WalL ; Knrz i. 489 .... Assam, Ehasia Hills, 

Burma. 

40. E. nihricaulis, Miq Tenasserim. 

41. E. mojUana, Wight ; Beddome cvii. . . . Nilgiris. 

42. E. bracteolaia, Wight ; Knrz i. 482 . . Tenasserim. 

43. E. lissophylla, Thwaites ; Beddome cviiL . Western Ghats, Ceylon. 

44. E, venusta, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 491 ; Eurz i. 487 . Tipperah, Barma. 

45. E, Oardneri, Thw. ; Beddome cWii. . . . Western Ghdts, Ceylon. 

46. E, caryopkglloBa, Wight ; Beddome cviii. . . Ditto, ditto. 

47. E.fronaosa, Wall Nepal. 

48. E. areolata, DC Ditto. 

49. E, khasiana, Dnthie S^hasia HiUs. 

50. E. revoluta, Wight ; Beddome cvii. • . . Nilgiris. 

51. E, oblaia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 493 ; Knrz i. 488 • Assam down to Burma. 

52. E. ealophylltfolia, Wight ; Beddome ovii. . . Nilgiris. 

53. E, rubicunda, Wight ; Beddome oyiii. . . Tinnevelly. 

54. E, cuneata, Wall Ehasia Hills, Eastern 

BengaL 

55. E, hrachiata, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 488 {E, cinerea, Burma. 

Eurz i. 483). 

56. E. polvantha, Wight Ditto. 

57. E, mcuabarica, B^dome t. 199 . . . Wynaad. 

58. E, altemtfoHa^ Wight ; Beddome 1. 198 . Assam, Camatio. 

59. E. tetragona, Wight Sikkim, Ehasia Hills, 

Sylhet. 

60. E, ocelfua, Miq. ...... Nicobar Islands. 

61. E. operculata, Boxb. Sub-Himalaya, Eastern 

Bengal, South India, 
Burma. 

Var. E, Paniala, Boxb. FL Ind. ii. 489 . . Eastern Bengal, Burma. 

Var. E. obovaia. Wall Northern Bengal, Burma. 

62. E. Stoeksii, Duthie Concan, Wyn^. 

63. E, baUatnea, Wight ; Eurz i. 485 ; Gamble 41 . Sikkim, Eastern Bengal, 

Burma. 

64. E./hUicosa, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 487 ; Eurz i. 485 Sjlhet to Burma. 

65. E. Jambolana, Lam Throughout India. 

Var. E, caryofhyllitfolia, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 486 . 

Var. E. obttu\fblia, Roxb. Fl. Ind, ii. 485 . 

65. E. ffeyneana, Wall Central India, Western 

Gh6ts. 

SECTION in.^EUOBNIA. 

66. E, JossifUa, Duthie (j^. cuneaUr, Beddome) . Western Gh&ts. 

67. E.Jloecoaa, Beddome t. 200 .... Tinnevelly. 

68. E, codyensit, Munro Nilgiris, Ooorg. 

69. E, macrosepala, Duthie Northern Eanara. 

70. E, calcadensis, Beddome ex Tinnevelly. 

71. E. bracteaia^ Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 490 ; Beddome ex. Eastern Bengal, South 

India, Western Gh&ts. 

72. E. Botileriana, W. and A. ; Beddome ox. . . Southern India. 

73. E, aiyentea, Beddome ex Wynaad. 

74. E, ]ld!o<mi<tna, Wight ; Beddome ex. • • . Southern India, Western 

Gh4t8. 

75. E» micropkylla, Beddome ex Travancore. 

76. E, singampaiiiana, Beddome t. 278 • . . Tinnevelly. 

77. E. wgnadlenMis, Beddome ex. . . . \ . Wynaad. 



Eugenia. ] myrtaceji. 198 

E, Jambos, Linn. Yern. Quldbjaman, Hind. ; Mallenerale, Coorg; is the "Rose 
Apple" cultivated for ornament and for its fruit. E, Arnottiafia, Wight. Yern. 
Naioal, Tarn., is a large tree on the hills of South India at above 4,000 feet elevation. 
E, altemifoiia, Wight ; Yern. Manchi moyadi^ Tel., is a lurge tree of the forests of 
the hills in the Ouddapah and North Aroot Districts of Madras. E, aquea, Rumph., 
is an ever^een tree of South India and Burma. E.f^uticota, Boxb. v em. Moung^ 
%9hri, Magh ; Thahyaynee, Burm., is an evergreen tree of the forests of Chittagong 
and Burma ; while E, ramontaimay Wall, and E. lanee<tfolia, Boxb., are luuidsome 
trees of the Eastern Himalaya and Sub-Himalayan tract. 

Wood roughs hard and moderately hard^ seasons well. Some species 
have concentric bands of softer tissue and others have not. The pores 
are from small to moderate-sized. 

1. K formosa, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind ii. 471 ; Kurz i. 492; Gamble 
40. E. ternifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 489. Vern. Barajaman, Nep. ; 
Bunkonkriy Mechi ; Bolsobak, Qixo ; Famsik6l, Lepcha. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Bark greyish white, smooth^ thin. 
Wood grey^ hard. Pores moderate-sized. Medullary rays fine, and 
very fine, numerous, prominent. 

Eastern Himalaya and Sub- Himalayan tract, near streams ; Chittagong and Tenas- 
serim. 

Weight, 61 lbs. per cubic foot. Has large, very handsome flowers and large firuit. 

lbs. 

E 2956. O^sta Valley, Daijeeling 61 

2. E. malaccensis, Linn. : Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 471 ; Boxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 483 ; Kurz i. 493. Yern. Thabyoo4habyag , Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Wood reddish grey^ roughs soft. 
Fores moderate-sized and large. Medullary rays broad or moderately 
broad^ visible on a radial section. 

Cultiyated in Bengal and Burma for its fruit. 

Weight, Wallich gives 30, our specimen 38 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Ibt. 

B 309. Burma (1867) 38 

3. E. grandiSy Wight; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 475; Beddome cvii. ; 
Kurz i. 489. E, cymei^a^ Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 49^. Vern. /ani^ Beug. ; 
Battijamb, Sylhet ; Zebri, Magh ; Toung tkabgay, Burm. 

An evergreen tree. Wood red, rough, hard. Pores small, joined by 
fine, wavy, concentric lines. Medullary rays fine, wavy, numerous, uni- 
form and equidistant. 

Eastern Bengal, Burma and tbe Andaman Islands. 

Weight, 61 to 62 lbs. 

lbs. 

B 314. Barma(1867) 61 

B2266. Andaman Islands (1866) 62 

B 2713, 48 lbs., brought from Tavoy by Dr. Wallicb in 1828, has a structure simi- 
lar to that of E, grandis. 



4, E. Knridi, Duthie; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 478; Kurz i. 491, 
E. cerasi/lora, Kurz; Qamble 41. Vern. Jdmun, Nep.; Sunom, Lepcha. 

A large evergreen tree. Bark | inch thick, whitish grey. Wood 
reddish grey, moderately hard, rough. Pores moderate-sized, numerous, 
often subdivided. Medullary rays fine and moderately broad. 

2 A 



194 iiTRTACSJi. [Eugenia. 

Hills of Bengal and Burma, from 3,000 to 6,000 feet. 

Weight, 87 to 66 lbs. per cubic foot. 

lb«. 

E 701. Sepoydura Forest, Daijeeling, 5,500 feet 56 

E 2955. Tukdab Forest, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet (young tree) . . 87 

5. E. tetragona, Wight; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 497 : Kurz i. 484. B. 
fraeox, Roxb. ; Gamble 41. Yern. f ^m«ia^ cAamlani, Nep. ; SunSm, 
Lepcha. 

A large evergreen tree. Wood brownish or olive grey, shining, 
hard. Pores moderate-sized, numerous, uniformly distributed, oval and 
subdivided. Medullary rays fine, visible on a radial section. 

Hills of Northern Bengal up to 6,000 feet, Ohittagong. 

Weight, 47 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood used occasionally for building and for the 

handles of tools and for charcoal. 

Ibt. 
E 682. Sepoydura Forest, 5,500 feet, Darjeeling .... 46 
E 1446. M^hmi Hills (Griffith, 1836) 48 

6. E. operculata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 486; Brandis 234; Kurz i. 482. 
JE. nervoia, DC. ; Beddome cvi. Yern. Sai Jdman, paiman^ jamawa, 
d'&gdugia, Hind. ; Teikabyay, Burm. 

A moderate*sized evergreen tree, leaves turning red in the cold 
season. Bark grey or dark brown, rough, with irregular hard scales, 
leaving cavities when they exfoliate. Wood reddish grey, hard. 
Fores small, often in radial lines. Medullary rays very fine, closely 
packed, extremely numerous. 

Sub'Himalayan tract from the Jumna to Assam, Chittagong, Burma, Western 
Gh&ts and Ceylon. 

Weight, 47 lbs. per cubic foot. Used for building and agricultural implements. 
The fruit is eaten. 

llM. 

334. Gorakhpur (1868) 51 

B 305. Burma (1867) 43 

7. E. obovatay Wall. ; Gamble 40. K operculata, Roxb. var. ohovata ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 498; Kurz i. 482. Vern, Kiamoni, Nep. ; Jungsong, 
Lepcha ; Boda^jam, Mechi. 

An evergreen tree, leaves turning red in the cold season. Bark 
white, smooth. Wood grey, rough, moderately hard. Pores moderate- 
sized, very numerous, joined by faiut, concentric bands. Medullary rays 
fine. 

Savannah forests of Bengal and Burma. 

Weight, 51 lbs. per cubic foot. Fruit eaten. 

lbs, 

E 584. Khookloong Forest, Darjeeling Tend 51 

8. E. Jambolana, Lam.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 499 Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
484; Beddome t. 197; Brandis ^33; Kurz i. 485; Gamble 40. Vern. 
Jdman, jam, phalinda, jamni, phal6ni,pharenda, phaunda, paiman, Hind. ; 
Jam, fieng. ; Jamo, Uriya ; Phoberk'Ang , Lepcha ; Chambu, Garo ; Kor-jam^ 
Mechi ; Jamu, Ass.; Naval, navvel, nawar, naga, Tam. ; Nerale, Mysore ; 
Narala, Kan. ; Nasedu, nairuri, naret/r^ Tel. ; Naindi, Gondi ; Jambil, 
Mar. ; Magadan, Cingh. ; Zebri, chaku, kau, Magh ; Thabyai-pt/oo, Burm. 

An evergreen tree. Bark \ inch thick, light grey, with large patches 
of darker colour, smooth, with shallow depressions caused by exfoliation. 



Eugenia. ] htrtacbj!. 195 

Wood reddish grey, rough, moderately hard, darker near the centre, no 
distiDct heartwood. Pores moderate-sized and small, numerous, fre- 
quently oval, elongated and subdivided. Medullary rays fine, numerous ; 
the interval between the rays less than the diameter of the pores. 
Faint, fine, concentric bands of softer tissue. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Indus eastwards, ascending to 5,000 feet in Eumaan ; 
thronjjrhoat India and Burma. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 120, 48 lbs. per cubic foot ; according to Kyd. 
{Saljam P) 45 lbs. ; the average of our 23 specimens gives 49 lbs. Skinner gives 
P = 600 and Kjd 577. Wood fairly durable. Five sleepers of it were laid down in 
1870 on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway, and taken up in 1875, when they were 
reported to be fairly sound and not touched by white ants. 

Used for building, agricultural implements and carts, also for well-work, as it resists 
the action of water well. The bark is used for dyeing and tanning, and is astringent 
and used in medicine for cases of dysentery. Tlie fruit is eaten. It is one of the trees 
ou which the *' tasar " silkworm is fed. 

llM. 

P 1192. Madhopnr, Punjab 40 

P 452. Ajmere 44 

O 209. Garhwal (1868) . 51 

O 210. „ „ 47 

O 211. „ „ 49 

O 224. „ „ 44 

O 239. „ „ 40 

O 2993. „ (1874) 47 

O 527. DehraDdn 59 

O 535. „ „ 64 

O 875. Mohun Forest, Eumaun Bhabar 58 

O 337. Gorakhpur (1868) 51 

O 338. „ „ 42 

C 195. Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) 52 

C 1135. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces (with a slightly different 

structure) • • • • • 56 

C 2761. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces 48 

C 1251. Gumsur, Madras 57 

£ 664. Rakti Forest, Darjeeling Terai 54 

£ 2377. Sivoke Forest „ ,, 44 

£ 1396. Cbittagong 48 

£ 1958. „ 48 

£ 413. Sundarbans 

B 3065. Burma (1862) 52 

No. 51. Ceylon Collection .36 

£ 2199 (43 lbs.) received from Assam under the name of E, mangifhlia, WtJIl. 
Hook. Fi. Ind. ii. 480, resembles in structure E, Jambolana. 

B 2292 (56 lbs.) received from the Andamans in 1866 under the name of Eugenia 
sp. has a moderately hard, compact, grey wood, with the structure similar to that of 
£, Jambolana, which is not yet known to grow in the Andamans. 

No. 1 of Adrian Mendis' Ceylon Collection (49 lbs.) is £, gglvestrit, Wight ; 
Hook. FI. Ind. ii. 493 ; Beddome cvii. (Svzygium gylvestre,' Thwaites £nam. 116. 
Yem. Alubo, Cingh.) In structure it resembles E. Jambolana. 

9. IL Heyneana^ Wall. ; Hook. FL Ind. ii. 500^ E. salid/olia, . 
Wight ; Beddome cix. ; Brandis 234. Yem. Panjam-biU Mar. ; Hendif 
Gondi ; Qambu, Kurku. 

A large shrub or small tree with grey bark. Wood similar to that 
of E, Jambolana, but pores smaller. 

Bombay Qh4ts, Berar and Central Provinces. 

lbs. 
C 2786. Meljj^h&t, Berar 38 



196 MTRTACBJB. [ Eugenia. 

10« E, 9pJ Vero. TAabj^ajf, Burm. 

A tree with hard^ close-graiued^ red wood. Pores small, in irregular 
patches of sod tissue, joined by wavy, concentric lines. Medullary rays 
fine, numerous. 

B 316. Barma (1867) 55 

5. BARRINGTONIA, Forst. 

ContainB about 8 Indian species chiefly from Bnrma. B, speciosa, Forst. ; Hook* 
Fl. Ind. ii. 507 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. li. 636 ; Beddome cxii. ; Knrz i. 496. Yem. Kyaigyeet 
Barm. ; Doddd, Andamaus, is an evergreen tree of the sea-shore of the Andamans. 
JS, pterocarpa, Kurz i. 498; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 509. Yem. Kyaitha, Barm., is an 
evergreen tree of the tropical forests of Pega and Martaban. Foar other species are 
described as found in Tenasserim, viz., B. conoidea, Qriff., B. augusta, Kurz, B, Sel* 
fM, C. B. Clarke, and B, macrostackya, Kurz (including B, pendula^ Kurz). 

Wood soft or moderately hard. Pores smalU in short radial lines 
between the numerous broad, or moderately broad, medullary rays. 
Numerous transverse bars between the rays. 

1. B. acutangula, Gaertn.; Hook. M. Ind. ii. 608 ; Boxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 685 ; Beddome t. 204 ; Brandis 235 ; Kurz i. 497. Vem. Ijdl, samun- 
dar pifU, pannidri, ingar, Hind.; Hijdl, samundar, Beng.; Kinjoh, 
Uriya ; Hendol, Ass. ; Kanapa, baita, kurpd, iadamic, Tel. ; Piwar, Mar. ; 
KyaitAa, iyainee, Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Bark i inch thick^ dark brown^ 
rough. Wood white^ shinmg^ warps in seasoning, moderately hard, 
even-grained. Pores small , in radial groups between the broad and very 
broad, rarely fine and moderately broad, long medullary rays, which form 
the greater part of the wood. The space between the medullary rays, 
where not occupied by the pores, consists of narrow bands of firm tissue 
with fine transverse bars of lighter colour. The radial section is beau- 
tifully mottled with the medullary rays, which appear as irregular plates. 

Sab-Himalajan tract from the Jamna eastwards, Oadh, Bengal, Central and Soath 
India, Barms. 

Weight, Skinner, No. 20, gives 56 lbs. ; while Kjd's experiments {8irav€ulium 
aeutanaulum) ^ve only S9'3 lbs. Oar specimen weighed 46 lbs. per cubic foot. 
Benson s ezpenments with bars of Barma wood 3 feet X 1 *4 inch X 1 *4 inch 
save P = 648 ; Skinner P = 863, while Kyd's en>eriments on Assam wood in bars 2 
feet X 1 inch X 1 inch gave P = 315. Said to be durable. 

The wood is used for hoat-bailding, well-work, carts, rice-ponnders and by cabinet- 
makers. The bark is used to intoxicate fish, also for tanning ; and, as well as the leaves 
and frnit, in native medicine. Beddome says the wood turns black when buried in mud. 

C 1132. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provincds 

B 814. Burma 46 

2. B. racem08l^ Blume; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 507; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
684 ; Beddome cxii. ; Kurz i. 496. Vem. Samudra, cuddapak^ Tam.^ 
Mai. ; Kyai'henp, Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. "Wood white, very soft, porous. 
Pores small and moderate-sized, numerous, uniformly distributed. 
Medullary rays moderately broad, long, equidistant. 

Western Coaat, Andaman Islands and Ceylon. It is mentioned from Assam by 
G. Mann in Assam Forest Beport, 1874-75. Yem. Xumringah, Ass., but B. acuian^ 
gula may be meant. 



Barringtania. ] 



MTRTACBiB. 



197 



Skinner, No. 21, gives weight 63 Ibe. (P) per cabic foot and P = 819 ; he tlao says 
it is need for house and oart bmlding, and toat it has been tried for nilway sleepers. 

lb«. 

B 1993. Andaman Islands (Eorz, 1866) 27 

6. CAREYA, Roxb, 

Besides the species described ; C ipharica, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 636 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 511 ; Kurz i. 50(), is a large decidaoos tree of the Chittagong Hills ; and C kerbcteea, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 638 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 510 ; Brandis 237 ; Gamble 41. Yem. 
Bhooi dalim, Beng. ; Ckutoa, Nep., is a small nndershrub of grass lands in Bengal, 
Oadh and the Central Provinces, eenerally bringing out its beaatifol pink flowers in 
April and best after the grass has been burnt bj jangle fires. 

1. C. arborea, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 638 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 511; Bed- 
dome t. 205; Brandis 236; Kurz i. 499; Gamble 41. Yem. Kumbi, 
Kumhh, khnmbi, Hind. ; Pilu^ Banda ; Gumar, Mandla^ Balagh&t ; 
Kumri, Chhindwara; Gummar, Gondi ; Boitoi, hepchek ; BambeljQiro ; 
Ayma, pailae, poota^tammi, Tarn. ; Budd-durmi, buda darini, dudippi, 
Tel. ; Oavuldu, Mysore ; Bambway, Burm. ; Kabooay, Taleing ; Tagooyit 
Karen ; Kahatie, Cingh. 

A large deciduous tree^ leaves turning red in the cold season. Bark 
\ incb thick^ dark grej^ with vertical and diagonal cracks^ exfoliating in 
narrow flakes ; inner substance reddish^ fibrous. Sapwood whitish^ large ; 
heartwood dull red^ sometimes claret-coloured, very dark in old trees, even- 
gnuned, beautifully mottled, seasons well, very durable, moderately 
hard. Pores oval, small and moderate-sized, subdivided. Medullary 
rays numerous, fine, equidistant and uniform ; the space between two 
consecutive rays equal to the diameter of the pores. The medullary rays 
are visible on a radial section as narrow bands. 

Snb< Himalayan tract from the Jnnma eastwards, Bengal, Burma, Central and 
South India. Growth fast, a round in the Bengal Fruit Museum gave 4 rings per 
inch of radius. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following experi- 
ments: — 



Sxperiment by whom 
condacted. 


Year. 


Wood whence prooofed. 


Number 
of experi- 
ments. 


Siieof 
ioantiing. 


Welghi. 


Valna 
of P. 










Ft. In. In. 


Iba. 




WftUich .... 


• •• 


Goalpen . 








48 




Adrian Mendlf 


1865 


Cejlon 








88 




B.Thomptoii . 


1869 


Central ProTincea 








60 




Skinner, No. 38 


1862 


Soath India . 






Varioui. 


60 


870 


Benton .... 


• •• 


Burma 






Sx 1*4 xr4 


47 


918 


Bnuidii,Noe.62,SS 


186S 


»• • . « 








66 




H ... 


1864 


»• • • 


• a 


4 


8x1x1 


60 


860 


M ... 


M 


„ • . a 




6 


S X X 1 


61 


666 


Kjd 


1881 


Aiiam 




1 


S X 1 X 1 


61 


679 


Commt. Dept. . 


... 


Monlmein . 




•• 


Mtfa. 


60 


860 


■mythiee .... 


1878 


Seellatbelow . . 




11 




64*6 





198 HTRTACBJB. [ Careya. 

Wood durable ; the specimens brought by Dr. Wallich from Tavoy in 1828, and that 
brought from the Mishmi Hills by Dr. Griffith in 1836, were quite sound on being out 
up, though they had been stored for 50 years in Calcutta. The wood is little used 
except for agricultural implements. It is being tried for railway sleepers on the 
Eastern Bengal and Northern Bengal State Railways, but the result of the experi- 
ment is not yet known. Kurz says it is Ubed in Burma for gun-stocks, house-posts, 
planking, carts, iurniture and cabinet-work. It stands well under water. Fuzes made 
irom its bark are used to make slow matches. Its bark ^ves a good fibre for ooarse, 
rtrong cordage, «.d ia ««od in native medicine a. an -tangent ^ 

O 208. aarhwal (1868) 63 

O 228. „ n •.•••.••• 63 

1479, Kheri, Oudh 69 

C 1131. Ahiri Reserve, Central Proyinoes 68 

C 2747. Moharli Reserve „ „ (sapwood) . . . .37 

E 624. Rakti Forest, Darjeeling Terai 48 

E 2378. Sivoke „ „ „ 61 

E 1441. Mishmi Hills (Griffith, 1836) 66 

B 2703. Tavoy (WaUich, 1822) 69 

B 2686. M »i If 66 

B 2710. „ „ „ 61 

B 2228. Andaman Islands (1866) 66 

B 3147. „ „ (Home, 1874) 66 

No. 41. Ceylon Collection 88 

• 

7. PLANCHONIA, BI. 

1. P. littoraliSy Van Houtte; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 511. P. valiSa, 
Blame; Kurz i. 500. Vera. Bambway nee, Burtn. ; Baila da, And. 

An evergreen tree. Wood reddish brown, with yellow specks, veir 
hard^ close-grained. Pores moderate-sized and large^ oden snbdividea^ 
in rounded and elongated patches^ which are sometimes joined by narrow^ 
nndulating bands of softer tissue. Medullary rays very fine^ numerous^ 
bending. The pores are frequently filled by a yellow substance^ and are 
prominent on a vertical section. 

Evergreen coast forests of the Andaman Islands. 

Weight, our specimeus give 61 to 64 lbs. per cubic foot ; Bennett gives 66 lbs. and 
P = 600. A valuable wood, which should be better known ; it seasons well and takes 
a fine polish. i 

lbs. 

B 614. Andaman Islands 64 

B 2496. M *• (Home, 1874, No. 7, Touaygyee) . . 61 



Order XLVII. HELASTOHACiUE. 

An Order containing 13 Indian Genera of shrubs or small trees. They are ohiedy 
found in South India or Tenasserim. They belong to 6 Tribes, viz., — 

Tribe I.— OsbeokiesB Oshechia, OtatUkera and Mela^ 

Mioma, 

„ II.— Ozysporeas Oxyspora, Kendriehia, AUomoT" 

phta, Blastus, Ochthockarii and 
AnerincleiMtuf* 

„ m. — Medinille» Anplecirum, Medinilla, 

, , IV. — ^Astroniese Pternandra. 

„ v.— -Memecylese Memecylon, 

Oxvipora paniculata, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 626 ; Ghimble 41 is a lar^ hand- 
tome shrub ot the Eastern Himalaya and Khasia Hills. Memecylon contains about 



Oibeciia.] HELASTOMACEiB. 199 

20 species of shrubs or small trees. If. wnbellatum, Barm. ; Beddome t. 206 ; 
Karz i. 616. Yem. Udatalli, Kan., is a small tree of the hills of South Tndia, 
Arracan and the Andamans, whose wood is said by Beddome to be like boxwood and 
by YanSomeren to be durable. M, edule, Roxb. ; JBeddome cxiii. ; Kurz i. 512. Yern. 
Alii, Tel. ; Anjan, kurpd, Bombay, is a small tree of the Eastern Ghdts of South 
India, Tenasserim and the A ndamans, with a strong, hard wood and edible fruit, while 
JIf. amabile, Bedd. and M, grarile, Bedd. are small trees of the Western Qh&ts. 
The remaining genera contain shrubs or climbers of little forest interest. 

1. OSBECKIA, Linn. 
Contains a number of handsome-flowering herbs and shrubs of little importance. 

1. 0. crinita, Benth. ; Hook. FL Ind. ii. 517. 0. stellata, Don; 
Gamble 4»1. Vern. Number, Lepcha. 

A shrub. Bark greyish brown, smooth. Wood light brown, moder- 
ately hard. Annual rings marked by a white line and more numerous 
pores. Pores moderate-sized, scanty. Medullary rays crooked, fine, thd 
distance between the rays equal to the diameter of the pores. 

Eastern Himalaya and Ehasia Hills from 4,000 to 8,000 feet. 
A very pretty shrub, common about Darjeeling. 

E 3310. Daijeeling, 6,600 feet. 

2. MELASTOMA, Linn. 

Four Indian species. 

1. H. Malabathricnm, Linn. ; Hook. FI. Ind. ii. 528 j Boxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 405 ; Kurz i. 503 ; Gamble 41. The Indian Rhododendron. Vern. 
CAoulisy, Nep. ; Tungbram, Lepcha; Shapii, iunka, Mechi; Myetpyai, 
Burm. 

A large shrub. Back reddish brown, thin, smooth. Wood moder- 
ately hard, light brown, with medullary patches. Pores moderate-sized, 
often in concentric groups, and surrounded with white tissue. Medul- 
lary rays short, fine to moderately broad, numerous, unequally distri- 
buted. Concentric bands of soft tissue often joining the pores. 

Througbout India up to 6,000 feet, chiefly near watercourses. 

This is probably the Lutki bush on which, according to Mr. Brownlow of Cachar 
(Journal of the Agri-Horticultural Society of Calcutta), the silkworm AilacuM AiUu is 
often found, and fed on which it gives a very white silk. 

E 3276. Borojhar Beserve, W. Ddars. 



Order XLVIII. LTTHEAEIEJE. 

Contains 8 Indian Genera of trees or shrubs all belonging to the tribe Lythress. 
Of these, 6 Genera are here described. Femphis acidula, Forst. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 
673 ; Beddome cxvii. ; Kurz i. 518, is an evergreen shrub of the sea-coast of Malabar, 
Tenasserim and the Andamans, while Orypteronia paniculata, Bl. ; Kurz i. 619. 
(C. pubeicens Bl. and C. glabra, 131. in Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 674.) Vern. Ananpko, 
Burm., is an evergreen tree of the upper tropical and moist forests oi Chittagong and 
Burma. Brandis in his Burma List, 1862, No. 113, says it has a reddish, close but not 
straight-grained wood, used occasionally for cart-wheels, but more usually for burning. 

Medullary rays fine or very fine and very numerous. 



SOO LTTHRARiBJB. [ Wood/ordim. 

1. WOODFORDIA, Salisbary. 

1. W. floribnnda, Salisb.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 672; Brandis 288; 
Gamble 42. JF. tomeniofa, Beddome cxvii. W. /ruiieosa, Kurz i. 518* 
Orislea lomeniosa, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 233. Vem. Ddwi, tiawi, sauUa, 
dhaula, Hind. ; Oul daur, Kaogra ; BAai, Kumaan ; Lhewti, Oadh ; 
Dhuvi, surtdri, C.P. ; Pilta, petisurali, surleyli, Oondi ; Khinni, dJU, 
Kurku; DaAiri, laldairo, Nep. ; Chungkyek dum, Lepcha; Jaiiko, Uriya; 
Jargi, Tel. ; Phuhaiti, Mar. ; Daiti, Bhil. 

A large shrub with smooth bark^ marked by longitudinal raised lines 
or protuberances^ peeling off in thin scales. Wood reddish white^ hard^ 
close-grained. Pores small^ uniformly distributed^ sometimes in radial 
lines^ medullary rays fine and very fine^ closely packed. . . 

Oommon throaghoat India, ascending to 5,000 feet in the Himalayas. 
Cunningham gives weight 58 lbs., P =3 730 
flowers give a red dye, which is used to dye silks. 



Cunningham gives weight 58 lbs., P =3 730 ; oar specimen weighs 46 lbs. TIm 

" "en is 



ilM. 

C 2794 Melgh&t, Berar 46 

E 876. Chenga Forest, Darjeeling Terai ..... •« 

2. LAWSONIA, Linn. 

1. L. alba> Lam. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 573; Beddome cxviii.; Brandis 
238 ; Gamble 42. L, inermis, Linn. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 258 ; Kurz i. 
519. The Henna Plant of Egypt. Vern. Mekndi, Hind. ; Dan^ Burm. ; 
Manghati, Uriya; Marithondi, Tam.; Gorantlu, Kan. 

A shrnb with thin^ greyish-brown bark. Wood grey^ hard, close- 
grained; alternate bands of tissue, with fewer and more numerous pores^ 
which may possibly be annual rings. Pores small and joined by faintj 
short, interrupted concentric bands. Medullary rays fine. 

Wild in Belnchistan, on the Coromandel coast and perhaps in Central India. 

Cultivated throaghoat India as a hedge plant and lor its leaves, which, powdered 
and made into a paste, give the " henna '* dye which is used to dye the nails, skin and 
beard. 

C 2000. Nimar, Central Provinces. 

3. LAGERSTROMIA, Linn. 

Contains 11 Indian species, dispersed principally over South India and Burma, 
while a few extend to North-East India and Assam, and one to North-West and 
Central India. X. indica, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 676 ; Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 505 ; Kurz 
i. 621 Yem. Telinga'Chinay Hind., is a handsome shrub, with pink flowers, cultivated 
in gardens in most parts of India. Z. calyculata, Kurz i. 522. Vern. Pymmahpyoo^ 
Burm., is an evergreen tree of the Martaban Hills. L. Jloribunda, Jack., a small tree 
of Tenasserim and L, villosa. Wall. ; Kurz L 524. Vern. Young kalay, a deciduous 
tree of the forests of the Pegu Yoma and Martaban. 

The pores are of different sizes^ the small pores being arranged in 
narrow^ concentric bands^ which join the lines of large pores. Medullary 
rays uniform^ equidistant^ fine and numerous. 

1. L. parviflora, Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 575; Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. 505; 
Beddome t. 31 ; Brandis 239 ; Kurz i. 521 ; Gamble 42. Vem. Bdkli, kat 
dkaura, dkaura, lendya, seina, sida, asid, Hind. ; Sida, Beng., Mechi^ 
Ass.; Borderij bordrngfi^ Nep.; Kankii, Lepoha; Siida, Giro; 8Ae;, 



Lagentrbmia, ] lyth ra ri k j:. 20 1 

Banda; iSg^'^ Bijeragogarh ; Kakria, Ouz. ; Sahim, Chanda ; Chinangi^ 
Tel. ; CAungi, pilugu, Hyderabad ; Nana, bondara, nandi, bellinandi, Hna, 
lendi, Mar. ; Fentaiu, cAeninge, Kan. ; Lendya, Baigas ; Sina, nelli, lerid, 
Gondi ; Cieierey, Kurku ; Tsambelay, Burm. 

A large deciduoud tree with light Drown^ thin bark^ exfoliating in long, 
thin, woody scales. Wood very hard, grey or greyish brown, often with 
a reddish tinge, darker eolourea near the centre, hard. No annual rings. 
Pores moderate-sized and large, often sabdivided, uniformly distributed 
and frequently joined by narrow, irregular, wavy bands and lines of 
softer texture, distinctly visible on a longitudinal section. Medullary 
rays fine, numerous. 

Sab-Himalayan Tract from the Jamna eastwards, Oudh, Bengal, Assam, Central 
and South India. . . . 

The weight and transverse strength have been given by the foUowmg experi- 
ments:^ 

Ft. In. In. Weight Value of P. 

Kyd in 1831 specimens from Assam in bars 2X1X1 found 52 767 

Snnner, No. 86 from South India various „ 40 467 

Brandis, No. 63 „ Burma, 1862 .... „ 40 

Smythies in 1878, average of 9 specimens ... „ 52 •» 

Wood tough, elastic, seasons well, works freelv and is fairly durable. It coppices well. 
Ten sleepers laid down on the Oudh and Bobilkhand Railway in 1870 were rei>orted, 
on being examined in 1875, to be quite sound. A number of sleepers are being tried oa 
the Northern Bengal State Railway, but the result is not yet known. It is used £»r 

E loughs and other agricultural implements, for construction, for buggy shafts and axe 
anSes. It gives a very good charcoal. It gives a sweet gum frcmi wounds in the 
bark. The bark is used for tanning. It is one of the trees on which the ** tasar " 

silkworm is fed. 

Ibe. 

232. Garhwal (1868) 45 

2999. „ (1874) 51 

O 339. Gorakhpur (1868) 54 

C 196. Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) 49 

C 2735 ) 

C 2749 i ^^1^^^ Reserve, Central Provinces ..... 50 

C 1140. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 60 

C 2768. Mel^h&t, Berar 54 

£ 666. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai 52 

£2379. Sukna Forest „ „ 54 

£ 785. K&mrdp, Assam ......... 



. • . 



2. L. lanceolata, ^eddome t. 32; Brandis 240. L. parvijiora, Roxb. 
var. majuicula, C.B.Clarke; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 676. Ytm. Banddra, 
nandi, Kan.; Ndna,soiutia, Mar.; Boda, bondaga, Dekkan. 

A large tree^ with leaves bluish white beneath. Inner wood red, 
moderately hard. Pores large and moderate-^ized, joined by wavy con- 
centric bands of soft texture^ which are often interrupted. Medullary 
rays Ene, numerous, uniform, equidistant. 

Forests of the Western Gh&ts as far north as Khandeish, Mysore and Court- 
allum. 

Growth moderate, 10 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 57 lbs. per cubic foot. 

lbs. 

C 956. Guzerat, Bombay 

W1220. North Kanara 57 



3. L. microcarpay Wight; Beddome t. 80; Z. laneeolala, Wall.; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 676 ; Brandis 240. Vern. Benieak, venteai, Tam. ; 

2b 



S102 



!.YTHRAKTE.f:. 



[Lap&rsirSmia. 



F&nfaiu, Tel.; BoluHclur, hilli nandi, Kan.; Nandi, Coorg; Nanai, 
Mar. 

A lar^e tree with smooth white bark^ peeling off in thin flakes. 
Wood red^ moderately hard. Pores large and small^ often subdivided and 
freij'iently joined by narrow, irregular, wavy bands and lines of softer 
texture. Medullary rays extremely fine, very numerous. Distinct white 
concentric lines, which probably indicate the annual rings. Pores 
marked on a longitudinal section and medullary rays visible on a radial 
section as numerous narrow plates. 

Western forests of the Madras Presidency. 

Growth moderately fast, 6 to 8 rin^s per inch of radius. The weight and trans* 
verse strength have been determined as follows : 



Experiment by wbom 
condacted. 


Yesr. 


Whence pro- 
cured. 


Number of 
ezperi- 
mentii. 


Size of bar. 


Weight. 


Value of 
P. 


Skinner No. 85 . 

Pockle 

List .... 

Balfoar 

Smythies . 


1863 
1869 
1863 

• •• 

1878 


Mjiore 

i» 
Malabar 
South Kanara 


6 
S 


Ft. In. In. 
Variona 
2x1x1 

7x2x2 


41 
41 
39 
49 
48 


619 
939 

648 



Much used in construction and for ship-building, also for coffee-cases, and for 
furniture. 

IbH. 

W 765. South Kanara 48 

W 862. „ „ 48 



4. L. Beg^in®, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 505 ; Beddome t. 29 ; Brandis 240. 
JS. Flos-Regina, Retz ; Hook. PL Ind. ii. 577 ; Kurz i. 524. Vern. Jaril, 
Bcng. ; Ajhar^ Ass.; Bolashari, Gdro ; Kadali, Tam. ; Challd, Kan. ; 
AdamhoCy Mai. ; Tama7i, mota bondara, Mar. ; Kamaung, Magh ; Pjfmma, 
Burm. ; Murnte, Cingh. 

A large deeidnous tree. Bark smooth^ grey to cream-coloured. Wood 
shinincr^ light red^ bard ; annual rings marked by a belt of large pores. 
Pores of all sizes from extremely small to large^ the latter often sub- 
divided, joined by narro>v^ wavy and often anastomosing concentric bands 
of soft tissue, which contain the smaller pores. Medullary rays very or 
extremely fine, often indistinct. The wood in Burma is frequently very 
poroQs with an abundance of large pores. 

Eastern Bengal, Assam, Burma and Western Coast, extending north to Batnanri. 

Growth moderate; our specimens show 7 rings per inch of ladius. In 1876 Mr. 
Fisher measured 5 trees in tne Sidii Forest, Goalpara district, Assam. The resnlta 
were, on an average- 
la. In. In. In. In. 

On a length of radius equivalent to a girth of 18 36 54 72 90 
No. of rings 15 25 89 51 66 

On an avera^, therefore, the number of rings per inch of radius is 4*6 ; and the tree 
appears to add a cubit to its girth every 13 years on an average. The weight and 
transverse strength have been determined by the following experiments. 



Lagenfromia, ] 



LYTHRAEIBJE. 



203 



Experiment bj whom 
condacted. 



Teir. 



Wood whence 
prooored. 



Nomber of 
experiments. 



Sise of bar. 



Weight. 



Waiiich . . 
Adrian Mendis 
Baker 

Skinner, No. 87 
Kyd . . 



>» 



Beneon . 
Forbes Wateon 
Brandis, Nos. 61, 62 

n n n • 

Commissariat Department 
Smythies 



1856 
1828 
1862 
1831 

II 

•> 



1862 
1864 

• •• 

1878 



IndU 
Cejlon . 
Bengal 
Sooth India 
Assam 

•» 

H 

Borma . 
ft 
II 

w 

Moalmein 
As below 



11 



4 

• • • 

10 






Value of P. 



Ft In. In. 



2 X 

2 X 



1x1 



1 X 1 



3 X 1*4 X 1-4 
3 X 1*6 X 1*6 

7x2x2 



Ibi. 
46-6 
41 

• • t 

40 
87 
38 

38 
38 
86 

40-6* 
47 
88 
43 



860 

687 

407 f 

683 

383 f 

840 

661 

• • ff 

680 
822 



* ATerage of 37 and 41. 

The most valaable timber of Sylhet, Cachar and Chittagong, and in Burma the 
most valuable after teak. It is used in ship-bnilding and for boats and canoes, all 
kinds of constmction, timber and carts. The Ordnance Department nse it for manj 
parts of their gun-carriages. In South India it is used for building and in Cejlon for 
casks. It gives a resin. It is cultivated for ornament all over the hotter parts of 
India and even as far north as Lahore. 

lbs. 

£ 620. Eastern Ddars, Assam 48 

£ 1228. 8ibs4gar, Assam 40 

E 2188. Nowgong, Assam 40 

£1272. Cachar 88*5 

£ 410. Sundarbans 47 

£ 710, Chittagong 47 

W 726. South Kanara 46 

B 808. Pegu 39 

B3067. Burma (1862) 40 

B 2717. Tavoy (Wallich, 1828) 43 

5. L. macrocarpa. Wall.; Kurz i. 624. L. Flos-Regina, Retz; 
Hook. PI. Ind. ii. 577. Vem. Jarul, Beng.; Koonpymmah, Burm. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Wood red, moderately hard^ in 
structure resembling that of L. Regina, but the bauds of white tissue 
more prominent and large pores fewer. 

Burma in Pegu and Martaban. 

Weight, 45 to 48 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Ibe 

B 296. Burma (1867) 48 

B 9068. „ (1862) : ... 45 

6. L. hypoleuca, Kurz i. 52a ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 577. Vern. 
Pymmah, Burm. ; JPdbdd^ And. 

A laro^e deciduous tree with thin whitish bark. Wood red, hard. 
Pores very small to very large, in fine, wavy, concentric, anastomosing, 
but sometimes interrupted lines of softer tissue, alternating with darker 
wood of firmer texture, in which the very fine medullary rays are dis- 
tinctly visible. 

Andaman Islands. 

Growth slow, 10-18 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 41 to 50 lbs. aocordiiig to 



204 LYTHRAKiKS. [ LagersirSmta. 

Major Protheroe ; onr apecimens g^ve an average of 39 to 40 lbs. ; Benneii ffi^M 

41 lbs. and P = 570. The wood is used largely in the Andamans for bmlaing, 

thhielefr and other pnrpotes. 

lb& 

B 510. Andaman Islands •» 

B2202. „ „ (1866) 45 

B2274. „ „ „ 38 

B2283. „ „ „ 34 

B2496. „ „ (Home, 1874, No. 2) .... 44 

7. L. tomentOBa, Presl; Hook. Fl. lad. ii. 578; Kurz i. 522. 
Vern. Laiza, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark ^ inch thick, grey. Wood grey or 
greyish brown, close-grained, moderately hard. Pores from very small 
to very large, the latter often subdividea, joined by numerous concentric 
lines, alternating with broad bands of firmer tissue, in which the fine 
medullary rays are prominent. 

Bnnna. Freanent in Pega and Martaban. 

Weight, according to Brandis' Gataloeue, 1862, No. 59 (Z. puheteem, WaUOt ^ 53 
lbs. ; Brandis' 3 ezi)ermients in 1864 with oars 3 ft. X 1 inch X 1 inch gave : Weight 
38 lbs. and P = 588. Oar specimens give 46 and 53 lbs. The timber is valaed 
for bows and spear handles, and is also used for canoes and cart-wheels. 

Um. 

B 572. Prome . . . : 46 

B2533. Burma (1862) 53 

4. DUABANGA, Ham. 

1. D. sonneratioides, Buch. ; Kurz i. 5S&5 ; Gamble 42. Lager" 
stromia prandiflora, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 508. Vern. JBandorAuUa, Beng. ; 
Zampatia, Nep. ; Diir, Lepcha ; KoeAan, ioian, Ass. ; Jaril^jkalna, 
Cachar ; Bondorkella, bolckim, Q&vo; BaicAua, Magh ; Myoukgnau, Burm. 

A lofty deciduous tree, with light-brown bark, peeling oft in thin 
flakes. Wood grey, often streaked with yellow, soft, seasons well, neither 
warps nor splits. Pores large and moderate-sized, often oval and sub- 
divided, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays fine, very numerous, 
wavy. Pores well marked on a longitudinal section. 

Eastern Bengal ascending to~3,000 foot^ Assam and Burma. 

Growth fast, 5 rings per inch of radius. Weight, according to Brandis' Banna 

lost of 1862, No. 64, 30 lbs. per cubic foot ; our specimens give an average of 32 lbs. 

The wood does not warp or split, and canoes cut out of it green are at once used, even 

when liable alternately to wet and the heat of the sun. Is used in Northern Bengal 

and Assam ver^ extensively for tea-boxes, for which purpose it is admirably fitted. It 

is also made into canoes and cattle troughs. The seeds are extremely small and the 

seedlings very minute at first, but the erowth is Very fast. Seedlings at the Bamun- 

pokri Plantation in Bengal, which had come up on the sites of old charcoal kilns (see 

" Indian Forester," Vol. iv. page 345), attained a height of 10 feet in two years, with 

proportionate girth and fine spreading branches. 

« "«• 

E 652. Rakti Forest, Darjeeling Terai 32 

£ 2380. Sukna Forest, Darjeeling Terai 32 

E 950. Eastern Ddars, Assam 32 

£ 1230. Sibs&gar, Assam 36 

£ 1436t Assam 29 

£ 1285. Cachar 39 

B 1499. Sylhet ^ 

£ 713. Chittagong 31 

B 807. Pegu 30 

B 1995. Andamans (Kvnz, 1866) (young tree) .... 21 



Sonneratia, ] lythrarie^. 205 

5. SONNERATIA, Liun. f. 

Contains 4 Indian trees found in the coast forests of Sind, Bengal, Malabar, 
Arracan, ^egu, Tenasserim and the Andamans. Besides the two described : 8, alba, 
8m. ; Hopk. Fl. Ind. ii. 580 ; Kurz i. ^6, is found in the shore forests of the Anda* 
mans and 8, QriffUhii, Kurz j. b2f!, Yern. Tapyoo, in those of Burma. 

1. S. acida^, Linn. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 579 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. li. 506 ; 
Beddome cxyiii.; Br^ndis 242; Exirz i. 526. Yern* Orcha, ardaid, 
Beng. ; Tapoo, tamoo, Burm. 

A small evergreen tree. Wood grey^ soft^ even-grained. Porai 
smili, oval and ^ubdivided^ vei^^ numerous, nniibrisd/ distributed. 
Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. 

Tidal ci:eeks and littoral forests of India, Burma, and the Andamans. 
Weight, 31 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood is said bj Beddome to be used for modek^ 
and in Cejlon to be a good substitute for coal in stumers. The froit is eaten in the 

Sundarbans. 

lbs. 
£ 396. Suudarbans 31 

2. S. apetala, Buch. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 579 ; Boxb.FI. Ind. ii. 506 ; 
Beddome ozviii. ; Kurz i. 527. Vern. Keowra, Beng. ; Kanpala, Burm. . 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Sapwood grey ; heartwood reddish 
brown, moderately hard. Fores small, numerous, oval and subdivided. 
Medullary rays fine^ very numerous. 

IHdal creeks and littoral forests of Bengal and Burma. 

Weight, 44 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood is said bj Kurz to be good for honse-bnild- 
ing, packiDg-boxes, etc. 

E 399. Sundarbans .44 

6. PUNICA,Iinn. 

1. P. Granatmn, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 581; Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
499 ; Beddome cxix. ; Bvandis 241 ; Kurz i. 528 ; Gamble 42. The 
Pomegranate. Vern. Andr, ddrim, dam4, Hindi; Ddlim, Kumaun; 
Dalimie, Kan. ; TAal^, Burm. 

A shrub or small tree. Wood light yellow, with a small, darker 
coloured, irregularly shaped heartwood, comraot and olimse-grained. 
Pores very small, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays fine, very 
numerous. Medullary patches common. 

Wild in the Suliman Range, between 3,500 and 6,000 feet, Salt Range and North- 
West Himalaya. Cultivated in many parts of India and Burma. 

Growth slow, 18 rings per inch of radius (Brandis). Weight, Mathien FL For., p. 
169, gives 52 to 63 lbs. ; one specimen weighs 57 lbs. per oubio foot. Wood not used, 
but might be tried as a substitute for boxwood. The fruit is generally eaten, but the 
best kmds come from A^hanistan. The flowers are veij handsome,. bright soodetk 
and nve a light-red dye ; the bark and the rind of the fruit are used for tanning and 
for ^eing morocco leather, and the root-bark is an effectual anthelmintic. 

Ibi. 

P 106. Sutlej Valley, Punjab 57 



OaDBR XLIX, SAHTTDACEiSS. 

Contains two genera, Casearia and Homalium, 



206 SAMYDACEJE. [ Ca^caria. 

1. CASE ARIA, Jacq. 

Nine Indian species. C, Vdreea, Bozb. Fl. Ind. ii. 418 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. IL 593 ; 
Kara i. 530 ; Gamble 43, is an evergreen shrub of the banks of streams in Northern 
and Eastern Bengal. C, eseulenta, Bozb., C. rubescens, Dalz. ; Beddome t. 41, and 
C wynaadensis, beddome czz., are small trees of the forests of the Western Ghits. 
C Kurzii, C. B. Clarke ; Hook. FL Ind. ii. 594, is a tree of Chittagong. 

Wood yellowish white^ moderately hard, rough. Medallary rays 
fine, numerous. Pores small or very small, often in radial groups or 
lines. 

1. C. tomentosa, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 421 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 693 ; 
Beddome exix. ; Brandis 243. Vem. Ciilla, cAilara, bairi,bAari, Hind. ; 
Maun, Manbhdm ; Men, toasa, gamgudu, Tel. ; Lainja, moisei, iarei, 
Mar.; Girari, Uriya; Thundri, Gk)ndi ; Kkesa, Kurku. 

A small tree. Bark i inch thick, brittle, exfoliating in more or less 
square flakes. Wood yellowish white, moderately hard, rough, close- 
grained. Pores small and very small, sometimes in radial lines. Medul- 
lary rays fine and very fine, wavy, equidistant, very numerous. 

6ab<Himalayan tract from the Indus eastwards, Oudh, Eastern Bengpal, Central 
and South India. 

Weight, 41 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood used to make combe. The bark is bitter ; it 
is used for adulterating the " Kamela" powder and the pounded fruit for poisoning 
fish. 

Ibf. 
1393. Gonda,Oudh 41 

3086. „ „ ^ 

O 3089. Kheri, Oudh 

C 1188. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 41 

C 2802. Melghit, Berar (young) 38 

2. C. graveolens, Dalzell; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 592; Brandis 248. 
Vem. CAilIa,ndro, kathera,pimpri. Hind. ; Girchi, Gondi; Rewat, Kurku. 

A small deciduous tree. Bark dark grey, with a few longitudinal 
wrinkles. Wood light yellow, moderately hard, rough, even-grained. 
Pores small, often oval and subdivided. Medullary rays fine, equidistant, 
very numerous, visible as shining plates on a radial section. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab eastwards, Oudh, Central India. 
Weight, 40 to 50 lbs. Wood not used ; the fruit is used to poison fish. 

240. Garhwal (1868) JS* 

271. „ „ 40 

O 1466. Bahraicb, Oudh 49 

3090. Kheri, Oudh 



• ... 



3. C. glomerata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 419; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 591; 
Kurz i. 530; Gamble 42. Vern. Mrjur, Sylhet; Burgonli, Nep.; Sugvai^ 
Lepcha. 

A large evergreen tree. Wood yellowish white, moderately hard, 
rough. Pores small, in radial lines. Medullary rays of two sizes; 
numerous very fine rays between fewer mcnierately broad, giving on a 
radial section a beautifully mottled appearance. 

Eastern Bengal ascending to 6,000 feet, Chittagong. 

Weight, 46 to 48 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood used tor building, charcoal and occa- 
sionally for tea- boxes. 



Casearia,'} samydackjr. 207. 

IbB. 

£ 691. Chuttockpar Forest, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet . . . .48 
B 2381« „ „ „ „ .... 45 

2. HOMALIUM, Jacq. 

Contains eight trees, chiefly Burmese. JT*. zeylanicum, Bth., Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 596; 
Beddome t. 210, and JT*. travancorirum, Beddome t. 211, are large trees of the 
Western Gh&ts. JET. minutifhrum, Knrz i. 532, H, propinquum, C. B. Clarke ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 597, and H. Oriffitkianum, Kurz i. 531, are smaU trees of 
Burma. JT*. Schlichii, Kurz i. 532, is an evergreen tree of the tropical forests of 
Chittagong ; and H. nepalense, Bth., is found in Nepal. 

L H. tomentosmn, Bth.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 596; Brandis 243; 
Kurz i. 531. Blackioellia tomentasa, Vent. ; Brandis' Burma Catalogue, 
1862, No. 58. Vern. M^ouksAaw, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree with thin, very smooth, whit« or grejrish white 
bark. "Wood brown, with dark-coloured heartwood, very hard, heavy 
and close-grained, splits in seasoning. Pores small, in radial lines 
between the closely-packed and fine medullaiy rays, which are bent out- 
wards where they touch the pores. The distance between the rays is less 
than the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Chittagong and Barma. 

Weight, Brandis in Burma List, 1862, No. 58, gives 56 lbs. His experiments made 
in 1864 were as follows : 

No. Size of bw. Weight Valoe of P. 

2 3' X 1" X I*' 53 880 

3 2! X V X r 54 868 

Oor 8i)ecimens give an average of 58 lbs. This may be the wood experimented 
on by Skinner, No. 53 (see also under Dalhergia lanceolaria, p. 128) Weight 62 lbs., 
P= 1003. He calls it " Moulmein lancewood" and Moukshow, The wood is durable 
and is used for the teeth of harrows and for furniture. 

Ibe. 

B 331. Burma (1866) 63 

B 2534. „ (1862) 50 

B 2692. Tavoy (Wallich, 1828) 61 

B 2699. „ „ , 64 

B 2702. „ „ „.•••.... 55 



Obdee L. PASSIFLOBHS. 

Only one species. Carica Papaya^ Linn. ; Boxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 824 ; Brandis 
244; Kurz i. 633; Ghimhle 43. The Fapaw Tree. Yem. Papaya, Hind, ; Perinji Kan.; 
Thimbawthee, Burm., is a small, soft-wooded, fast-growing tree which was introduced 
from South Ajnerica, and is now cultivated all over India for its fruit. The tree has 
the property of rendering meat tender by its being soaked it in its juice or by suspend- 
ing the jomt under it. The Passion Flowers, Passiflora, herbEU^eous or perennial 
climbers, belong to this family. 



Order LI. DATISCHS. 

Two Genera. Datuca cannabina, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 656. Vern. Akalbir, 
bhang Jala, Hind., is a tall, erect herb resembling hemp and found in the Punjab 
Himalaya. It gives a red or yellow dye. 



208 DATiscEJE. [ Telrameles. 

1. TETRAMELES, R. Br. 

1. T. nudiflora, R. Br.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 657; Beddome t. 212; 
Brandis 245 ; Kurz i. 5S5 ; Gamble 43. Vern. Mainakat, Nep. ; 
Payomko, Lepcha ; Bolon/j^, Gdro; Sandugaza, Beng.; TseHpoban, Magh ; 
Thitpouk, Burm. ; Bolur, Kan. 

A very large deciduous tree> with cylindrical^ often mueh-battreflsed 
stem. Bark grey-brown, brinkled. Wood wbite^ very lights soft. Annual 
rings marked by a belt of closer pores. Wood cells large. Pores large^ 
often in short, zigzag, transverse lines. Medullary rays fine to moderately 
broad, clearly marked, the distance between the rays equal to the diame- 
ter of the pores. 

Sikkim, G&ro Hills, Chittagong, Western Oh&ts, Banna and the Andamonv. 
Growth Teiy fast. The wood may be found useful for tea-boxes. 

E 3288. Rinkheong Beserve, Chittagong. 



O&DBR LII. CACTEiE. 

Contains only the Prickly Pear, Opuntia Dillenii, Haw. ; Hook. FL Ind. ii. 657 ; 
Brandis 245 {Cactus indicus, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 475.) Yem. Nd^kana, ndgpkansi. 
Hind. ; Pdpaah kaUi, Kan. ; Chaffdl send, Dekkan. An erect, fleshy, thorny shrub 
oommon all over the arid and dry zones of India and often planted as a hedge. The 
stems have been used in time of scarcity as fodder. It was originally brought from 
America. 



Order LIII. AKALIACILS. 

Contains 16 Genera of usually small, soft- wooded trees or shrubs, erect or climbing. 
They are divided into four Tribes, viz., — 

Tribe I. — Aralieae Aralia and Pentapanax, 

„ II. — Panacese Acanthopanax, Melmngia, Poly^ 

scias, Hepiaplettrum, T^revesiOf 
Brassaia and Dendropanax, 
„ III. — Hederee .... Arthroph^llum, Heteropanax, 

Brassatopsis, Maeropanax, 
Hedera and Oamhlea, 
„ IV. — Plerandre® .... Tupidantkus. 

Aralia contains 6 shrubs or small trees, the chief of which are A^foliolosa, Seem., 
and A, armata. Seem. Yem. 8omri, Nep. ; Kajyang, Lepcha, small trees of the 
hills of the N.E. Himalaya with large ^3 pinnate leaves, prickly stems and the 

feneral aspect of tree ferns. A, cachemirica. Dene. ; Brandis 248, is a shrub of the 
igher elevations of the Himalaya from Kashmir to Sikkim. Pentapanax contains 
4 species of usually climbing epiphytic shrubs : P. Leschenaultii, Seem., P. suh^ 
cordatum, Seem., and P. racemosum. Seem., are large climbers of the Sikkim Hills. 
Aoanthopanax aculeatum. Seem., is a shrub of the Khasia Hills. Polyscicu 
acuminata, Wi^ht ; Beddome t. 213, is a tree of the hills of South India above 
4,000 feet elevation. Trevesia palmata. Vis. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 732 ; Kurz. i. 539 ; 
Gamble 44. (Oastonia palmata, fioxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 407.) Yem. Kajpati, Nep.; 
Suntong, Lepcha ; Bato, Burm., is an evergreen palm-like tree with large palmate 
leaves and bi^ fruit, found in the Eastern Himalaya, Eastern Benc^ and^ JSurma. 
Brassaia capttata, C. B. Clarke ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 732, is a tree of the Nilgiri Hills. 
Arthrophyllum diverstfolium, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 733. {A, javanicum, Bl. ; 
Kurz L 540), is an evergreen palm-like tree of the Andamans. Heteropanax firagrans. 



Helwingia. ] aualiace^. 209 

Seem. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii, 734 ; Brandis 240 ; Korz 641 ; Gamble 44. Yern. Lai 
totilla, Nep. ; Siriokhtem, Lepcha ; Kesteru, Assam ; Hona, Cachar ; STcLchansa^ 
Barm., is a small tree of the sub-Himalayan tract from Kmnaun to Assam, Eastern 
Bengal, Chittagong and Burma. It is important as being a tree upon whose 
leaves, as well as on those of the Castor Oil plant, the " Eri " silkworm of Assam 
(Attcums Bicini) is fed. Tupidanihus ealyptratus, H. f • and Th., is an evergreen 
scandent tree of the eastern slopes of the Arracan Yoma. 

The Chinese rice-paper is the pith of Aralia papyrifera, Hk., a tree of Formosa. 

Wood white, generally soft. Pores small, often arranfi^ed in concentric 
bands. Medullary rays distant, broad or moderately broad, generally 
several lines of pores between two rays. 

1. HELWINGIA, Willd. 

1. H. himalaica, Hook. f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 7£6 ; Gamble 
44 Vern. Luhbor^ Lepcha. 

A large shrub. Wood white, moderately hard, pith large. Pores 
very small, arranged in groups or short concentric lines. Medullary 
rays short, fine to moderately broad. 

Eastern Himalaya, above 7,000 feet, Ehasia Hills. 

A cnrioos shrub with simple leaves and flowers in umbels from the centre of the 
leaves, like those of Suscus. . 

£ 3342. Dar jeeling, 7,000 feet. 

2. HEPTAPLEURUM, Gaertn. 

Contains about 10 trees or climbers, amonf? which 6 species ooenr in South India, 
2 in Burma and 4 in the Sikkim Himalaya. JET. imprettum, 0. B. Clarke ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 728. (H. tomentosum. Ham. ; Gamble 44). Yern. Baloo chinia, Nep. ; 
Suntonff, Lepcha, is a handsome tree of the North-East Himalaya, from Kumaun to 
Bhutan, common in the forests from 6,000 to 10,000 feet, and reoognised by its woolly 
leaves. It has a white, soft wood. H. glaucum, C. B. Clarke ; Hook. Fl. Ind. iu 
728 ; G<tmble 44. Vern. Chinia, Nep. ; Hloprongzam, Lepcha, is a tree of North* 
East Himalaya and the Khasia Hills, in which latter locality, as well as in Burma, is 
also found ll, hvpoleucum, Kurz i. 539, a small branched tree, and ii*. Khasianum, 
C. B. Clarke. M. racemosum, Beddome t. 214, is a large tree of the Western Gh4t8 
and Ceylon. H. rostratum, Beddome czxii., and JET. Wallichianum^ C. B. Clarke, 
are trees of the Western Ghiits. H. venulosum, 8eem. ; Brandis 249 ; Kurz i. 638 ; 
Gamble 44 (Aralia digitata, Hozb. Fl. Ind. ii. 107) Vern. 2>a»j», Hind. ; Singhata, 
Nep., is a climbing shrub or small tree of most parts of India. 

1. H. elatnm, C. B. Clarke ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 728 ; Gamble 44. 
Vern. Chinia, Nep. ; Prongzam, Lepcha. 

A tree. Bark J in thick, greyish brown. Wood white, soft. Struct- 
ure similar to that of Macropanax undulaium, 

Himalaya, from Kumaun to Bhutan, between 5,000 and 7,000 feet. 
E 3326. Rangirum, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet. 

3. BBASSAIOPSIS, Dene, and Planch. 

Contains several small palm -like trees of the Eastern Himalaya, Eastern Bengal 
and Burma. B, palmata, Kurz i. 537, is found in the forests of Chittagong and the 
Andamans, and B. Hainla, Seem. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 735; Gamble 44. Yern. 
TilhctteTy Nep. ; Suntongy Lepcha, is a common small tree in the forests of the outer 
Sikkim Himala^^a. 

2 6 



210 AKALiACEiE. ISroiiaiopsu 

1. B. mitis, C. B. Clarke; Hook. FI. Ind. ii, 786. JB. sp.; Gamble 
44. Vern. HoqcAini, Nep. ; Suntonp, Lepcha. 

A small tree with thin grey bark, and softj white, spongy wood. 
Pores small, in groups and undulating lines. Medullary rays short, 
broad and very fine, marked on a radial section as shining plates. 

Sikkim Himalaya, above 5,000 feet, oommon at Darjeeling. 
[ Growth moderately fast, 6 rings per inch of radios. Weighty 24 lbs. per cubic feet. 

Ibc 
£ 2382. RaDgbdl Forest, Daxjeelmg, 7,000 feet .... 24 

4. MACROPANAX, Miq. 

Besides the species described, M, oreophilum, Miq. ; Kurz i. 541, is an evergreen 
tree of the forests of the Martaban Hills aboTe 6,000 feet. 

1. M. undnlatTun, Seem.; Oamble 45. Vern. CAinia, Nep.; 
Prongzam, Lepcha. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree ; wood soft, yellowish white, even- 
grained. Pores small, numerous. Medullary rays broad, often with a 
few fine rays intervening, prominent on a radial section as shining 
plates giving the wood an elegant reticulate appearance. The distance 
between the rays is many times larger than the diameter of the pores, 
there being many lines of pores between each pair of rays. 

Eastern Himalaya, up to 5,000 feet. 
Weight, 30 lbs. per cubic foot. 

lb«. 
£ 688. Chuttockpur Forest, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet .... 30 

5. HEDERA, Linn. 

1. H. Helix, Linn. ; Brandis 248 ; Gamble 45. The Ivy. Vern. 
Halbambar, arbambal, Jhelum ; Karmora, mandia, Kashmir ; Knrol, Che- 
nab ; Kuri, karur, Ravi ; BrUmbriim, daidri, Beas ; Karbaru, ianiuri, 
iadeoli, Sutlej ; Bdnda, Eumaun ; Dudela, Nep. 

A large woody climber. Wood white, soft, porous. Annual rings 
marked by a broad belt of pores and by less numerous pores in the 
autumn wood. Pores small, very numerous. Medullary rays shorty 
moderately broad. 

Himalaya from the Indus to Bhutan, between 3,000 and 9,000 feet; Khasia Hills. 
Growth slow, 22 rings per inch of radius. Weight, our specimen gives 34 lbs. ; 
2f athien Fl. For. p. 174, gives 27 to 44 lbs. 

Ibi. 

H 69. Mashobra, Simla, 7,000 feet 

H 3010. Kotgarh, Simla, 7,600 feet 34 



Order LIV. COBNACEiE. 

Contains 7 Genera of Indian trees or shrubs. They are generally dispersed over 
India, but are chiefly found in the Himalayas. They may be divided into two sections— 

Section I.^With hermaphrodite flowers . Alangtvm, Marlea, Carmt9 and 

Miistixia. 
f, II. — With dioecious flowers . Aucuba, Nyssa and Torrieellia. 



Alangium, ] cornaceje. %] I 

MasHxia arhorea, Wig^ht ; Beddome t. 216, is a tree of the forests of the Western 
Gh4ts, between 2,000 and 7,000 feet. Torricellia iiluBfolia, DC. ; Gamble 45, is 
a small tree of the Eastern Himalaya between 6,000 and 10,000 feet. Nysta 
iesHliflora, Hook, f . and Th., is found in the Eastern Himalaya and Khasia Hills. 

Wood close-grained^ apt to warp. Pores generally small or very 
small. Medullary rays fine and numerous. 

1. ALANGIUM, Lam. 

Contains two species, one of which is here described. A, Sundanum, Miq. 
Vem. Afffiara, And., is an evergreen climbing shrub of the tropical forests of the 
Andamans. 

1. A. LamarcMi, Thwaites; Beddome t. 215; Brandis 250, 
A. Aexapetalum, Roxb. Fl. lud. ii. 502. A. decapetalum. Lam. ; Kurz i. 
543. Vern. Aiola, tAaila, Hind. ; Aiar-iatUa, bagk ankurd, Beug. ; 
Aiangi, Tam. ; Urgu, udagu, Tel. ; Ankola, Kan. ; Uru, Gondi* 

A deciduous shrub or small tree. Bark ^ inch thick, grey* Sapwood 
light yellow ; heartwood brown, hard, close and even-graiued. Pores 
small, scanty, in radial lines between the fine, closely packed medullary 
rays, which often bend outwards ; the transverse diameter of the pores 
being slightly larger than the distance between the rays, 

Snb- Himalayan tract from the Ganges eastwards, Ondh, Bengal, Central and South 
India. 

Growth moderately slow, 6 rings per inch of radins. Weight, according to Skinner, 

No. 13, 49 lbs. per cubic foot ; oar specimens give ^9-56 lbs. Slanner gives P = 876. 

The wood is used for pestles, for oil-mills, wooden cattle-bells, and other pnrposes, 

and is valuable for mel. It coppices well. The fruit is eaten, and the bark used in 

native medicine. 

lbs. 

C 3116. Chanda, Central Provinces 56 

D 1082. North Arcot, Madras 49 



2. MABLEA, Boxb. 

Besides the species here described, M, tometUota, Endl. ; Knrz i. 545. Vern. 
Oarapongte, Bnnn., is a large evergreen tree of the tropical forests of Martaban, said 
by Kurz to have a pale brown, close-grained wood with a silvery lustre. 

1. M. begonisBfolia^ Roxb. FI. Ind. ii. 261 ; Brandis 251 ; Kurz i. 
544; Gamble 45. Vero. Oarium, budhal^ i4mbri, North- Western 
Provinces; JBodara, Beas; Sidlu, Chenab; Prot, Kashmir; Tilpattra, 
chitpattra, iuriui, Jhelura ; Tumri, Kuraaun ; Timilj Nep. ; Palet, Lepcha ; 
Tapuya^ Burm. ; Marlea^ marliza, Sylhet. 

A small tree^ with smooth^ thiu, grey bark» Wood white^ soft, even- 
grained. Annual ringfs marked by a belt of numerous pores. Pores 
moderate-sized and large, small in the outer portion of each ring. 
Medullary rays short, wavy, fine ard moderately broad^ prominent oa 
a radial section.' 

Outer Himalaya from the Indas to Bhutan, ascending in the North-West to 
6,000 feet, and in Sikkim to 9,000 feet ; Khasia Hills, Eastern Bengal, Chittagong and 
Martaban* 

Growth moderately fast, 5 rings per inch of radios. Weight, 42 lbs. per cubic foot. 



21 '2 coRNACEJi. [MarUa. 

Tbo trood is used for native Louses in Sylhet. The leaves are sometimes given as 
fodder to cattle. 

Ibc 

H 2831. The Glen, Simla, 6,000 feet 42 



3. CORNUS, Linn. 

Besides the three species here described, C. san^uinea, Linn. ; Brandis 253, the 
Dogwood, was found by Dr. Stewart in the Pnigab Himalaya at 7,000 feet. 

Numerous small pores and numerous fine medullary rays^ often of 
different width. 

1. C. macroilhylla, Wall. ; Brandis 252 ; Gamble 45. Vem. Kasir^ 
iaeAir, Aaleo, allian, Aaddu, iarru, nang, kandara, kaksh, kachur^ kochan, 
kdgsAa, ruchia^ Hind. ; Fatmoro, Nep. 

A small tree^ with roughs brown bark^ splitting into small squares. 
Wood pinkish white, hard, close-grained, warps badly and has an 
unpleasant scent. Annual rings marked by a narrow line without pores, 
on the outer edge of each ring. Pores small, numerous. Medullary 
rays short, moderately broad, with fewer fine rays, giving the wood on a 
radial section a beautifully mottled appearance. 

Himalaya from the Indus to Bhutan, between 3,000 and 8,000 feet. 

Growth moderate, 8 to 9 rings per inch of radius (Brandis) ; our specimens had 15 
rin^. Weight, 44 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood gives good gunpowder charcoal. The 
fruit is eaten and the leaves given as fodder to goats. 

ib«. 
H 84. The Glen, Simla, 6,000 feet 45 

H 924. Hazara, 6,000 feet 43 

2. C. oblongay Wall. ; Brandis 253 ; Kurz i. 545. Vern. Kag^hi, 
Sutlej ; Dab, Kunawar ; Kasmol, bakdr, ban-bakur, Aala, Hind. 

A small tree, with reddish brown, rough bark. Wood pinkish white, 
hard, even-grained, warps and has an unpleasant scent. Annual rings 
marked by a belt without pores at the outer edge of each ring. Pores 
small, numerous. Medullary rays fine, very numerous, with a few 
slightly broader ones. 

Outer Himalaya from the Indus to Bhutan, between 3,000 and 6,000 feet; 
Martaban Hills in Burma, between 4,000 and 7,000 feet (Kurz). 

Growth moderate, 10 rings per iuoh of radius. Weight, 48 lbs. per cubic foot. 

H 150. Sainj, Giri Valley, 4,000 feet . . ... . 46 

H 3094. Tarwa Forest, Julung. Simla, 4,000 feet .... 50 

3. C capitata. Wall. ; Brandis 253 ; Gamble 45. Bentkamia 
fragifera, Lindley. Vern. Tk^mmal, tkarbal, tkarwar, then, bamaur^ 
bamora, Hind. ; Tttmbuk, Lepcha. 

A small deciduous tree, with thin, greyish brown bark. Wood whitish, 
with reddish brown heartwood, warps in seasoning, very hard, close- 
grained. Pores very small. Medullary rays numerous, moderate-sized 
and fine. 

Himalaya from the Beas to Bhutan, between 3,500 and 8,000 feet ; Ehasia Hills. 
Gn)wth slow, 16 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 45 lbs. per cubic foot. The 
wood is used only for fircwood. This is probably the Curnus, 9p,, of whose wood 5 



Cornus. ] coiiNACEiE. 218 

maonds were sent to the Isbapore Qunpowder Agency in 1865 (Bengal Forest Report, 
1865-66, page 2), of the reHutt of which experiment we have no record. The miit 
is red, stniwberry-like, and is eaten and made into preserves. The tree is very hand- 
some when in flower with its large cream-coloured involucre. 

lb«. 

H 78. Mashobra, Simla, 7,000 feet 

H 94. Simla, 6,000 feet 45 

4. AUCUBA, Thunb. 

Contains one large shrub or small tree of the Eastern Himalaya. A.j'aponiea, 
Thunb. is a well-known shrub of English gardens, recognised by its shining leaves, 
blotched with yellow. 

1. A* himalaica^ Hook. f. and Th. ; Brandis 254 ; Gamble 45. Vern. 
PAul ampAi, Nep. ; Singna, iapaihyefy Lepcha. 

A small evergreen tree, with thin, smooth, dark-grey bark. Wood 
black when fresh cut, becoming lighter-coloured on exposure, bard and 
close-grained. Pores extremely small. Medullary rays of two classes, 
numerous fine rays between fewer broad or very broad ones, visible on 
a radial section as irregular plates and bands. 

Sikkim Himalaya between 6,000 and 9,000 feet. 

Growth slow, 20 rinss per inch of radius (Gamble) ; one specimen, E 3327, shews 
10 rings. Weight, 66 Ids. per cubic foot. 

E 2383. RangbdlFore8t,Darjeeling, 7,000 feet .... 66 
£ 3327. Rangirum „ „ 6,000 „ 



Ordbb LV. GAPBIFOLIAGEJE. 

Contains 6 genera belonging to the two following tribes : — 

Tribe I.— Sambuoe® Bambueus and Viburnum, . 

„ II. — Lonicerese • Abelia,Lonicera,Leycesterfa 

and Pentapyxis. 

Wood close-grained. Pores very small or extremely small, uniformly 
distributed. Medullary rays fine to extremely fine, numerous. 

1. SAMBUCUS, Linn. 

Contains 3 Indian species. S. Ebulutt Linn. ; Brandis 260. The DwiM*f Elder. 
Vern. Itichh kas, mushkidra, ganhula^Jhehim; Oandal, gwandisht siske idsar^ Chenab, 
is a herbaceous plant from a perennial root stock* found in the valleys of the Jhelum 
and Upper Chenab. 8» adnata^ Wall. ; Brandis 676 ; Gamble 46. Yem. Chiriya' 
baug,Ne]^., is an undershrub of Nepal and Sikkim found from 6,000 to 10,000 feet. 
Kurz gives S. Thunbergiana, Bl., as an undershrub of Ava and the Kakhyen Hills. 

1. S. javanica, Reinw. ; Gamble 46. Vern. Oaleni, Nep. 

A small tree. Bark light brown, ratber corky. Wood white, soft. 
Pores small, in groups. Medullary r^ys distant, fine to broad. Pith 
large, about \ inch in diameter. 

Eastern Himalaya from 4,000 to 8,000 feet, Khasia Hills. Chiefly found in 
second-growth forest. 

E 3133. Mangwa Forest, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet. 



214 CAPRiFOLiACEAi:. [ Fibumum. 

2. VIBURNUM, Linn. 

Contains about 15 species, mostly Himalayan. Three species ooear in the 
Ni]giris, seven in the North-West Himalaya, and aboat twelve in the Sastem 
Himalaya and Khasia Hills. 

V, corylifolium, Hook. f. and Th. ; Gamble 46, is a small tree of Sikldm and the 
Khasia Hills. V. nervosum^ Don ; Brandis 259. Yem. Ambre, amrola, art, Rari ; 
Mis, dab, Beas ; Thilkain, tkalein, Satlej, is a shrub of the Himalaya above 7,000 feet» 
from Kumaun to Sikkim. V. eordtfoliumt Wall, and V. punctatum, Ham. ; Beddome 
t. 217 ; Brandis 260 ; Gamble 46, are shrubs of the Outer Himalaya from Komaon to 
Bhutan, the latter occurring also in the Western Gh4ts. V. involucratum. Wall. ; Gamble 
46, Yern. Oorakuri, Nep., is a shrub of the Himalaya, chiefly eastern. V. fatidum^ 
Wall., V. odoratissimum, Ker, and V. Simonsii, Hook, f . and Th., are all from the 
Khasia Hills. F. hebanthum, W. and A. ; Beddome cxxiv., is a small teee of the 
Western Gh4ts and Ceylon. 

The Guelder Rose, cultivated in gardens in Europe, is F. Opului, Linn., and the 
Laurustinus is V. Tinus, Linn., indigenous in the Mediterranean region. 

Bark thin. Wood hard and close-grained, characterised by yery 

numerous^ very fine medullary rays and vpry small pores. Annual rings 

indistinctly marked^ generally by a narrow line of firmer wood. The wood 

of F, lutescens is softer^ the pores larger, and the annual rings not visible. 

All species here described^ with the exception of F. erubetcens and 

F. lute8cen9,2Lve marked by distinct and numerous medullary patches, visible 

on the horizontal and vertical sections. The European species, both 

those with deciduous leaves, F, Opului and F, Lantana, and the evergreen 

F. Tinus have no meduUury patches. 

1. V. cotlnifolinmy Don; Brandis 258. Yem. Mar ghwalawa^UvwiB^ 
Indus ; Rich iikluy dankuncA, Jhelum ; Richabi, iilmicA, g4ch, Kashmir ; 
Bathor, pdpat kalam, khimor, rdjaly iumma, Chenab; K(Uonda, Ravi; 
Jatoa, khatipy tustus, sussu, Sutlej ; Otoia, guya^ Kumaun. 

A large deciduous shrub, with greyish brown bark, \ inch thick. 
Wood white, hard to very hai*d, close-grained. Pores v«ry small, uni- 
formly distributed. Medullary rays fine and very fine, extremely 
numerous. On a hoiizontal section are seen linear, concentric, but short 
and interrupted patches of soft tissue, which shew on a vertical section 
as undulatiug lines of darker colour and of varying length. 

Suliman Range, North-West Himalaya, between 4,000 and 11,000 feet. 
The ripe fruit is eaten. 

H 2869 ] ^»g^°da» Simla, 8,000 feet. 
H 76. Mashobra, „ 7,000 „ * 

2. V. Mnllaha, Ham.; Brandis 258, 676. F. Hellulatum, Wall. Vera. 
Jal bdgu, Jhelum; Amliachay phuhel, Kashmir; Lai Mmaliya, Kumaun ; 
£ri, ira, Simla. 

A shrub. Bark dark grey, reticulate. Wood white, moderately 
hard; structure the same as that of F, cotinifolium^ 

North-West Himalaya from 6,000 to 10,000 feet. Fruit eaten. 

H 2834. The Glen, Simla, 6,000 feet. 
H 2866. Nagkanda, „ 8,000 „ 

3. V. coriacenm, Bl. ; Brandis 259 ; Oamble 46. Vera. KaU HU 
maliya, Kumaun; Bara gorakuri, Nep. 



Viburnum.'] CAPRiFOLiACEiB. . 215 

A large shrub or small tree. Bark grey brown^ rather corky. Wood 
similar to that of V. cotinifolium, but the pores larger and the medullary 
rays slightly broader. 

Himalaya from the Sutlej to Bhutan at 4,000 to 8,000 feet, Khasia Hilla, Nil- 
giriB and Ceylon. 

Weight, 60 lbs. per cable foot. The Nepalese are said to extract firom the seeds 
an oil which they use for food and for burning. 

Ibt. 

H2835. The Qlen, Simla, 6,000 feet 50 

4. V. embescens, Wall. ; Beddome cxxiv. ; Brandis 258 ; Gamble 
46. Vern. QannS, Nep. ; Kancha, Lepcha ; Bamshing, Bhutia. 

A small tree, with thin grey bark. Wood very hard, reddish, close 
and even-grained. Pores very small. Medullary rays undulating, fine 
and very fine, very numerous. No medullary patches. 

Himalaya firom Kumaun to Bhutan, between 5,000 and 11,000 feet ; Nilgiris 
and Ceylon. 

Weight, 59 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood might do as a substitute for boxwood and 
for carving. Used for house-posts in Sikkim. It grows well and quickly from 

cuttings. 

llM. 

E2384. Bangbdl, Daijeeling, 7,000 feet 59 

5. V. Intescens, Bl. ; Kurz ii. 2; Gamble 46. 

A large shrub. Bark greyish brown, thin. Wood reddish, soft. 
Pores moderate-sized, very numerous. Medullary rays fine, very numer- 
ous. Annual rings not visible. 

Terai and Lower Hills of Sikkim, Assam, Khasia Hills, in damp evergreen 
fol^sts. 

E 3273. Mdragh4t Reserve, W. Ddars. 

6. V. fostens, Decaisne ; Brandis 259. Vern. Ouch, uilu, iunch, 
Jhelum; KilmicA, guch, iwUlim, kuldra, jamdra, Kashmir; Tilhanj, 
jjulmu, tildts, tuin, Chenab; Talhang, tandei, tundhe, tundni zendni, 
Ravi; Talhang , lAelain, tselain, thilkain, Sutlej; Out^a, Kumaun. 

A large shrub with grey bark. Wood white, hard to very hard, 
close-grained. Wood similar in appearance and structure to that of 
v. cotinifoUum^ 

North-West Himalaya, from 5,000 to 11,000 feet. 
Weight, 53 lbs. per cubic foot. Fruit eaten. 

lbs. 
H 53. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 53 

xl «OoO. „ „ „ • . . • • . .... 

H 3015. Matiydna „ „ 

E 975. Chumbi Valley, Tibet, 10,000 feet 

8. ABELIA, Brown. 

1. A. triflora, R. Brown ; Brandis 267. Vern. Adei, pakiawar, Trans- 
Indus ; Chela b4la, Jhelum ; Ban bakkaru, aalanker^ Chenab ; Baling^ 
kut 9di, Bavi ; Zbang, matzbangj feni, Sutlej ; Munri, gogatti, kumki, 
Kumaun. 



21 G CAPRiFOLiACE^. [Abelia. 

A large shrub. Bark grej, with longitudiDal fissures. Wood gn^y- 
ish or bluish wbite^ hard, close and even -grained. Pores extremely small, 
except those at the edge of each annual ring, which are small and con- 
tinuous. Medullary rays very numerous, moderately broad and very 
fine, the former short. 

Safedkoh and Suliman Range, North- West Himalaya, between 4,000 and 10,000 

feet. 

Has very pretty flowers, but the wood is not used. Weight, 65 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Ibe. 
H 2937. Naldebra, Simla, 7,600 feet 66 

4. LONICERA, Linn. 

Contains 26 species, 21 of which are erect and 6 climbine. They are mostly small 
shrubs of the Himalaya, 2 only being found in the Nilgins and Western Ghats. 
The Himalayan species are mostly from high altitudes, some occurring only in Tibet. 
X. spinosa, Jacqaemont ; Brandis 255, is a small rigid shrub of the inner arid Hima* 
laya. L. hypoleu<*a, Decaisne, Brandis 266. Yem. Kharmo, kodi, Chenab ; Zkiko, 
rapeshOf Sutlej, h a small shrub of the Inner Himalaya. L. Afyriillus, Hook. f. and 
Th., is a shrub of the Inner Himalaya from the Indus to Sikkim, from 9,000 to 12,000 
feet. X. ligustrinaf Wall. ; Beddome cxxiv., is a shrub, common on the Nilgiris, where it is 
used as a hedge-plant : it is also found in the Himalaya. Of the climbing species, 
fj.japonica, Thunb. ; Gamble 46. Vern. Duari lara, Iwep. ; and i. glabrata. Wall.; 
Gamble 45. Yem. Betlara, Nep. (No. E 2863, Tukdah, Darjeeling, with a soft brown 
wood, large pores and the structure of a climber) come from the Eastern Himalaya ; 
while Z. Leschenaultii, Wall., grows in the Malabar hills from 5,000 to 7,000 feet. 
The European Honeysuckle is Z. Periclyinenum, Linn. 

1. L. quinqnelocularis, Hardwicke; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 537 ; Brandis 
255. Vern. Jarlangeiy adei, Trans-Indus; P>lii^, Jhelam ; Tiia baleri, 
pdMur, Kashmir; ^a.Mrtt, Chenab; KMm, sdi, Ravi; Dendra, Beas ; 
Kliunti, irauntif takla,zbang, razbam, bhajra, bhijaul, bijgai, Sutlej; Bet 
kukri y bhai kukra, cheraya^ iurmali, Kumaun. 

A large deciduous shrub. Bark thin^ grey, with longitudinal fissures, 
peeling off in long shreds. Wood white, witli a brown centre, very hard 
and close-grained. Annual rings marked by a narrow continuous belt 
of pores ; in the remainder of the annual ring the pores are extremely 
small. Medullary rays short, fine, numerous. 

Suliman Range, North- West Himalaya, between 2,500 and 9,000 feet. 

Used only fbr firewood. Cattle are fed on the leaves. Weight, 52 lbs. per cabic 

foot. 

lbs. 

H 81. Mashobra, Simla, 7,000 feet 

H 2874. Nagkanda, „ 8,000 feet 52 

H 3180. Dungagalli, Hazara, 7,000 feet 



••• 



2. L. orientaliSy Lamarck ; Brandis 256. 

A shrub. Bark peeling off in thin flakes. Wood white, with a 
darker centre, moderately hard. Structure the same as that of Z. quin^ 
quelocularis, 

North-West Himalaya, fi-om Kashmir to Kumaun, 8,000 to 10,000 feet. 

H 2909. Kagl«anda, Simla, 8,000 feet 
H 3017. Hattu, Simla, 10,000 feet. 



Zonicera,] caprifouaceje. 217 

3. L. angostifolia, Wall.; Brandis 255. Vern. Geany, JAxmsar ; 
Pilniy philku, Sutlej. 

A small shrub^ with smooth, grey bark^ exfoliating in broad flakes. 
Wood white, very close-grained. Structure similar to that of L, quiri' 
quelocularis, but pores much smaller. 

Himalaya from the Indus to Sikkim, 6|000 to 10,000 feet. Fruits eaten. 
Weight, 60 fos. per cubic foot. 

Iba. 

H 2843. Mahasu, Simla, 8,500 feet 60 

H 2875. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 



• . • a 



4. L. alpigena, Linn. ; Brandis 256. 

A shrub. Bark grey brown^ peeling ofi* in irregular papery flakes. 
Wood moderately hard, structure similar to that of Z. quinquelocularis. 

North-West Himalaya from Kashmir to Kumaun, 8,000 to 10,000 feet. 

H 2912. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet. 
H 3016. Hattu, Simla, 10,000 feet. 

5. LEYCESTERTA, Wall. 

1. L. formosa. Wall. ; Brandis 256 ; Gamble 46. Vern. Maliarr, 
saunjla, nalkaru, kamaliya^ Kumaun ; Tunguk^ Lepcha. 

An erect shrub with hollow> generally herbaceous, stems* Bark 
grey, shining. Wood resembling in structure that oiZonicera, but with 
slightly broader medullary rays. 

Throughout the Himalaya from the Sutlej to Bhutan, from 5,000 to 10,000 feet. 
H 2849. Mahasu, Simla, 8.000 feet. 

6. PENTAPYXIS, Hook. f. 

Contains 2 species. P. glaucophylla^ Hook, f., is a shrub of the Sikkim Himalaya, 
from 5,000 to 9,000 feet. 

1. P. stipulata, Hook, f ; Gamble 45. Zonicera stipulaia, Hook. f. 
and Th. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 165. Vern. Berikuru, Nep. 

A large shrub, with greyish brown bark. Wood white, soft. Pores 
extremely small. Medullary rays fine and very fine. No annual rings. 

Sikkim Himalaya, from 6,000 to 10,000 feet, very common on hill-sides cleared of 
forest, around Darjeeling. 

E 2866. Rangbdl, Darjeeling, 7,000 feet. 



OfiDER LVI. BUBIAGEJE. 

V A large and yeiy important forest Order containing many trees which are valuable 
for their timber, besides plants which have valaabTe properties, chiefly as medicines 
and dyes. It contains 44 Genera, divided into 13 Tribes, t;tz.,— 

Tribe I. — NaucleesB Sarcocevhalus, Anthocephalus, 

Cepnalanthus, AtHna, Stem 
phegyne, Nauclea aiid 
Uncaria, • 

2 D 



218 



KUBIACBiR. 



Tribe II. — Cinchonefio 






I II. — Rondeletiece 

IV. — Hedyotide® 

V. — MoB^ienden 

"VI. — Gardeniese 









» 
it 

»» 
»» 



>» 



VII. — RetiniphyllejB 
VIIL— Gnettarde® 
IX. — ^Vanguerieffi 
X.— Ixore» 
XI. — MorindefiB 
XI I. — Pajchotrietc 



X III .^PsederieiB 



Cinchona^ MjfmmtH^Mon, My- 
menodicijfon and J^M^nlrfli 

Weitdlandia, 

Jfedyotis, 

MttS9€tndat Admumaemet Myrio' 
neuron and Urofkg^mtm. 

dia, Oard&nia^ Sfp<Aaik» 

mm, Petmnffo, Mwrin^ 

dojme, Hjfptiantkera and 

Diploepora. 
Scypniphor^. 
Guettarda and Timomira. 
PUctroma and Vanffueria, 
Ixora^ Paveita and Ckfffim. 
Morinda and ChfnoelModn^ 
Psychotria, CMasaliOf Lati- 

antAns, Sapnuma and 

Hydnophjiium. 
Piederia, Momiliimia and 

Ifeptodermii. 



Sareoc&phalus cordatus, liiq.; Beddome t. 318; Kurz ii. 63 (Nauelea eordata^ 
Roxb, Fl. Ind. i. 508). Vem. Maoolet-tan»shay, Burm. ; j&<iibfii,Cingli.,isadeoidnon8 
tree of Burma and Ceylon, with a light, soft, perbhable wood, wejghuig S8 tp 94 Iba. 
per cable foot. Beddome says it is \ued for sandals, common fumiture, doors and other 
purposes. Cephalanthus naucleoides, DO. ; Kurz iL 68, is a small tree of Upper 
Burma. Uncaria contains several scandent shrubs, U.pilosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. L 5lM>; 
Kurz. ii. 70 ; Gamble 47., Vem. Baisi kara, Nep. ; Kahnkrik, Lepcha» is a ftng^ing 
shrub of Sikkim, Eastern Bengal and Burma, with large hooked sterile nednnolM ^ the 
shape of a buffalo's horn, and handsome globular flower heads. U. sesnt^flmetuSf Bozb. 
Fl. ind. i. 620 ; Kurz ii. 71 ; Gamble 47. Vem. Pinrit Lepcha, ia a diiiibar of 
Sikkim, Eastern Bengal, Chittagong and Burma. Kurz gives aUo U*fBfTMgim9^ DC.» 
U* sessilifblia, Roxb., and U, /<9t^^a^a, Wall., as climbing shrubs of Burma ; while 
U, Gambier, Hunter ; Roxb. FL Ind. i. 617 ; Beddome cxxix., is a scandent shrab of 
Ceylon and the Malay Archipelaso, whose leaves produce the astringent extract called 
" dambier," or " Terra japonica/' which is usea for chewing wi9i p4n leaves and 
areca nut in the same way as cutch in India, and of which large qoantitiea are 
prepared and used throughout the Malay Archipelago. 

Mymenopofon parasiticus, Wall. ; l^urz ii. 73 ; Gamble 47. Vem. Knrsimla, Nep., 
is an epiphytic shrab of the North-East HimaUva and Burma. Luenliaaraiitnma^ 
Sweet. Kurz ii. 71 ; Gamble 47. Vera. Dawari, Nep. ; SimbranoHp^Jjewi^AfiBtLhirm 
shrab with handsome long-tubed pink flowers, found in the nilU of Sikkmi and m 
Upper Burma. Its leaves are used in dyeing. We^ht23 lbs. (Wallieli, No. 43). 

Hedyotis contains only small climbing shrubs. They are very numerous, and 
manv of the species are used in dyeing. 

Mussanda contains about 7 large shrabs remarkable for having one of the lobea of 
the calyx enlarged into a membranous, usually white leaf. M.frondosa, Linn. ; Boxb. 
Fl. Ina. i. 667 ; Beddome cxxi. ; Gamble 48. Vera. Asari, Nep. ; Ihtmberkf Iiepoha ; 
Mdasenda, Cingh., is a handsome shrab of the North-East Himalaya, Bensal, bonth 
India and Burma, with yellow flowers and large white calycine leaf, often cultivated in 
gardens. Jf. macropkylla, Wall. ; Kurz ii. 67 ; Gamble 48, is a small tree of 
second growth forest in the Sikkim Himalaya; also found iu the Andamans. Kun 
mentions 6 other species as occurring in Burma. Adem^iocme longifolia. Wall. ; Kurz 
ii. 64 ; Gamble 48. Vera. Pitaman, Nep., is a shrub of the North-East Himalava and 
^rma, remarkable for its pretty snow-white berries. Myrioneuron nuians, K. Br. ; 
Kurz ii. 66, is a shrub of Chittagong. Urophvllum contains 3 shrubs or small trees of 
Martaban and Tenasserim and 2 small trees of Ceylon. 

Byrsophyllum ietrandrum, Beddome t. 326, is a small tree of the hills of Travan- 
core. Hypooathrum racemosum, Kurz ii. 61 (Randia racemosa, Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 
526) Vera. Peetunga, Beng., is a shrub of Eastern Bengal and of the swamp foreats of 
Pegu and Axracan. Petunga Boxhurghii, DC. Vera. Jhijir, Beng., is a small tree of 



Authocephalm. ] rubiacb^. 219 

the Sundarbans with hard white wood ; and MoHndopsU capillaris, Kurz, a tree o£ 
Pe^Q, Martaban and Tenasserim. Syptianthera stricta, W. and A. ; Brandis 274 
{jBLypohathrum strictum, Kurz ii. 60, Randia stricta, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 526), ilB an 
evergreen shrub of Oadh, Northern Bengal, Chittagong and Burma. Diplospara 
nngularU^ Korth. ; Enrz ii. 50 (P No. B 1998, Andamans. Yem. Thitioot witii white 
wood, rough, with numerous prominent medullary rays ; weight 86 lbs,), is a tree of 
Burma and the Andaman Islands. 

Seyphiphara hydrophyllacea, Gaertn. ; Beddome czxxiv. 3 ; Kurz ii. 4, is a small 
simple-stemmed shrub of the coast forests of the Andamans and Ceylon. 

Tinumitu flavesceiis (Polyphragmon jflaveseens), Kurz ii. 38 (P No. B. 1987, Anda* 
mans. Yem. Tinlwonbeng, Burm., with a hard, light-brown wood ; weighty 48 Ibe.), is 
a small tree of the tropical forests of the Andamans. 

Vangueria contains 3 species. V, edulis, Yahl. ; Kurz ii. 33. Yem. Voa vanga^ 
is a thorny shrub of Madagascar, cultivated in Bengal for its edible fruit. Kyd calls it 
Moyen, luod eives weight 43 lbs., P =430. V, sptno9a, Roxb. FL Ind. i. 526 ; Kurz 
ii. 34 ; Gamble 49. Yem. Hsay-ma-kyee, Burm., is a thomy small tree of Bengal and 
Burma ; and V. pubescens, Kurz ii. 34^ a tree of the Eng and dry forests of Burma. 

Chmockthodes maeropkylla, Kurz, is a scandent shrab of the coasts ol South 
Andaman. 

Psvekotria and Zcuianthus contain a large number of small evergreen shrabs of 
Bengal, Burma and South India. Chasalia curvj^lora, Thw. ; Kurz li. 14 ; Gamble 
49. Yem. Antdbi, Lepcha, is a small shrub of the hills of Northern Bengal, Burma and 
Ceylon. Saprosma contains 4 shrubs of South India and 2 of Burma. Hydnophy* 
tumjbrmicarum. Jack ; Kurz ii. 8, is a small epiphytic shrub with an enlarged tuber- 
like trunk found on trees in the swamp forests of the Andamans. 

PiBderia contains several shmbs or climbers. P. lanuginosa. Wall. ; Kurz ii. 76, is 
a large climber of the forests of Burma ; and P.fottida, Wild.; Koxb. Fl. Ind. i. 683 ; 
Gamble 49. Yem. Oundha hadhuliy Beng. ; Qundali, Hind. ; Padebiri, Nep. ; 
TahpoBdrih, Lepcha, \h a thin climber of Bengal and Burma, with handsome flowers, 
and fruit which is said to be used in Sikkim by Nepalese and Lepchas to blacken 
the teeth, and prevent toothache. Hamiltonia suaveolens, Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 554 ; 
Beddome oxxxiy. 12 ; Brandis 278 ; Gamble 49. Yem. Muskei, kantalu^ fisauni, 
Chenab ; Niggi, tidenni jph^l, gohinla, Ravi ; Kanera, puddri, Beas ; Phillu, Sutlcj ; 
Padera, Kumaun ; Bainchampa, Nep., is a shrub of the North- West Himalaya, 
Sikkim (rare), Behar, Central and South India, with handsome lilac flowers ; the wood 
is said by Brandis to be used in Chamba to make gunnowder charcoal. 

Besides the genera described from India, which include such important ones as 
Cinchona, Coffea and Morindct, many genera contain plants of economic use. Oephailjs 
Ipecacuanha, Rich., is the Ipecacuanha plant which has been largely propagated in 
India, but which has proved ver J difficult to naturalise or grow in such a way as to 
make its cultivation pay. " Madder " is given by Eubia cordtfolia, Linn., the Mar^jU 
plant, common all over the Himalayas and lar^ly exported ; while many other genera 
are cultivated in gardens for the beauty of their flowers, and among the commonest 
of these are Serissa, Catesbcea and Mamelia, besides the numerous Ixora* and 
Cktrdenias, some species of which are described herein. 

Wood white, yellow, or rarely red, close-grained, generally soft or 
moderately hard ; no heartwood. Pores small or very small ; in Antho^ 
cephalu9 Cadamba and a few other speciesj moderate-sized. Medallary 
rays aniform, equidistant, fine or very fine, very numerous, often closely 
picked. 

The species which were formerly united under the old genus JVatic/w, 
genera Nos. 1 to 4, have an exceedingly uniform structure. The wood 
seasons well, is soft, but close and even-grained. Fores numerous, 
small to moderate-sized. Medullary rays fine, very numerous. 

1. ANTHOCEPHALUS, A. Richard. 

1. A. Cadamba, Bth. and Hook f.; Brandis 261; Gamble 46. 
Naucka Vadamba, Broxb. Fl. Ind. i. 612 ; Beddome t. 36. SarcocepAalns 



220 



RUBIACEiE. 



[ AMaeepialms. 



Cadantba, Kurz ii. 63. Vera. Kaddam, iaram, Hind., Beng. ; Bol-tadam, 
ChitisLgong; Fandufyhe'pcha; Kodum,Mechi; Roghu^ Ass.; Kadambo, 
Uriya; Fella cadamba, Tarn.; Kadambe, rudrak-ikamba^ TeL; Heltega, 
arianaiega, Mysore; Kadam, Mar.; Radda tailu, iadapa, kadwal, 
Kan. ; Halamba, Cingh. ; Maoo, ^anyepang, Magh ; Maoo, maooiadoom. 
Barm. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark grey^ with numerous regular, longitu- 
dinal fissures. Wood white, with a yellowish tinge (an old specimen 
from Burma, yellowish grey), soft, even-grained. Pores large, oval, 
elou gated, subdivided, sometimes in short radial lines. Medullary rays 
fine, numerous, close together, bent outwards where they touch the pores. 

Wild in Northern and Eastern Bengal, Pegu and the Western Coast ; coltivated m 
Northern India. 

Growth variable, 5 to 15 rings per inch of radios, average moderate, 9 rings per 
inch. The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the folh>wing 
experiments : — 



Experiment by whom 
made. 


Tear. 


Wood whence 
procured. 


Weight. 


Number 
of experi- 
ments. 


Sixe of BcaniUng. 


ValiMof 
P. 








lbs. 




Ft. In. In. 




Puckle, No. 19 . 


ISfiQ 


Mysore 


43 


8 


2x1x1 


ei6 


Kjd . . . . 


1831 


Aisam 


36 


• • • 


2x1x1 


660 


Coimingham 


1864 


Owalior 


47 


6 


2x1x1 


«18 


Brandis, No. 97 . 


1862 


Borma 


37 


• • • 






WoUich . . . 


• ■ * 


Traraneore 


88 


• • • 






8mjthie« 


1878 


Bengal 


40 


2 






•> • • « 


>t 


Assam 


32 


1 




1 





Wood used for building ; in Assam, Oachar and occasionally in Daijeeling for tea- 
boxes. Cunningham (1854) says that it is used for beams and rafters on aoooont of 
its cheapness and lightness, and that it is good for joiner's work, but that it is a brittle 
wood. The flowers are offered at Hindu shrines and the fruit eaten. It is oftisii 
cultivated for ornament, and is ver^ much used as an avenue tree in Bengal. Knrz, 
evidently quoting Brandis' 1862 List, No. 67, says ** wood, a deep yellow ;" this is not, 
however, the case with our specimens, and it may be suggested for investigation whether 

the Burma wood has not a more yellow colour than the Indian. 

^ lbs. 

Rakti Foi-est, Daijeeling Terai .40 

Pankabari, Darjeeling (damp) 50 

Julpigori, Bengal 40 

Assam 82 

Burma (1862) 32 



E 660. 
E 3153. 
E 3144. 
E 1435. 
B 2535. 



2. ADINA, Salisbury. 

Contains 3 Indian species. A. polycephcda, Hook. f. and Bth. (Nauclea pofy* 
cephala. Wall. ; Kurz ii. 65), is a small evergreen tree of Chittagong and Tenasserim. 

1. A. COrdifolia^ Hook. f. and Bth. ; Brandis 263 ; Gamble 46. 
Nauclea cordifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 514; Beddome t. 33; Kurz ii. 66. 
Yern. Haldu/Aardu, iaram, Hind.; BangJka,keli'iadam,petpuria,da~i6m, 
Beng. ; Karam, Nep. ; Tikkoe, Bahraich and Gonda ; Hardu, paspu, 
kurmi, Gondi; Holonda, Uriya; Shangdong, Gdro; Roghu, Ass. ; Manja^ 
kadambe, Tam.; Bandaru, dudagu, paspu kadambe, Tel. ; Hedde, yettSga, 
peiiega, arsanatSga, yetiada, ahnau, Kan. ; Hedu, Mar. ; Kolong, Cingh. ; 
TAaing, Magh ; Hnanbeng, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark soft, J inch thick, grey, rough. Wood 
yellow, moderately hard^ even-grained. No heartwood, no annual rings. 



Atiina, ] 



RUBIACEuS. 



221 



Pores smallj numeroufl^ uniformly distributed, more numerous and 
more closely packed than in Stephepyne parvifolia. Medullary rays veiy 
fine, of uniform width, not prominent, numerous, distinctly yisible on a 
radial section, finer and more uniform in width than those ox 8, parvifolia. 

Sab-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards, asoending to 3,000 feet, through- 
out the moister regions of India, Burma. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following experi- 
ments : — 











Namber 






Experiment by whom 
made. 


Year. 


Wood whence 
procared. 


Weight. 


of 
experi- 
ments. 


Siae of bar. 


Value of 
P. 








lbs. 




Ft. In. In. 




Packle, No. 26 . 


1809 


Mysore 


86 


4 


8x1x1 


464 


Skimier, No. 99 . 




1862 


South India . 


42 


• • « 




664 


Cnnningham 




1854 


Gwalior . 


49 


8 


2x1x1 


586 


Bnndie 




1864 


Burma 


43 


7 


8x1x1 


760 


Bnndii,No.66 . 




1862 


•» «, * . • * 


42 


• •• 




■ « « 


R. Thompson 




1868 


Central Provinces . 


47 


• • • 




• a • 


O.P. List . 




1873 


>t »» 


42 


• • • 


•• >•« 


• •• 


Smythiet 




1878 


Different Provinces . 


46 


11 




• • • 



The wood seasons well, takes a good polish, and is durable, but somewhat liable to 
waiT) and crack. It is good for turning, and is extensively employed in construction, 
for lumiture, agricultural implements, opium boxes, writing tablets, gun-stocks, combs 
and occasionally for dug-out canoes. 

lbs. 

O 215. Garhwal (1868) 43 

O 2994. „ (1874) . . .46 

O 1491. Kheri, Oudh 48 

O 340. Gorakhpur 41 

C 825. Bairagarh Reserve, Berar 48 

C 2988. Jubbulpore (1863) 43 

C 1136. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 44 

C 1245. Gumsur, Madras 49 

£ 2387. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai 50 

B 2538. Burma (1862) 43 

No. 35. Salem Collection 40 

2. A. sessilifolia, Hook. f. and Bth. ; Brandib 264. Nauclea sessili^ 

folia, Roxb. Fl. lud.i. 515; Kurz ii. 65. Nauclea sericea^ Wall. Vern, 

/Ci<;;f^ Beng. ; Kimkoi, Chakm^ ; Tkaing, Magh; Teingala, liitpayounp, 

BuiTD. 

Wood yellowish brown, hard. Pores very numerous, moderate-sized, 
oval and subdivided, transverse diameter greater than the interval 
between the closely packed, fine, and uniform medullary rays. 

Chittagong and Burma. 

Weight, according to Brandis' Burma List of 1862, No. 70, 43 to 56 lbs. ; our 
specimens give 55 lbs. as an average of three, "the wood is used in Chittagong for 
building purposes and firewood. In Chittagong it is perhaps the only gregarious tree, 
being commonly found on flat places on the banks of rivers. 

Ibe. 

£ 1391. Chittagong 53 

B 2537. Burma (1862) . • 56 

B 3069. „ „ 66 



22d 



RUBUCEA. 



[ 8iepi€fyu0. 



8. STEPHEGYNB, Korth. 

Contains abont 4 species of Indian trees. 8. divers^fMa, Hook. f. aad Bth. 
(Nauclea divertjfoli€i,yfal\., placed by Eurz under N. parv^lia), Vem. Sim^aA^ 
Barm., is a tree of Burma (weigbt, 46 lbs., Brandis' Burma List, 1869^ No. O0)» aad 
S, tuhuloMaf Hook, f . and Bth. ; Beddome cxxviii., is a tree of Cejlon. 

1. S. parvifolia. Hook. f. and Bth. ; Brandis 262. Nanelea parvim 
folia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 518; Beddome t. 84; Kurz ii. 66. Vem, 
Kaddam, tallam, ieim, kangeiy Hind.; PAaldu, Kumaua; Mundi, Oondij 
Baigas ; Kutebi, Kurku ; Buta^kadambe, Tarn. ; Nir-iadambe, iarmi, bata* 
ganapu, Tel. ; Conffi, Aedu,yeteffa, tadwar, iadani, Kan. ; Kadamb, karamb, 
ialam, Mar. ; Tamdi, Bhil ; Helembi, Cingh. ; Kumra, Bansfvara ; 
HteintAay, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark ^ inch thick, light grey, smooth, with 
shallow depressions left by exfoliating scales. Wood light pinkish 
brown, moderately hard, generally harder than that of Adha cordifoUa. 
No heartwood. Annual rings visible. Pores small, numerous, uniformly 
distributed. Medullary rays very fine, numerous, not quite uniform 
in width. 

Throughout India and Burma. 

Growth moderate, 5 to 15, averaging 9 rinffs per inch of radius. The weight and 
transverse strength have been determined by the following experiments :— 











Namber 






Ezporiment by whom 
made. 


Tear. 


Wood whence 
procured. 


Weight. 


of 
ezperi- 
mMita. 


SiMOfbMT. 


YttaeoC 
P. 








lbs. 




Ft. In. In. 




Canningham 


18M 


Owalior . 


36 


2 


2 K 1 K 1 


S88 


Skinner, No. 100 


1802 


Soath India 


38 


» •• 




68S 


Brandis, No. 60 


1862 


Burma 


43 


• • a 


••■••• 


■ ■• 


B. Thompson 


1868 


Central Provinces . 


47 


• •t 


• •■••« 




Smithies .... 
A. Mendls, No. 36 . 


1878 


As below . 


427 


11 


••■••• 




1856 


Cejlon 


42 


• «■ 


•••••• 


• •• 



The wood is easily worked and polishes well ; it is durable, if not exposed to wet. 
It is used for building, furniture, agricultural implements, combs, cups, spoons and 
platters, and for turned and carved articles. 

Ibi. 

P 458. Ajmere ....••.••••.• 

O 269. Garhwal (1868) • . 45 

O 529. DehraDdn 41 

O 344. Gorakhpur 4S^ 

O 1481. Eheri, Oudh . . ; 44 

C 178. Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) 42 

C 186. „ „ „ „ 46 

G 1120. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 44 

C 2783. Melgh4t, Berar .44 

B 561. Prome 40 

B 2539. Burma (1862) 88 

No. 36. Salem Collection 44 

No. 35. Ceylon Collection 48 



Siephegyne. ] BUBiAOBiB. 228 

W 1225 (42 lbs. ; growth moderate, 8 rings per inch of radiitt), received from 
North Kanara under the name of Anthoeepkalus Cadamba, is in stm^nre aimikr to 
S*parmfolia, but has red heartwood, with darker streaks. It is probably Nauclea 
elUpHca, DabEell, Bomb. Fl. 118 ; Beddome ozzix. Yem. Ahnau, K^n. 

2. S. 8p. Cramble 46. Vern. Kal6, ialikat, Nep. 

A large tree. Bark brownish white. Heartwood orange yellow^ 
sapwood reddish. Wood moderately hard. Pores large and moderate- 
sizedj very numerous^ filled with a gummy substance. Medullary rays 
fine^ very numerous^ undulating. 

Weight, 44 lbs., per cubio foot. Used for building. 

lbs. 
E 2385. Chenga Forest, Darjeeling 44 

4. NAUCLEA, Linn. 

Contains 3 or 4 Indian trees. N, elliptiea, Dalz., a large tree of the Western 

Coast, has been referred to above. N, purpurea, Roxb. ; Beddome cxxix., is a tree of 

the Eastern Gh&ts of South India. Kuiz gives N, exceUa, Bl., as a large evergreen 
tree of PiBgu. 

1. N. rotundifolia, Roxb. Fl. Tnd. i. 516 ; Kurz ii. 67. Vern. Bingah, 
Bnrm. 

Wood yellowish brown, moderaiebr hard, close and even-grained* 
Pores small and moderate-sized. Meaullary rays fine, uniform, very 
closely packed, the transverse diameter of the pores being greater than 
the interval between two successive rays. 

Burma and the Andaman Islands. 

Weight, 47 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood not used^ but likely to be of value. 

lbs. 

B 2636. Burma (1862) 61 

B 2288. Andamans (1866) 44 



B 2233 (47 lbs.), sent from the Andamans in 1866 under the name Jfftainbyoo 
resembles in structure N, rotundifblia, except that it has slightly larger pores. 

6. CINCHONA, Linn. 

A genus of about 36 species of trees or shrubs found in a narrow bdt along the 
Andes of South America, oetween 2,300 a^nd 8,000 feet elevation. Several species give 
the Peruvian bark or Cinchona of commerce, the value of which depends upon the 
presence of certain alkaloids which are known as " quinine/' " cinchonme/' ** anohoni- 
dine," &c., and which are so valuable as febrifuses. 

The Cineh<ma trees were first brought to India in 1860, chiefly through the labours 
of Mr. 0. E. Markham, C.B., who was sent by the Secretaiy of State in 1869 to Peru 
to collect plants and seeds of the different kinds. The plants he brouffht did not live, 
but the seeds were sown and the trees planted in the Nilgiri Hills. In 1862 
Dr. T. Anderson instituted the plantations at Bangbi in Sikkim wiUi plants and seeds 
brought by him from Java. There are 4 principu species cultivatea in the Indian 
pUmtations : viz., C. luceiruhra, Calisa^a, officinalis and micrantha, 

X. G* aUGcinibray Pavon ; Brandis 266 ; Gamble 47. Bed Bark. 
"Wood yellow, moderately hard. Pores small, in radial lines* 
Medullary rays closely packed, fine and very fine. 



224 RUBiACEJS. [ Cinchona. 

Oaltivated on the Nilgiris and other hills of Soath India, at the plantatioiiB of 
Rang^bi and Poomong in Sikkim, on the hills east of Tonngoo in Barma and in pftHs 
of the Satpnra Range in Central India. This species tnrives at a lower eleTation 
than the others, bnt is oomparativelj poor in aainine, thoneh rich in einchonine and 
cinchonidine. From this species is chieilj derivea the " Cinchona Alkaloid," which is 
now largely manufactured at the Government Plantation of Rangbi. 

I J^^J- ] Rangbi, Daijeeling, 3,700 feet. 

2. C. Calisaya, Weddell ; Brandis 266 ; Gamble 47. Yellow Bark. 
Wood reddish-gfrey, moderately hard, even-grained. Pores small, 

in short radial lines. Medullary rays fine, closely packed. 

Cultivated in Sikkim at moderate elevations. 

It yields perhaps the most valuable of the Cinchona barks, rich in alkaloids, among 
which quinine forms \ to f ths. 

E 3168. } '^*^^^*' DarjeeUng, 3,700 feet. 

3. G. officinalis, Linn. ; Brandis 266; Gamble 47. Loxa or Crown 
Bark. 

Wood yellowish grey, similar in structure to that of C. Calisaya. 

Cultivated at high elevations on the Nilgiris, in Ceylon and in Sikkim, but not 
extensively. 

Its bark is rich in alkaloids, of which more than one-half is quinine. 



E 3169! ] ^"^^'' DarjeeUng, 3,700 feet. 



6. HYMENODICTYON, Wall. 

Contains about 4 species. H.flaccidum, Wall. ; Brandis 268 ; Gamble 47, is a tree 
of the hills of Eastern Bengal and the outer Himalaya as far west as the Jumna. 
JR. obovatum, Wall.; Beddome t. 219; Brandis 268. Yern. Telia malla kai, 
Tam. ; Mallay tandk, Madura ; Karwai, Bombay, is a large tree of the Western 
Qh4ts. 

1. H. excelsnm, Wall. ; Beddome cxxx. ; Brandis 267. Cinchona 
excehay Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 529. Vern. Barln, barlhoa, Pb. ; Bhaulan, 
bhalena^ bAamha, dhauli, kukurkat, bhurkut, phaldu, bhohdr, potur. 
Hind. ; Dondru, dandelo, Panch Mehals ; BAoursdl, Mar. ; Sagapn, Tam. ; 
Dudiyetkt, dudippa, cAeiippa, butya, bandara^ Tel.; Bodoka, Uriya; 
Manabina, Kamtil. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark soft, i to | inch thick, grey, exfoliating 
in irregularly shaped, sof tish scales. Wood brownish grey, soft. Annual 
rings indistinctly marked. Pores moderate-sized, uniformly distributed, 
often in short radial lines. Medullary rays fine, very numerous^ visible 
on a radial section. Numerous faint, white, transverse bars joining the 
medullary rays. 

Sub-Himalayan traot from the Punjab to Oudh, ascending to 5,500 feet ; Central 
and South India. 

Growth moderate, 6 to 7 rings per inch of radius. Average weight of our speoimens 
81*5 lbs. per cubic foot. WocnI used for agricultural implements, scabbaius, grain 
measures, palanquins, toys and similar articles. The mner bark is bitter and 



Hymenodicftfon. ] bubiace^. 225 

astringent, and is used as a febrifuge, and for tanning ; the leaves are ased as cattle 

fodder. 

Ibi. 

O 216. Garhwal (1868) 28 

O 350. Gorakhpur (1868) 

O 1462. Bbaraich, Oudh 32 

O 1482. Kberi, Oudh 34 

C 1127. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 32 

2. H. thyrsiflorum. Wall.; Karz ii. 72; Gamble 47. CinoAona 
thyrsiflora^ Koxb. PL Ind. i. 580. Vera. Purgur^ Hiod. ; Kkoozan, 
Burm. 

A deciduous tree. Bark 1 inch thick^ grey^ with corky flakea. Wood 
white or grey, soft. Annual rings indistinctly marked. Straotare the 
same as that of H, excelsum. 

Northern and Eastern Bengal and Burma. 

Growth moderate, 10 rings per inch of radius. Weight, according to Brandis' 
Burma List of 1862, No. 104, 28 lbs. ; our specimens give an average of 38 lbs. Used 
for black-boards and packing-cases. 

lbs. 

E 1231. Sibs4gar, Assam 26 

£ 1286. Cachar 34 

B 279. Burma (1867) 31 

B 3070. „ (1862) 38 

B 659. Prome, Burma 33 

B 2287. Andaman Islands 34 



7. WENDLANDIA, Bartling. 

Contains about 12 Indian species. W. tinctaria, DC. ; Beddome oxxx. ; Brandis 
269 ; Eurz ii. 74 (Bondeletia tinctoria, Rozb. Fi. Ind. i. 522 ; Wmdlandia sp. 
Gamble 48.) Yem. Tdla-lodh, Bengal.; Kangi, Nep. ; Singnok, Lepcha; Telti, 
Uriya ; Tamayoke, Burm., is a small tree of the forests of Kumaun, Oudh, Behar, 
Bengal and Burma, whose bark is used in Bengal as a mordant in dyeing. Several 
other species are found in the North-East Himalaya and several in Burma, chiefly 
Tenasserim, but they are unimportant. One or two are climbers. 

1. W. exserta, DC. ; Beddome czxx. ; Brandis 268 ; Gamble 48. 
W. cinerea, DC. ; Gamble 47. Rondeleiia exserta, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 
523. Vern. Chaulai, cAila, ciiliiya, iila, bina, tilJti, tilai, Hind.; 
Kangi, tilii, mimri, Nep. ; Kursi, Seoni ; Marria, Gondi ; TilliaAj Baigas 
in Mandla. 

A small deciduous tree with brown bark. Wood reddish brown, 
hard, close-grained. Pores small, medullary rays moderately broad and 
fine, the former short. Annual rings marked by firmer wood on the 
outer and more porous wood on the inner edge of each ring. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab eastwards, Oudh, Bengal Central and South- 
ero India. 

Growth fast, 4-5 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 47 lbs. Wood used for build- 
ing and agricultural implements and used for house-posts in the Sikkim Tend. 

Ibi. 

O 1370. Gonda, Oudh 47 

E 589. Khookloong Forest, Daijeeling Terai — 

2. W. Notoniana, Wall. ; Beddome t. 224; Thwaites Enum. 159' 
Vern. BameneidelU, Ciugh. 

2 E 



226 BUBiACEJE. [ Wendlandia. 

A small tree of South India and Ceylon^ with a red wood, having a 

similar structure to that of W. exserta. 

No. 74. CejloD Collection (marked W. hicuspidata) ... 48 

8. WEBERA, Schreb. 

Contains about 10 spaoies of small trees, sbrabs or climbers from Eastern Bengal, 
South India and Burma. 

W. oppositifolia, Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 698 ; Kurz ii. 47 is a small tree of Chittagong 
and Burma, said by Kurz to have a yellowish white, heavy, close-grained wood. 
W. glomerijlora, Kurz ii. 47, is a small tree of the Pegu Tomas. W. myrt\fblia, 
Kurz ii. 49, is a small tree of the swamp forests of Burma and W. tnonosperma, W. and 
A. ; Beddome cxxxiv., is a shrub of the Nilgiri Hills and Wynaad. Kurz also describes 
4 scandent shrubs from Chittogong and Burma. Roxburgh gives W. scandetts, 
Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 698. Vem. Gajer kota, Beng., as a climber; and W. odorata, 
Boxb. Fl Ind. i. 699. Vem. J^atagruja, Beng., a^ a small tree, of the forests 
of Sylhet. 

1. W. asiatica^ Linn. ; Beddome exxxiii. W. corymboia, Willd. ; 
Roxb. Fl. lud. i. 697. Stylocoryne Wedera, A. Rich.; Thwaites Enum. 
158. Vern. Kankra, Beng.; Kachuria chdll, Cut tack; Komi, Tel.; Tar^ 
ana, Cingh. 

A large shrub or small tree. Wood yellowish white, hard, close- 
grained. Pores small, very numerous, uniformly distributed. Medullary 
rays short, fine and extremely fine. 

Bengal, South India and Ceylon. 

Weight, 57 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood is said by A. Mendis to be used in Ceylon 

for fishing-boats. 

lbs. 
No. 84 Ceylon Collection 57 

9. RANDIA, Linn. 

Contains 10 to 12 species of shrubs or small trees, generally armed with strong 
axillary thorns. JB. rigida^ DC. ; Brandis 273 ; Gamble 48, is a shrub found in the 
forests of the Eastern Himalaya, Nepal and probably Eumaun. It, fragrant ^ 
Beddome cxxxii. (Fosoqueria fraarans, Kon.; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 717). Vem. 
JPedalli, Tel., is a shrub of South Jndia, used to make hedges. S, Oardneri, Thw. ; 
Beddome cxxxii., is a small tree of the South Tinnevellv hills and Ceylon ; H, dekka^ 
nerisisy Beddome cxxxiii., is a small tree of the Anamalais ; and /?. speciosa, Beddome 
cxxxii., a climbing shrub of the Western Ghdts, with sweet-scented flowers. JR. nutans, 
DC, ; Kurz ii., 45 is a shrub of the forests of Pegu. 

Wood smooth, close-grained, hard. Pores small or very small. 
Medullary rays fine and very fine. 

1. B. ulig^OSa, DC. ; Beddome cxxxii. ; Brandis £73 ; Kurz ii. 44; 
Gamble 48. Fosoqueria uliginosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 712. Vern. 
Finddlu, pindar, pandr, paniah, bharani, katul, Hind.; Firalo, Beng.; 
Maidal, Nep. ; Kaurio, Panch Mehals ; Fendra, Uriya ; Katil, pender, 
Gondi ; Gangru, gangdruy Kurku ; Nallaika, nalla kaH%ha^ Tel. ; 
Wagatta, Tam. ; KarS,pendri, Kan.; Telphetru, panelra, phetra, jpindra. 
Mar.; TapkSl, Bhfl; Mhaniben, mhanpyoo, Burm. 

A small deciduous tree. Bark \ inch thick, reddish brown, exfoliat- 
ing in thin flakes. Wood whitish grey, close-grained, hard, no heart- 
wood. Annual rings marked by a narrow belt without pores. Pores 



Jiandia. ] 



RUfilACE^. 



227 



small and very small^ numerous, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays 
fine and very fine, very numerous, distinctly visible on a radial section. 

Sab-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards, Oudb, Bengal, Burma, Central 
and South India. 

Growth moderate, 6 to 7 rings per inch of radius. Weight, the average of our 
specimens gives 48 lbs. per cubic foot ; Brandis says 41 lbs. The fruit is eaten. 



O 642. DehraDdn .... 

O 1458. Bahraich, Oudh 

O 1487. Kheri, Oudh .... 

C 2782. Melghdt, Berar 

C 1186. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 

C 2756. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces 

W 992. North Kanara .... 



Ibi. 
48 

47 
51 



48 
46 



2* S. dumetoruin, Lam. ; Beddome cxxxii. ; Brandis 273 ; Gamble 
48. Fosoqueria dumelorum, Willd. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 718. Vern. 
JUindla, mandiolla, arara, Pb. ; Mainphal, tnanyul, karhar, main, 
mainhiiriy mafineul, arar, Hind. ; Maidal, amukiy Nep. ; Oundrow, Mechi ; 
Grurdl, Rajbaushi; Panji, Lepcba; Paiiva, Uriva; Madu karray, Tam. ; 
Manda, Tel. ; Gera, galay, Mar. ; Kuay, kaiul, Gondi ; Bhita, Kurku ; 
Kare, Kan. 

A deciduous thorny shrub or small tree, with grey bark. Wood 
white or light brown, compact, hard. Structure the same as that of 
B,suligino9a, 

Throughout India, extending in the North- West Outer Himalaya as far as the 
Beas. 

Growth moderate, 7 rings per inch of radius, according to our specimens; Brandis 
says slow : that " a section of a tree known to be 65 years old, 4-inch radius, hollow 
inside, shewed 54 annual rings on 2 inches of the radius near the circumference." 
Weight, 55 Ihs. per cubic foot. Wood used for agricultural implements, fences and 
fuel. The bark of the root and stem and the fruit are used in native medicine, the 
latter as an emetic. The fruit is also used to poison fish, and when ripe is roasted 
and eaten. 

Ibf. 

64 . 

5() 
62 
64 
46 
48 



O 262. Garhwal (1868) 

O 1366. Gonda, Oudh 

O 1461. Bahraich, Oudh 

O 1488. Kheri, Oudh 

C 2760. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces (young) 

C 2799. Melghdt, Berar (young) .... 

E 481 7 

"P ^o' \ Khookloong forest, Darjeeling Terai . 

E 2886. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai . 

3. R. tetrasperma^ Bth. and Hook. f. ; Brandis 27^. Gardenia 
fetrasperma, Boxb. PI. Ind. i. 709. Vern. JBara garri, batya gingaru, 
Kumaan. 

A small procumbent shrub with grey bark. Wood white^ very hard. 
Pores very small. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. Medullary 
patches numerous and prominent, of a slightly bluish colour. 



Himalaya, from the Indus to Bhutan, ascending to 6,000 feet. 
Weight, 66 lbs. per cubic foot. 



H 157. Simla, 6,000 feet 
H 2821. „ 6,000 



it 



lbs. 



228 KUBiACBJi. [ Oardenia. 

10. GARDENIA, Linn. 

Contains 12 to 15 Indian species of shmbs or trees. O. gummifera, Linn. ; Rozb. 
yi. Ind. i. 708 ; Beddome czxxiv. 1 ; Brandis 270. Yern. Dekdtndli, kamarri. Hind. ; 
Chitta matta, chitnit^al, gaggaru, Tel. ; Chitta, bikke, kambi, Kan., is a large ahrab 
of Central and Soath India, with a white hard wood, and giving a yellow gun resin. 
O, montana, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 709. Yern. Teliga, tella kaintha, Tel., is a small 
tree of Soujbh India. G, coranaria. Ham. ; Eorz ii. 43, is a tree of Chittagong and 
Burma, with a heavy, close-grained wood. O, setsiliflora. Wall. ; Eorz ii. 40. Yern. 
Majeebouk, Burm., is a tree of the hills of Burma. Eun describes seTeral other 
Chittagong and Burma species of less importance. O.Jlorida, Linn., of Indian gardens, 
is an introduction from China. 

> Wood smooth, close-grained, hard. Pores small to extremely small, 
numerous, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays very fine to moder- 
ately broad. 

1. G. turgida, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 711; Beddome cxzxiv. 1.; Brandis 
270 ; Kurz ii. 41. Vern. Thanella, khurrur, kAuriari, giurga, mAaner, 
Hind.; KarAdr, Banda; Panjra, pendra, Otondi ; Phurpata, Kurku; Khur- 

phendra, pendfiy pAanda,phetra, Mar. ; PAelrak, Bhil ; Bamemia, Uriya ; 
Manjunda, telel, Tel. ; Bongeri, Kan. ; TAamengsanee, Burm. 

A small deciduous tree. Bark smooth, bluish ' grey, }^ inch thick, 
compact. Wood close-graiued, hard, white with a purplish tinge, no 
heartwood. Annual rings indistinct. Pores very small. Medullary 
rays fine and very fine, very numerous. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from Nepal to the Jumna, ascending to 4,000 feet ; B%jpatana» 
Burma, Central and Sonth India. 

Growth slow, 13 rings per inch of radius. Weight, according to B. Thompson 
56*5 lbs. per cubic foot ; our specimens give 64 lbs. Wood good, but splits and ozacka 
in seasoning. 

lbs. 

541. Dehra Ddn 

O 1377. Gonda, Oudh 60 

1463. Bahraich, Oudh 

O 1489. Kheri, Oudh 60 

C 826. Bairagarh Reserve, Berar' 64 

C 2779. Melg:h&t, Berar 68 

C 1142. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 64 

W 993. North Kanara 48 

Nos. C 1248 and C 1309 (61 and 03 lbs.) sent from Gnmsdr under the name 
Gorahadut have the same structure as, and probably are, this species. 

2. G. lucida, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 707 ; Beddome exxxiv. ; Brandis 271. 
6. reainiferay Roth.; Kurz ii. 42. Vern. Dikamali, Hind.^ 6uz.; 
Konda manga, koikiia, tetta manga, C.P. ; Papar, Bijeragogarh ; Karinga, 
karaingi, tella-manga, Tel. ; Kumbi, Tam. 

A small deciduous tree. Bark ^ inch thick^ greenish grey, exfoliat- 
ing in irregular flakes. Wood yellowish white, close-grained, hard, no 
heartwood, no annual rings. Pores extremely small. Medullary rays 
very fine. 

Central and South India, Chittaffong. 

Weight, 39 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood useful for turning ; it is made into combs. 
It gives a gum resin from wounds in the bark. This gum is hard, opaque, yellow, 

§reenish or brown, with a strong smell, and is used in the treatment of cutaneous 
iseases and to keep off flies and worms. 

ita. 
C 1186. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 89 



(jiirdeuia. ] rubiaceje. 229 

8. G. latifolia, Aiton ; Roxb. R. Ind. i. 706 (? 5/: Brandi8 272); 
Beddome cxxxiv. 1.; Brandis 271. Vern. Papra, pdpAar, pepero, ban 
pinddlu, Hind. ; Pannia bhil, gungat^ bhandara, g^ggar, Gondi ; Phip^ 
Aar, mali, Baigas ; Kumbay, Tarn. ; Pedda karinga, pureea, bikki, gaiger^ 
Tel. ; Kola-ran^a, Uriya ; Ohogar, gtogarli, Mar. ; Oogar, Bhil. 

A small deciduous tree. Bark ^ inch thick, greeuisli grey, exfoliating 
and leaving smooth, conchoidal, rounded depressions. Wood light- 
yellowish brown, close and even-grained, hard, handsomely mottled, 
neither warps nor splits. No heartwood. Marked concentric annual 
rings. Fores extremely small, numerous. Medullary rays fine, short. 

Sab-Himalayan tract from the Jamna eastwards, Bengal, Central and South 
India. 

Growth moderate, 8 rings per inch of radios. Weight, 60 to 53 lbs. per onbie foot. 
The wood is easy to work, durable, and is recommended to be tried as a substitute for 
boxwood; it is lively to be very good for engraving and turning. Combs are made 
of it. 

Iba. 
B 1173. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 53 

B 2733. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces 50 

4. 0. obtllBifoliai Roxb. ; Kurz ii. 42. Vern. YengihU, Barm. 

A small deciduous tree with thin, grey bark. Wood white, moderately 
hard, even-grained. Pores small. Medullary rays moderately broad, and 
a large number of very fine rays, which are not very distinct. 

Burma. 

Weight, 55 lbs. per cubic foot. It yields a yellow pellucid resin. 

IlM. 

B 817. Rangoon Division, Burma 55 

5. 0. COStatai Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 704. G. eoronaria, Ham. ; Kurz ii. 
43. Vern. Tengkhat^ Uaythambyah, 

A small deciduous tree, with smooth, grey bark ; wood light brown, 
hard, close-grained. Aunual rings indistinct. Pores small. Medullary 
rays fine/ scanty, distinctly visible on a radial section as long horizontal 
plates. 

Chittagong and Burma. 

Growth slow, 14 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 51 lbs. per cubic foot (Kurz 
identifies G, lucida. No. 72 of Brandis' Burma List of 1862 with this. Weight, 49 lbs.) 
Used for making combs and for turning, but liable to crack. 

lbs. 

B 284. Burma (1867) 50 

B 2640. „ (1862) 52 



11. GUETTARDA, Linn. 

1. 0. Bpedosa, Linn. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 686 ; Beddome cxxxiv. 4 ; 
Eurzii. 37. Vern. JDomdomaA, And.; Nil piteha, Cingh. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree, with thin grey bark. Wood yellow, 
with a tinge of red. Pores small, often in radial lines. Medullary rays, 
moderately broad and very fine. 

Tidal forests along the shores of the Andaman Islands and Ceylon. 

Ibc. 

B 1971. Andaman Islands (Kurz, 1866) 49 



£3G KUBiACB.)?. [Pleeironia. 

U. PLECTRONIA, Linn. 

Contains 10 to 12 shrubs, part of which are found in South India and Ceylon, and 
part in Burma and the Andamans. P. parviHora, Roxb. ; fieddome cxxxir. 5; 
[Canthium parviflorumy Roxb. FI. Ind. i. 534) Yern. Balsu, Tel., is a thorny ahrab of 
South India, whose wood is hard and used for turning, and whose leaves are eatm in 
carries. 

1. P. didyma, Bth. and Hook. f. ; Kurz ii. 35. Canthium didymum, 
Graertn. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 535 ; Beddome t. 2£1 ; Brandis 276. Vern. 
Tolan, Uriya ; Neckanie, nulla balsu, Tam.^ Tel. ; Abalu, Kan. ; Anil, 
Bombay ; Porutoa, Ciiio^h. 

A large shrub, Wood grey, hard. Pores very smaU^ numerous, 
uniformly distributed. Medullary rays fine and very fine, numerous. 

South India, Ceylon and Tenasserim. 

Weight, 67 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood used for agricultural purposes. 

llw. 
No. 16. Salem Collection 57 

13. IXORA, Linn. 

A large genus containing some 30 or more Indian and Burmese shrubs or small 
trees. Beddome describes 7 speeies from South India, and Kurz 24 (excluding 
JPavetta) from Burma, while many species come from Eastern Bengal and Assam. 
I. coccinea, Linn. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 375 ; Beddome cxxxiv. 7 ; Kurz ii. 26 (/. Bandhuea, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 376). Vern. Ban^un, rajana, Beng. ; Bandhuka, Sans., is a well- 
known scarlet-flowertd shrub called the "Flame of the Woods," iudigenous in Sonth 
India, Chittagoug and Burma and cultivated in gardens all over India. /. stficta^ 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 379 ; Kurz ii. 26, is another scarlet flowered species from Tenasserim. 
J. acuminata^ Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 383 ; Gamble 48. Yern. Ckuripat, Nep., is a hand- 
some shrub of Sikkim, Assam and Eastern Bengal with large, crowded corymbs of 
scented white flowers. I.undulata,^ib.F\. Ind. i. 385; Gamble 48. Yern. ^almka^ 
Jut, Beng. ; Pari, Nep. ; TakchimyoJc, Lepcha, is a small tree of Bengal, and /. villosa, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 383. Yern. Chunari, Beng., of Sylhet. /. barbata, Roxb., and 
I.polyantha, Wight; Beddome cxxxiv. 7, are small trees of the Western Ghats. 

1. L parviflora, Vahl. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 383; Beddome t. 222; 
Brandis 275 ; Kurz ii. 21. The Torch Tree. Vern. Kota gandhal. Hind. ; 
Rangan, Beng. ; Diatiy Gondi ; Kurai, lokandi, Mar. ; SAulundu iora, 
Tam. ; Karipal, kachipadil, tadda pallu, Tel. ; Kori, Gondi ; Korgi, Kan.; 
Tellu iunvan, Uriya; Maka ratambala, Cingh. 

An evergreen shrub or small tree. Bark \ inch thick^ dark brown^ 
exfoliating in irregular rounded scales. Wood light brown, smooth, very 
hard, close-grained. No heartwood. Annual rings indistinct. Pores 
very small. Medullary rays very fine and very numerous. 

^Bengal, Burma, Central and South India. 

Growth moderate, 10 rings per inch of radius. Weight according to Skinner, No. 84 
66 lbs. ; our specimen gives 57 lbs. Skinner gives P = 717. The wood is well suited 
for turning and might do for engraving. Beddome says it is used for f iimitnre and 
building purposes. The green branches are used for torches. 

Ibi. 

1156. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 57 

14. PAVETTA, Linn. 

Contains 6 to 8 species of Indian shrubs or small trees. P. indica, Linn. ; Bed- 
dome cxxxiv. 7 ; Brandis 275 {Ixora Favetta, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 385 ; Kurz ii. 18«) Yern. 



Pavefla,] RUBiACEiE. 231 

Xukura chura, Beng. ; Pavetti, Tarn. ; Nuni-paputa, tapra, Tel. ; Pawetta, Cingb., 
Meenahan, Barm., is a common shrub of Bengal, Soath and parts of Central India 
and the Andaman Islands. P, breviflora, DC.; Beddome cxxxiv. 7, is a shrub of the 
higher ranges of the Nilgiris. Eurz, under Ixora, describes 4 other species, viz. : I, 
compactiflora, and I. naucleijlora, from Upper Tenasserim ; /. tceberce/olia, from the 
Andamans ; and J. recurva ( Pcederia recurva, Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 684), from Chittagong. 

1. P. tomentosa, Smith ; Beddome exxxiv. 7. ; Brandis £75. Ixora 
iomefilosdj'Roxh.V]. Ind. i. 386; Kurz ii. 19; Gamble 48. Vern. Padera, 
Kumaan ; Jiii, Beng. ; Sunddi, Lepcha; Papiri, papalla, nam-paputa, Tel. 

A large shrub with thin, smooth, brownish grey bark. Wood Jight 
brown, hard, close-grained. Pores extremely small. Medullary rays 
short, numerous, fine and very fine. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Ganges eastwards, ascending to 4,000 feet, Bengal, 

South India and Burma. 

lbs. 

O 3086. Gonda, Oudh 69 

15. COFFEA, Linn. 

C. hengaUnns, Rozb. Fl. Ind. i. 540 ; Beddome exxxiv. 8 ; Brandis 277 ; Kurz ii. 28 ; 
Gamble 49. Vera. Kath-jahi, Hind. ; Kundrudiy Mechi, is a small shrub found in most 
parts of the moister regions of India. The berries are used as coffee by Mechis and 
Rajbanshis in Northern Bengal, but the cofEee is of inferior quality. 

1. C. arabica, Linn. ; Roxb. FI. Ind. i. 539 ; Beddome exxxiv. 8 ; 
Brandis 276; Kurz ii. 27 ; Gamble 49. Vern. Bun (the berry), Kahwa 
(the same roasted and ground) . 

A shrub with thin grey bark. Wood white, moderately hard, close- 
grained. Pores very fine and extremely fine. Medullary rays very fine, 
numerous. 

Indigenous in Abyssinia and Soudan, cultivated since the fifteenth century in 
Arabia and introduced thence to India. It has been cultivated in many pasts of India, 
but on a large scale only in Mysore, Coorg, the Western Ghdts ana Ceylon. It is 
occasionally found running wild in the forests. Growth moderate. 

P 3160. Coorg (20-26 years old). 

Prismaiomeris ietrandrat Hook. f. and Bth, Genera PI. ii. 119 (Coffea ietrandra, 
Boxb. ; Kurz ii. 28) is an evergreen tree of the forests of Chittagong, the Martaban 
Hills and Andaman Islands up to 3,000 feet elevation. 

16. MORINDA, Linn. 

A genus of Indian and Burmese trees and shrubs, mostly giving a red or yellow dye 
from the root bark. Roxburgh Fl. Ind. i. 641 to 648, describes? species ; and Brandis 
p. 278, says that 6 out of these species '* cannot well be specifically distinguished " and 
that " it will be more convenient to consider them as one under the name M, citrifolia^ 
Roxb." The names of Roxburgh's 6 species are (1.) M. citrifolia, Roxb., from I*egu ; 
(2.) M, iinctoria, Roxb., cultivated ; (3.) M, bracteata, Roxb., from Ganjam ; (4.) M. 
erserta, Roxb., of Bengal ; and C6.) M, muUifloraf Roxb., from Nagpore and Berar. We 
will, however, retain the name M. exserta for our specimens at present. 

M, angustifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 647 ; Brandis 278 ; Kurz li. 61. Vern. Asuffach, 
Ass. ; Kchai tun, Phekial ; Chenung, chengrung, Garo ; Yaiyo, Burm.i is an evergreen 
tree of Bengal and Burma, whose bark and wood give a yellow dye- M. umbellaia, 
Linn. ; Beddome exxxiv. 9 ; Kurz ii. 62. M. scandens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 648, is an 
evergreen scandent shrub of the Western Gh&te, Tenasserim and Ceylon. Kurz de- 
scrilSs 6 other species from Burma. 



232 BUBTACB^. [ MoriMda. 

1. H. exserta, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 54<5 ; Beddome cxzxiv. ; Brandis 
277; Kurz ii. 59. Vera. Al, acA, Hind.; Alleri, allddi, Panch Mehals; 
Hardi, Nep. ; Noona, Tarn. ; Toghur, togara mogali, mogali, manja pavatH, 
Tel. ; JcAu, Uriya ; Nyau, Burm. ; AH, Gondi. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark corkj^ brittle^ brown or 
grey, with numerous deep, longitudinal cracks. Wood red, oflen yellow, 
with red streaks, or brown, moderately hard, close-grained. Annual 
rings faintly marked. Pores small, scanty, generally in radial lines 
between the numerous, fine and moderately broad medullary rays. 

Bengal, Burma, Gazerat, South India. 

Growth moderate, 7 rings per inch of radius. Weight, according to Skinner, No. 97 
(M, citri folia) 30 lbs. per cubic foot ; Wallich 29 lbs. ; our specimens give 41 lbs. 
Skinner gives P ^= 410. The wood is durable: Wallich's specimen (No. B 2690), cut 
in Burma in 1828, was quite sound wlien cut up after 50 years in Calcutta. It ii used 
for plates and dishes. The bark of the root is largely used for dyeing red and yellow. 

lbs. 

C 1130. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 36 

C 1307. Gumsur, Madras 42 

B 2690. Tavoy (Wallich 1828) 41 

No. 34. Salem Collection 40 

17. LEPTODERMIS, Wall. 

1. L. lanceolatay Wall.; Brandis 279. Vera. Jogia padera,KnmB,un, 
A small shrub of the North -Western Himalaya^ generally on rocks 

between 6,000 and 10,000 feet. Bark thin, grey. Wood Uard^ white. 

Pores very small, scanty. Medullary rays fine and moderately broad. 

llM. 

H 2822. Simla, 6,000 feet 48 



Order LVII. COMPOSITE, 

The largest Order of plants not only in India, but in the world. "With rery few 
exceptions, all the species are herbaceous. There are, however, genera containing shrubs 
or small trees. They belong to the following Tribes : — 



Tribe I. — VernoniesB .... Vemonia. 

Microglotsa. 

Blumea, Pluchea and Inula, 

Artemisia. 

Leucomeris, 



„ II. — Asteroideee 
„ III. — Inuloideee 



IV. — Anthemidese 
„ V. — Mutisiaceaa 



Microgloasa volubilis, DC. ; Kurz ii. 82, is a large climber of the hills of Martaban 
and Tenasserim, found in second-growth forests. Blumea balsamifera, DC. ; Kurz ii. 
82 (Conyza baUamifera, Roxb. Fl. Ind.iii. 427; Onmble 50) Vern. Foungma-tkeing, 
Burm., 18 a shrub which comes up freely on old cultivated lands in Northern and Eaert- 
em Bengal and Burma. Pluchea indica, Less. ; Kurz ii. 83. Vern. Kagu, Burm., is 
a large evergreen shrub of tidal forests on the coasts of Chittagong, Burma and the 
Andamans. Inula eupatorioides, DC^ and Inula Cappa, DC, are small shrubs of 
the Himalaya. Leucomeris contains two species : . X. spectabilis, Don. Vern. 
Pantca, Kumaun ; Bhoea, jphusrae, Nep., a small tree of Nepal, also found in Garh- 
wal ; and L, decora^ Kurz li. 78, a deciduous tree of the Eng forests of Prome. 



Vernonia. ] composite. 283 

1. VERNONIA, Schreb. 

About 7 gpeoieg of small trees or climbers. F. Wightiana, Blth. and Hook, f . 
(Monons Wtghtiana, Beddome t. 226), is a tree of the Nil^iri Hills. F. Kurxii, 
C. B. Clarke ; Eorz ii. 80, is a small tree of the toungjas in the Martaban Hills ; and 
Y. arborea. Ham., is found in Tenasserim. The other three species are Burmese 
climbers. 

1. V. volkamerisfolia, DC; Beddome t. 226; Gamble 50. F. acu- 
minata, DC. ; Kurz ii. 79. 

A small tree. Bark brown. Wood whitish^ turning pale brown^ 
moderately hard. Pores moderate-sized^ often in short radial lines. 
Medullary rays numerous^ fine and moderately broad. Pith large. 

Eastern Himalaya, South India and Burma. 

Weight, 31-6 lbs. This is probably Kyd's Vernonia (wkyor)— Weight 31-6 lbs. 
P = 383. 

E. 3312. Pankabari, Darjeeling, 3,000 feet. 

2. ARTEMISIA, Linn. 

Contains the " Wormwoods," only one of which reaches the size of a small shrub. 
The leaves of many species are used as a febrifuge and in the preparation of 
"absinthe." 

1. A. vulgaris, Linn. ; Roxb. PI. Ind. iii. 420 ; Gamble 50. Vern. 
Naga, naga dona, dona, Hiud.^ Beng. ; Titapat, Nep. 

Bark thin^ with longitudinal fissures. Wood grey, hard. Pores 
very small ; in short radial lines between the distant^ fine and moderately 
broad medullary rays. 

A gregarious shrub, coming up on old cultivations between 3,000 and 6,000 feet in 
the Sikkim Hills, and often coveriag large tracts of land until killed down by the 
tree growth which succeeds it. This is probably the Nagdana of Cachar, said by 
Mr. Brownlow to be one of the plants on which the Attacus Atlas silkworm is fed. 

Its ashes when burnt are considered to give a good manure for cultivation. 

£ 2857. Tukdah Forest, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet. 



Order LVIII. OOODENOVIEiE. 

Seavola Rbnigii, Yahl. ; Kurz ii. 84 (5. Taceada, Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 587.) Vern. 
Penglai ktan, Burm., placed by Kurz under Campanulaeea, bat in this Order by 
Bentham and Hooker in the Genera Plantarum II. 538, is an evergreen large shrub, 
common in the tidal forests of Tenasserim and the Andamans. It has a Borl^ spongy 
pith, and coarse, milky, fibrous wood. 



Order LIX. VACCINIACEiE. 

An Order of small trees or shrubs, erect or epiphytic, of the mountains of Eastern 
and Southern India. It contains 4 genera : Agapetes, JPentapiejygium, Vaecinium 
and Corallohotrya, Agapetes contains about 16 species, mostly epiphyticaL A. 
variegata, G. Don (Thioandia variegata, WaU. ; Royle t. 79, C^^ratostema variegata, 
Eoxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 413, Vaecinium variegatum, Kurz ii. 88) Vern. Jalam4t, Gdro, 

2 P 



284 VACCiNiACK.^:. [ Vaeeinium. 

is a shrab, often epipliytic, of the Rhasia and G&ro Hills, Sylhet, Chiitagong and 
TeDasserim. A, ooovata, Don {Vaccinium ohovatum, Wight; Gamble 60) Vem. 
Malay, Nep., is a common shrab of the hill forests of Sikkim and Bhutan. A* 
saliana, Bth. and Hook. f. ; Gamble 50, is a large epiphytic shrab of the Sikkim 
Hilis from 1,000 to 6,C00 feet, whose leaves are said by Hooker to be nsed as a sub- 
stitute for tea. A, WalUchiana^ Wight, and A. nirsuta, Wight, axe shrnba of 
Sylhet ; A, verticillata, Wight, and A, odontocera, Wight, of the Ehasia Hills and 
Burma ; and A. auriculata, Griff., is an epiphytic shrub of Burma. 

Pentapterygium contains 3 species, among whish P. serpens, Bth. ; Gkunble 50. 
Vera. Kali hurchu, Nep. ; Kumhiiten, Lepcha, is a haudsome epiphytic shrab common 
on trees and banks about Durjeeling. 

Corallohotry 8 acuminata, HooVA. VkT\^'Qi\i. {Vaccinium acuminatum, Kan ii. 
90), is an evergreen shrub of Eastern Bengal and Burma. 

1. VACCINIUM, LiDD. 

About 12 species, of which 4 occur on the Nilgiris and the rest in Eastern Bengal 
and Burma. V. Leschenaultii, Wight; Beddome t. 227. Vern. Anduvan, Nilgiris, 
is a pretty tree with an edible fruit, said by Beddome to have a fine-grained rose- 
coloured wood. Fl rotundifolinm, Wight, and F. neiV^A^rr^n^^, Wight; Beddome 
exxxvi., are also small trees of the hills of South India, r. Donianum, Wight; Korz 
ii. 91, is a large shrab of Burma and the Khasia Hills. V, Dunalianum, Wight, is 
an epiphytic shrub of Sikkim. Bhutan and the Khasia Hills. 

1. V. serratum^ Wight; Gamble 50. Vern. Charu, Nep. 
A shrub, often epiphytic. Bark brown with white lentieels. Wood 
white. Pores extremely small. Medullary rays broad^ wavy. 

Sikkim, Bhutan and the Khasia Hills, from 4,000 to 8,000 feet. 
E 32»6. Babookhola; Darjeeling, 4,000 feet. 



Order LX. ERICACEJE. 

' Contains about 6 Genera of usually handsome-flowered Indian trees or shrabs ; some 
of these, however, especially the genera Cassiope tkH^-Diplarche, contain merely small 
prostrate heath-like plants, found in the Inner Himalaya. The Genera belong to 
2 Tribes, viz, : — 

Tribe I.— AndromedesB .... Gaultheria, Caesiope, Pieris 

and Snkianthus. 
19 II. — RhodoresB Diplarcke and Rhododendron. 

Gaultheria contBinB about 6 species. G.fragrantissima, Wall. ; Beddome czxxvi. 
Vera. Kappuru, Cingh., is a common shrab of the Nilgiri and Pulney Hills and 
Ceylon, d. punctata, BI. ; Kurz ii. 92 (in this he includes G. fragrantistima) is 
an evergreen shrab of the hill forests of Martaban at 6,000 to 7,000 feet ; and G, 
Griffithiana, Wight ; Gamble 61, is a small shrnb of the hills of Sikkim and Bhutan 
from 7,000 to 9,000 feet. Cassiope fastigiata, Don, Vera. Chhoia lewar, Beas ; 
Seeru, Chor; Kamba, Kumaun, is the "Himalayan Heather" of travellers in the 
North-West Himalaya ; it often covers large areas like the European heather. It was 
also found by Hooker in Sikkim at Mon Lepcha. The common " Heather" or " Ling ** 
of Europe is Calluna vulgaris, Linn. 

Bark generally thin. Wood compact^ even^grained. Pores aniform 
and uniformly distributed, small or very small, numerous. Annual rings 
generally marked by belt of porous wood. Medullary rays shorty 
generally fine or very fine. 



Pieris, ] BRICACEJ2. 236 

1. PIERIS, Don. 

P. lanceolata, Don, is a small tree of the Khasia Hills, and P. formosa, Don 
(Andromeda formosa. Wall. ; Brandis 280. Vern. Sheaboge, Nep.), an evergreen tree 
of the Himalaya from Eumaun to Bhutan. 

1. P. OValifolia. Don. Andromeda ovalifolia, Wall. ; Brandis 280 ; 
Kurz ii. 92 ; Gamble 50. Vern. Ayatia, eilariy ellal, arnr, arwdn, aira, 
ratiankaty erana, yarta, Pb. ; Aydr, Hind. ; Anjir, angiar, aigiri, Jag* 
guchaly Nep. ; Piazay, Bhutia ; KangsAior, Lepcha. 

A small deciduous tree. Bark brown, peeling off in long narrow 
strips, deeply cleft, the clefts often extending spirally round the stem. 
Wood light reddish brown, moderately hard. Annual rings marked 
by numerous larger pores in the spring wood. Pores small in the spring 
wood, very small in the autumn wood. Medullary rays fine, short, marked 
on a radial section as long narrow bands. 

Outer Himalaya from the Indus to Assam, usually between 4,000 and 8,000 feet, 
Ehasia Hills, and hills of Martaban from 5,000 to 7,000 feet. 

Growth slow. Brandis says 34 rings per inch ; our specimens gave 18 rings per 
inch for the Simla and 6 rings for the Daneeling specimen. Weight, 41 lbs. per cubic 
foot. Wood not durable, warps and shrinks very badly in seasoning, is only used for 
fuel and charcoal. The young leaves and buas are poisonous to goats ; they are 
used to kill insects, and an infusion of them is applied in cutaneous diseases. The 
bark of the Daijeeling tree is not so charaoterisBcally thick ast hat of the North* 

West tree. 

lbs. 

H 17. Simla, 7,000 feet 41 

E 3328. Darjeeling, 6,500 feet 



••• 



2. ENKIANTHUS, Lour. 

1. E. himaJaiCTlS, Hook. f. aud Th. ; Gamble 50. Vern. Chothn, 
Nep. 

A small tree with thin fgrey bark. Wood white, moderately hard, 
even-grained. Annual rings marked by a belt of more numerous pores. 
Pores very small aud extremely small. Medullary rays moderately 
broad and fiue. Numerous, wavy, fine, concentric bands of soft tissue. 

Sikkim Himalaya, 10,000 to 12,000 feet. 
Growth slow, 40 rings per inch of radius. 

E 976. Chumbi Valley, Tibet, about 10,000 feet. 

3. RHODODENDRON, Linn. 

Contains about 50 species, found chiefly and in ^reat abundance and of great 
beauty in the inner Sikkim Himalaya. Four species extend to the North-West 
Himalaya, three to the hills ot Burma, and one to the Nilg^ris. Some Bpeciea are 
epiphytic, and among these are found two which are perhaps the finest and largest 
flowering, viz, : M. DalhotisitSfHoijk, f. ; Gamble 62. Vern. G«ra«, Nep. and H.JSdge' 
worthii. Hook. f. ; Gamble 62, both of Sikkim, the first with very large cream coloured 
scented flowers, the second with woolly leaves and pure white flowers, naving the odour 
of cinnamon. Some species are only small heath-like bushes found on the rocks at 
high elevations ; among these arc R, Anthopogon, Don ; Brandis 282. Yern. Nichni 
rattankdt,7iera,Jhe\\im;Tazak'tsum,KQAhmiT; Kdizakdn^ tnorHia, talua, Ravi; 
Talisri, Beas ; Talsir, Sutlei ; Talisfar, Eumaun ; I^alu, Bhutia, found in the Hima- 
laya from Kashmir to Sikkim above 11,000 feet, and on the Chor and Kedarkanta, 



286 BRiCACEJE. [ Rkododmdram. 

with white or pale yellow flowen ; B. tetoimm, Don. Yem. Tsalu, Bhntia, a red- 
flowered shruh 01 Sikkim which, with the last, giyes a very strong and somewhat 
unpleasant aromatic scent; and S. lepidotum. Wall. ; Brandis 282; Gamble 52. Tern. 
Tsaluma, tsuma, Bhutift, with reddish flowers. R^formosum, Wall. ; Karz iL 94^ 
is a small shrub of the Khasia and Nattoang Hills, above 7,000 feet. JB. hmw/- 
meinense, Hook.; Eurz ii. 94, an eyer^^reen tree of the hills of Martaban and 
Tenasserim above 4,000 feet. S, Hodasoni, Hook, f . ; Gamble 6, is a small tree of 
SU^kim from the wood of which the Tibetan yak saddles are frequently made, and 
whose leaves are used for plates and lining baskets. £. nivale. Hook, i., found at 
17,500 to 18,000 feet altitude in the Sikkim Himalaya, is a small shrab whidi probably 
attains the highest elevation of any known woody plant. 

The Indian rhododendrons are all oharaeterised by even-grained 
wood^ soft or moderately hard ; by very fine and extremely fine pores^ 
more numerous in the spring wood; and byfine, generally short medullary 
rays. The wood is apt to warp^ with the exception of that of R» argen» 
ieum and R, Palconeri. 

1. £• arboremn, Sm. ; Beddome t. 228; Brandis 281 ; Kurz ii. 93 ; 
Gamble 61. R. puniceumy Roxb. FI. Ind. ii. 409. Yem. Chkd%f 
Hazara; ^rrfrfira/, Jhelum ; Manddl, Chenab; CAiu, dm, Ravi; Bras, 
broa, burana, burunsky Beas to the Sarda River ; BruSy Komaon ; Bkordns, 
gurdsy ghondSy toggu^ lal gurdsy Nep. ; Etok, Bhutia^ Lepcha; Billi, 
poomaramy Nilgiris ; ifa-raimal, Cingh. 

A small evergreen tree. Bark 1 inch thick) reddish brown^ peeling 
oflF in small flakes. Wood soft, reddish white or reddish brown, cloae 
and even-grained^ apt to warp and shrink. Annual rings marked by a 
belt of slightly larger pores in the spring wood. Pores very small and 
extremely small, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays fine and 
moderately broad, short, visible on a radial section. 

Outer Himalaya from the Indus to Bhutan between 3,000 and 11,000 feet, hills of 
Southern India and Ceylon, Karennoe Hills in Burma. 

Growth slow : according to Brandis 14 rins^ per inch of radius ; our specimens give 
12 rings for the North- West specimens, and 22 to 36 rings for those from Sikkim. 

Weight, 41*4 lbs. per cubic foot on an average of 5 specimens, the Sikkim ones 
weighing 39, while the Simla specimens ^ive 45 lbs. The wood seasons Teiy badl j, and 
is chiefly used for fuel and charcoal, but is also sometimes employed for building and 
for making dishes, in Sikkim for " kukri " handles, boxes and other small articles, 
and on the Nilgiris for gun-stocks and posts. The flowers are eaten and are mjide 
into preserves ; they are commonly offered in temples. 

Ibf. 
H 3171. Dungagalli, Hazara, 7,000 feet 

H 14. Simla, 7,000 feet 45 

H 73. Mashobra, Simla, 7,000 feet 45 

E 371. Senchul forest, Darjeeling, 7,500 feet 39 

E 238l } '^®°^^®' Darjeeling, 10.000 feet 39 

The two last are the species R. Camphellia, Hook. f. ; Gamble 51, distinguished 
from JR. arbor eum, Sm., by the ferruginous tomentum and cordate base of the leaf, 
but probably only a variety. 

2. R. argentemn, Hook. f. ; Gamble 51. Vem. Kali gurds, 
putlingay Nep. ; Etok-amaty Lepcha. 

An evergreen tree. Bark reddish brown, peeling ofip in small scales. 
Wood yellowish, with darker heartwood, shining, soft, close and even- 
grained. Pores very small, somewhat more numerous in the spring wood. 



Rkododendron. ] ericacejg. 23 7 

Medullary rays of two sizes^ very fine and very numerous between fewer 
short and moderately broad rays. 

Hills of Sikkim, common on tho outer ranges roand Darjeeling and Domsong, from 
6,000 to 10,000 feet. 

Growth slow, 27 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 39 lbs. per oubio foot. The 
wood warps less than t^t of It, arboreum. Flowers pure white, with a purple throat. 

llM. 

E 372. Tonglo, Darjeeling, 9,000 feet 39 

3. R. Falconeri, Hook. f. ; Gamble 51. Yern. Kurlinga^ Nep. ; 
KSgUi Bhutia. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Bark reddish brown, peelings off 
in flakes; inner bark purple red. Wood reddish white, shining with a 
beautiful satiny lustre, takes a beautiful polish, hard. Annual rings 
marked by more numerous pores in the spring wood. Pores very small 
and extremely small. Medullary rays fine and moderately broad, short. 

Hills of Sikkim, especially the summit of Tonglo, at 10,000 feet. 
Growtii slow, 17 ilngs per inch of radius. Weight, 39 lbs. per cubic foot. Does 
not warp. Flowers cream-coloured. 

lbs. 
E 369. Tonglo, Darjeeling, 10,000 feet 39 

4. S. barbatum, Wall. ; Qamble 51. Vem Gurds, chimal, Nep.; 
K^mu, Bhutia. 

A small evergreen tree. Wood light pinkish red, shining. Annual 
rings marked by a belt of more numerous and larger pores. Pores 
very small and extremely small. Medullary rays tine and very fine, 
numerous. 

Eastern Himalaya, from 8,000 to 11,000 feet. 

Growth slow, 35 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 39 lbs, per cubic foot. Flowers 
deep crimson. 

lbs 
E 375. Tonglo, Darjeeling, 10,000 feet 39 

5. R. Campannlatnm, Don; Brandis 281; Gamble 52. Yern. 
Gaggar, gurmi, Kashmir ; Sarngar, ahinwala, Ravi ; Shargar, Beas ; 
Simrung, Sutlej ; Chimul, Eumaun; CAeriala, teotoia, Nep. 

An evergreen shrub with thin grey bark. Wood light pinkish red, 
moderately hard. Annual rings distinctly marked by more numerous 
pores in the spring wood. Pores very small and extremely small. 
Medullary rays fine, very short. 

Inner Himalaya from the Indus to Nepal, between 9,500 and 14,000 feet. Outer 
ranges on Cbor and Eedarkanta. Sikkim at 11,000 feet (C. B. Clarke). 

Growth moderate to slow. Our specimens shew 28 rings per inch of radius ; while 
Aikin with Wallich's specimens found 8*4 rings per inch, very distinctly marked. 
Weight, 39 lbs. per cubic foot. Flowers light pink, lilac or mauve. 

iba, 

H 121. Jalari Pass, Seoraj, Eulu, 10,000 feet 39 

H 128. Botang Pass, Kulu, 13,000 feet 

6. R. folgens, Hook. f. ; Gamble 51. Vem. Chimal, Nep. 

A small tree or large shrub. Wood grey, darker in the centre^ 
moderately hard, even-grained. Annual rings marked by more porous 



23S BRicACE^. [ RkododendroH. 

wood at the inner edge. Pores very small. Medullary rayB short, fine, 
very numerous. 

Sikkim Himalaja, from 12,000 to 14,000 feet. • 

Growth slow, 25 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 36 lbs. per cubic foot. 
Flowers deep crimson. 

llM. 

E 2957. Sandukpho, Darjeeling, 12,000 feet 36 

7. B. cinnabarinimi, Hook. f. ; Gamble 51. Vern. BilifNep.; 
Kema hechoong, Lepcha. 

A lai-o^e shrub with thin grey bark. Wood grey, moderately hard, 
even-grained, warps. Annual rings not visible. Pores very small. 
Medullary rays short, fine. 

Sikkim Himalaya above 12,000 feet. 

Weight, 42 lbs. per cubic foot. The leaves are poisonous and the smoke of tiie 
wood causes inflammation of the face and eyes, according to Hooker. Flowers scarlet. 

ibt. 
£ 2958. Sanddkpho, Darjeeling, 12,000 feet 42 



Order LXI. EPACRIDKS!. 

An Australian Order, of which one species only extends north to Tenasserim, viz, 
Leucopogon malayanus, Jack ; Eurz ii. 95, an evergreen, small, rigid shrub. 



Order LXII. PLUMBAGINKS]. 

An Order containing only one Indian species, ^gialiiis annulata, B. Br. ; 
£urz ii. 96 {JE. rotundifolia, Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. Ill), is a small evergreen treelet with 
a conically thickened trunk, found in the tidal forests of the Sundaroans, Chittagong, 
Arracan, Burma and the Andaman Islands. 



Order LXIII. MTRSINKE. 

Contains 6 Oenera of Indian trees, shrubs, or climbers, belonging to the following 
Tribes:— 

Tribe I. — MaesesB MiBsa. 

„ II.— Eumyrsineee Myrsine, Samara, Arditia 

and ^giceras, 
„ III. — ^Theophrasteee Reptonia, 

Wood compact, close-grained. Pores very small or extremely small, 
often in groups and radial or oblique lines. Medullary rays distant, 
broad. 

1. MiESA, Forskal. 

Contains 10 to 12 species of shrubs or trees. M, indica A. DC. ; Beddome 
exzxvii. ; Brandis 283 ; Kurz ii. 99 ; Gamble 52 (Baobotrvs indica, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 
557) Vern. Kalsit, Eumaun ; Aiki, Bombay ; Bilaunt, Nep. ; Phadupjoh, Mochi ; 
Ramjani, Beng. ; Tamomban, Magh, is a shrub of the Suo-Himalayan tract from 
the Ganges to ^sam, Bengal, South India and Burma. M, argentea, Wall. ; Brandis 



MeBSa. ] MYRSINEiE. 239 

283. Yern. Phusera, gogsa. Hind., is a larfs^e Bhrub of the outer Himalaya, in 
Knmann and Nepal. M. macrophylla, Wall. ; Gamble 62. Vera. Phusera, Komaun ; 
Pogoti, Nep. ; Tugom, Lepcha, is a common small tree of the North-East Himalaya, 
especially in second-growth forest. M, ratnentacea. Wall. ; Karz ii. 99. Vera. Mai' 
muriya, Sylhet, is a small tree of Eastern Ben^l, Chittagong, Bnrma and the Anda- 
mans, also of second-growth forest, and said by Eurz to have a brown, heavy, close- 
grained, brittle wood. 

1. H. montana^ A. DC. ; under M, indica, A. DC. in Brandis 283 ; 
Gamble 52, Vern. Bihuni, Nep. ; Purmo, Lepcha. 

An evergreen, gregarious shrub or small tree. Bark thin, reddish 
brown. Wood soft. Pores small, scanty, uniformly distributed. Medul- 
lary rays moderately broad, numerous. 

North-East Himalaya from Nepal eastwards, Eastera Bengal and Bnrma .(var. 
P. elongata = M, paniculata, A. DC. ; Eurz ii. 99) often forming coppice-liko dense 
second-growth forests at elevations from 3,000 to 6,000 feet on the Sikkim and Bhutan 
Hills. 

Growth rather fast, 6 rings per inch of radius ; used only for fuel and rough 
house-posts. 

E 2389. Tukdah Forest, Daijeeling, 6,000 feet. 

2. MYRSINE, Linn. 

Contains 3 to 5 species. M. capitellata. Wall. ; Beddome t. 234 ; Brandis 286 
(M, avenis, DC. ; Eurz ii. 105), is a small tree of Eastern Bengal, South India, Ceylon 
and Burma, said hy Beddome to have a hard and durable timber. Weight, 22 lbs. 
(Wallich). 

1. M. semiserratay Wall. ; Brandis 285; Kurz ii. 105; Gamble 62. 
Vern. Parwana, kungHng, gogsa, lamora, gaunta, Hind.; Chupra, 
Kumaun; Bihi^ beresi, kalikatAa, bilauniy Nep. ; Tungcheong^ Lepoha. 

A shrub, small or middling sized tree. Bark ash-coloured, dark, 
nearly black, with prominent dots. Wood red, hard. Pores extremely 
small, in small patches between the distant, broad medullary rays. 

Outer Himalaya from the Beas to Bhutan, from 3,000 to 9,000 feet, Nattoung 
Hills of Martaban. 

Wallich says the wood is chocolate-coloured, heavy, hard, handsome and used in 
Nepal for carpenters' work. It splits rather and is usually too small for anything 
but firewood. 

Ibe. 

H 2830. The Glen, Simla, 6,000 feet 61 

E 3322. Darjeeliog, 6,600 feet ^ 

2. H. aMoanay Linn. ; Brandis 286. Vern. Pebrang, iakium, 
kokhuri, iarui, gugid, juiru, chachri-y pratihu, branchu, khushin, pdpri, 
banddrUf binsin, atuljan, Pb. ; Guvainij pahari cha^ cMpra, North- 
Western Provinces. 

A small, evergreen shrub. Wood white, moderately hard. Pores 
extremely small, often in short radial lines, between the distant, fine 
medullary rays. 

Afghanistan, Salt Bange and Outer Himalaya as far as Nepal. 
Fruit used as an anthelminthic, sold under the name of Pebrang, and often used 
as a substitute for that of Samara Ribes, The shrub might be useful for hedges. 

Ibf. 

H2829. Simla, 6,000 feet 48 



240 MYRsiNEiE. [Samara. 

3. SAMARA, Linn. 

Contains about 10 species of shmbs or climbers, of which most are foand in Bastem 
Bengal, South India and Burma. 8. Ribes, Benth. and Hook. f. (Embelia MihM^ 
Bnrm. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 586 ; Beddome cxxxviii. ; Brandis 284 ; Kun ii. 101 ; 
Gamble 63). Yern. Behrangy Sylhet ; Simalckeri, Nep. ; Kdrkannie, Bombay, 
is a large climber of Eastern and iforthem Bengal, South India, Ceylon and BiiniMi* 
The berries are used as an anthelminthic, and are used to adulterate black pepper, 
fif. floribunda, Bth. and Hook. f. {Emhelia Jloribundaf Wall. ; Kurz iL 102 ; Gamble 
63). Yern. Himalcheri, Nep. ; Payongt Lepcha, is a large climber of the hills of Sikkim 
and of Nattoung in Burma. It has a pinkish-white wood with very broad medul- 
lary rays and large regular pores, sometimes subdivided and often in concentric lines. 
(E 3294, Sepoydura, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet.) S.fi'ondoaa, King; Gamble 62. Yern. 
Amili, Nep. ; Monkffourik, Lepcha, is a oonmion climber of the Darjeeling forests. 

1. S. robusta, Benth. and Hook. f. Embelia robusta, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 

687 ; Beddome exxxvii. ; Brandis 284; Kurz ii. 102; Gamble 53. Yern. 
Amtiy ambaCj barbaUi, b^ebering, Bombay ; Bebrang^ Oudh ; Kopadalli, 
Gondi ; Bharangeli, Kurku ; Kalajf bogoti, Nep. ; Aipmwaynway, Barm. 

A large shrub or small tree. Bark i inch thick, brown, with hori- 
zontal cracks. Wood reddish. Pores small, often in groups or short 
radial lines, the transverse diameter many times smaller than the distance 
between the extremely broad medullary rays. Yellow spots shewing ia 
the middle of the rays. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards, Bengal, Behar, Western India 

and Burma. 

ibo. 
2478. Gonda, Oudh 87. 

2. S. nndlQata, Benth. and Hook. f. Choripetalum undulaium^ A. 
DC. ; Gamble 68. Vern. Amilpati, Nep. 

A climbing shrub. Bark brown, with prominent lenticels. Wood 
yellowish white, moderately hard. Pores moderate-sized, more numer- 
ous in the inner part of each annual ring. Medullary rays moderately 
broad to broad, short, well defined. 

North-Bast Himalaya, 3,000 to 6,000 feet. 
E 3302. Tukdah, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet. 

4. ARDISIA, Sw. 

Shrubs or small trees. Brandis describes 2 from the North- Western Himalaya ; 
Beddome 9 species from South India and Ceylon ; and Kurz 20 from Burma and the 
Andamans ; while a large number occur in the North-Eastem Himalaya and Eastern 
Bengal. A, humilis, Vahl. ; Beddome cxxxix. ; Brandis 287 ; Kurz ii. 110 ; Gamble 53 
(A. solanancea, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 580), Vern. Ban-jam, Beng. ; Eadna, Cuttack; 
Conda-maydrf Tel. ; Kantena, may a rawa, C. Pro v. ; Boaina gidda, Mysore ; 
€h/engmaop€t Burm., is a large shrub of the moister zones of India and Burma, extend- 
ing as far to the north-west as the Jumna. A. floribiinda. Wall. ; Brandis 287 ; 
Gamble 53, is a small tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna to Assam. A, 
pauci/lora, Heyne, A. paniculata, Roxb., A. rhomhoidea^ Wight, and A, ellipHoa^ 
Thunb. ; Beddome cxxxviii., are common small trees of South India and Ceylon. 

1, A. crispa,DC. ; Kurz ii. 113. A, crenulata, Vent. ; Gamble 53. 
Vern. Ckamlani, Nep. ; Lenyoky Lepcha. 

A small erect shrub. Wood white, moderately hard. Pores extremely- 
small. Medullary rays short, broad. 



Arduia, ] hyrsineis. 241 

Eastern Himalaya, from 4fO0O to 8,000 feet. Martaban at similar elerations. 
Has pretty wax-like flowers and bright red berries, which ripen in winter. Very 
eommom undergrowth in the hill forests. 

E 3315. Pograingbong, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet. 

5. ^GICERAS, Gaertn. 

1. M. comicnlata, Blanco ; Kurz ii. 114. ^. majus, Oaertn. ; 
Beddome cxxxix.; Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 130. Yem. Halsi, khaUhi, Beng. ; 
Bootayety Burm. 

A small evergreen tree. Bark grey^ \ inch thick. Wood hard^ close- 
grained. No annual rings. Pores small^ uniformly distributed. Medul- 
lary rays shorty scanty^ between moderately broad and broad. 

Coast forests and tidal oreeks of the Western Coasts Bengal, Burma and the 
Andaman Islands. 

Weight, 40 lbs. per oubio foot Wood used for firewood and for native huts 
in Jessore. 

Ibf. 

E 406. Sundarbans 40 

5. REPTONIA, A. DC. 

1. B. Iraxifolia, A. DC. ; Brandis ^87. Vern. Qatar ^ Afg. ; 
Qurgiray Punjab. 

A large evergreen shrub or small tree. Bark thin^ dark grey, 
tesselated by deep longitudinal and transverse cracks. Wood light brown, 
with irregular purplish-brown heartwDod, very hard, heavy, close and even- 
grained. Annual rings indistinct. Pores very smdl, arranged in wavy, 
radial, branching and anastomosing narrow white belts, of varying 
width, joined by fine, wavy, concentric lines which divide the firmer 
and darker tissue into irregularly-shaped figures, in which the white, 
fine, numerous and regularly distributed medullary rays are distinctly 
visible. 

Salt Range and hills Trans-Indus. 

Weight, 71 lbs. per cubic foot Wood worthy of attention. The fruit is eaten, 
and the seeds are strung in rosaries. 

Ibi. 

P169. Kohat .71 

P912. SaltBange 



OrdbrLXIV. SAPOTACEJE. 

Contains 9 genera of trees, sometimes of very large size, and chiefly found in the 
moist zones. These genera are Chrysophyllum, Sarcosperma, Siderax^lan, Achras, 
Itanandra, Dichopns, Bassia, JPayena and Mimusops, 

Sideroxylon contains 4 species, the chief of which are S. tomentosum, Boxb., Fl. 
Ind. L 602 ; Kurz ii. 116 {Achras lomentosa, Beddome czlii.). Yem. HoodigoUa, Kan. ; 
Thitcho, Burm., an evergreen tree of Western Mysore and the Prome district in Burma ; 
and S. elenaioides, Bth. and Hook. f. {Achras elengioides, DC. ; Beddome t. 235) 
Yem. Paid, Tarn. ; Holay, Burghers, a common tree of the Western Gh&ts, whose 
wood is said by Beddome to be dull red, straight-|prained, dense, and to be used for 
house beams and carpenters' planes ; and whose fruit is made into pickles and curries. 

Achras Sapota, Linn. ; Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 181 ; Beddome cxlii. ; Brandis 288, 
Kurz ii. 118. The Sapota, Sapodilla, Bully Tree or Neesberry. Yern. Simi, elupai. 
Tarn. ; Sitna, ippa, Tel. ; Twoitapat, Burm., is a tree of American origin, which is grown 

2 G 



242 SAPOTACRiE. [ Citysopfylli 



in gardens in India as far north as Saharanpor for its fine, cood-flaToured frait. 
Isonandra Wightiana, DC. ; Beddome oxlL, is a common tree of the Western Ghits 
and Ceylon. I, obovata. Griff. ; Kurz ii. 120 (probably DiehoptU), is an eTergraen 
tree of Tenasserim yielding a sort of gutta-percha (B 2687, Tavoy, from WiUlich, 
1828, is perhaps this). 

The Argan tree of Morocco which is found growing gregariously in forests in the 
Atlas Mountains is Argania Sideroxylon, B. S. Its leaves and fruit are nsed for 
fodder and an oil resembling olive oil is extracted from the seeds. 

Wood hard^ smooth^ dara ble. Heartwood dark-coloured, geDerally 
red. Fores small and moderate-sized^ in shorty wavy^ radial liDes, which 
are frequently oblique. Medullary rays numerous, fine, equidistant, 
joined by fine, transverse bars or concentric lines of softer textare. 

1. CHRYSOPHYLLUM, Linn. 

1. C. Bozbnrghii, G. Don; Beddome t. 236; Thwaites Enum. 174; 
Kurz ii. 118. C. acuminatum^ Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 699. The Star Apple. 
Vern. Ptf/aiara, Beng. ; PUAogarkA, Asa. ; Hali, Kan.; Tarsi, Mar.; 
ZawiUUfC'mgh,; Thanhyay Burm. 

An evergreen tree. Wood white, close-grained, moderately hard. 
Fores small, in short radial lines between the numerous, very fine 
medullary rays. 

Beogal, Burma, Western Gh&ts and Ceylon. 

Weight, according to A. Mendis, 39 lbs. per cubic foot ; Kyd gives weight 40*6 lbs. 
and P = 710. WoiS used for building. Fruit edible. 

Ite. 
No. 48. Ceylon Collection (called Stderoxylon sp.) .... 39 

2. SARCOSPERMA, Hook. f. 

Two trees of the Eastern Himalaya: 8, Ghnffithii, Hook, f., and S. arbarem 
Hook. f. (Sideroxylon arboreum. Ham. ; Kurz in Trans. As. Soc. Beng. zlvi, ii. 
229 ; Gamble 53). Vem. Pahar lampati, Nep. ; Kulyatzo, Lepcha, a large tree of 
the Eastern Himalaya which is used in Sikkim to make canoes. 

No. E 3316 from Chenga Forest, Darjeeling Terai, is probably this. Bark light- 
reddish brown, thin ; wood pink, moderately bard, rather light (30*6 lbs. per cubic 
foot). Pores moderate-sized, in long wavy, radial lines. Medullary rays very numer- 
ous, fine, equidistant, the distance between two rays much less than the diameter of the 
pores. Concentric lines very indistinct. 

3. DICHOPSIS, Thw. 

About 3 species : 2>. elliptical Benth. and Hook. f. (Bassia elliptiea, Dalz. ; 
Beddome t. 43). Yem. Panchoti pala, Tam. ; Panchonta, Kan., is a very large tree of 
the Western Gh&ts, affording a ^ood timber and an inferior description of gutta-percha. 
I>, caloneura, Bth. and Hook. i. (Isonandra caloneura, Kurz ii. 119), is a tree of the 
Andaman Islands. 2>. Outta, Bth. and Hook. f. (Isonandra Gutta, Hook.), is the tree 
which yields the " Gutta-Percha*' of commerce, of which large quantities are exported to 
Europe from Singapore and the Malay Archipelago, where the tree is indigenous. 

1. D. polyantha, Benth. and Hook. f. in Gen. Plant, ii. 658. 
Bassia polyanthay Wall. Isonandra poly ant ha, Kurz ii. 119. Vem, Tali^ 
Beng.; &7/-^»rto, Cacbar ; TAainban, Magb. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Wood red, hard. Pores moderate- 
sized, in wavy radial lines, sometimes slightly oblique. Medullary rays 
very fine, not prominent. Fine, wavy, parallel and equidistant con- 
centric lines. 



Dichopais, ] 



SAPOTACKiB. 



243 



Cachar, Chitta^ong and Arracan. 

Weight, 53 lbs. per cubic foot. Mach valued iu Cacbar aud ObitUgong. Manu 
says it does not float, but he must refer to green wood. Kurz aays it yields a good 
oiutlity of gutta-percha in large quantity. Major Lewin says it is used in Ohittagong 
lor making beds, tools, &c.y and is sawn into bioards for the Calcutta market. 

Um. 

E 1274. Cucbnr 53 

E 1494. Sylbet . . . . . . . .... 

E 1992. dhittagong . 63 

E 3286. Rinkheong Reserve, Ohittagong 

4. BASSIA, Kon. 

Contuns 3 species of Indian trees with milky juice, useful for their timber as well 
as for many other products. 

Wood moderately hard, heartwood red. Pores moderate-sized^ in 
short radial lines. Medtdlary rays equidistant, the distance between the 
rays less than the transverse diameter of the pores. 

1. B. latifolia, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 526; Beddome t. 41 ; Brandis 289. 
Vem. Ma^wa, mowa, maAua, Hind. ; MaAwa, makula, maul, Ben g. ; MoAa, 
Uriya ; lllupi, elupa, kat Ulipi, Tarn. ; Tppi, f/eppay Tel. ; MaAu, Baigas ; 
Irup, irrip, irAu, Gondi ; MoAu, Kurku ; MoAo, Mar. ; Honge, Kan. ; 
FoofMtn, Mai.; QuindaA (the oil). 

A large deciduous tree. Bark | inch thick, grey, with vertical cracks, 
exfoliating in tliin scales. Sap wood large ; heat twood reddish brown, 
from hard to very hard. Annual rings indistinct. Pores moderate-sized, 
not numerous, in short, sometimes oblique, radial, wavy lines between the 
aumerous, fine, medullary rays, which are joined by numerous parallel, fine, 
transvei'se bars. 

Indigenous in the forests of Central India. Cultivated and self-sown throughout 
India. 

The weight and transverse strength have been datermioed by the following experi- 
ments:^- 



Experiment by 
whom made. 


Te»r. 


. 1 : — 

Wood whence pcoenred. 


• 

Weight. 


Number of 
eiperiinents. 


Sise of bar. 


ValoeofP. 


Canntnghftm 

Skinner, No. 22 . 

Fowke 

K. ThomiMon 

TJ8t . 

Smythlee 


1864 
1862 
1869 
1668 
1873 
1878 


Qwalior 
South India. 

Central Prorincei 

Ae below 


68 
66 
68 
63 
66 


1 

• #• 

• t« 

• •• 
• « • 

9 


Ft. In. lo. 
S X 1 X 1 


716 

760 
686 

• • • 

• • ■ 



The wood is not much used, as the tree is so prised for its flowers that it is rarely 
felled ; it has been tried for railway sleepers in the Central Provinces^ and Beddome says 
it is used for the naves of wheels, for door and window frames and panels, for furniture 
*nd country vessels. The flowers are an important article of food in manv parts of 
India ; they are eaten raw or cooked, or made into sweetmeats. They are also distilled 
into a coarse spirit. Mr. V. Ball, quoted in Dr. Hunter's Stetistical Account of 
Bengal, Vol. X VI., page 48, has described the collection and use of the MaAua floweia 
in Chota Nagpore. He says that first class trees often yield about 90 maunds. The 
right of collection is usually sold both in the Government forests and by private 
owners, at a rate per tree varying from 4 annas to 2 or 3 rupees. The mahua 



244 SAPOTACEiB. [ Bauia. 

flowers are usually eaten mixed with sdl seeds or leaves of other plants. Foil 
description of the collection in Palamow is given by Mr. L. B. Fotms quoted at 
page 243 of the same Yolame. In that description he says that in tilie JPalamow 
sub-division there are nearly 114,000 mahwa bearing trees. He says the average 
yield of a tree is about 2| maunds, and that the flowers sell at about 12 annaa 
per maund. The fruit, ripe or unripe, is eaten ; it has two envelopes, the 
outer two of which are eaten raw or cooKed as a vegetable, and the inner one is 
dried and ground into meal. From the kernel a greenish yellow oil is obtidned, 
which is eaten by the Gonds and other Central Indian tribes, and is used to adulterate 
ghee and in soap-making. It solidifies at a low temperature, but melts at a temperature 
of 110° ; and though it keeps well in a cold climate, in a hot one it soon Decomee 
rancid and separates into two parts, a clear fluid oil above, and a thick brown eubstanoe 
below. One seer of oil is obtained from 4 seers of kernels. 

l\m. 

O 266. Garhwal (1868) « 00 

01493. Kheri, Oudh 66 

H 2969. Kumaun, 6,000 feet 66 

G 827. Bairagarh Reserve, Berar 69 

C 2771. Melghdt, Berar ^ 

C 1116. Ah iri Reserve, Central Provinces . . • . • 60 
C 2731. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces (young) •' , .62 
C 1243. Gumstir, Madras 63 

2. B, longifolia, Willd. ; Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 523 ; Beddome t. 42 ; 
Brandis 290, Vern. Kat illupi, elupa, Tarn. ; Ippi^ y^!PP^} pintM, Tel. ; 
Bippe, Kan. ; Ullupi, Mai. ; Mee, Cingh. 

A large evergreen tree. Heartwood red^ moderately hard^ close- 
grained. Fores moderate-sized, prominent on a vertical section, in short 
radial lines between the uniform, equidistant, numerous, fine medullary 
rays which are joined by fine transverse bars. 

South India and Ceylon. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 23, 60 Ihs. ; Adrian Mendis 61 Ihs. Skinner, 
fiYes P = 730, Mendis 724. Beddome sa^s it is very flexihle and dorahle ; that it 
IS valued for ship's keels, for trenails and u)r planking helow the water line ; and that 
it is used for carts, fumitpre and hridge construction. The flowers are eaten in the 
same way as those of B, laiifolia, and an oil is expressed from the ripe fruit, which is 
yellow, semi-solid and used for hurning, for soap, and to adulterate ghee. It is also 
used medicinally, as well as the leaves, hark and the juice of tiie bark and young fruit. 

ibf. 
No. 53. Ceylon Collection .••..••. 61 

3. B. bntyracea^ Hoxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 527 ; Brandis 290 ; Gamble 63. 
Vern. CAiura, cAatura, phulel, Kumaun ; CAeuli, Oudh ; PAalwara, 
Hind. ; CMri, Nep. ; Tel, yelpote, Lepcha. 

A deciduous tree. Bark i inch thick, dark grey, wood light brown, 
hard. Annual rings marked by a dark line. Pores moderate-sized, 
somewhat smaller than those of JB, lati/olia, in radial lines of different 
length between the numerous equidistant, fine medullary rays, which 
are joined by fine transverse bars. 

Suh-Hhnalayan tract from Kumaun to Bhutan, between 1,500 and 4,600 feet. 

Growth fast, 3 to 4 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 62 lbs. per cubic foot. The 
pulp^ of the fruit is eaten, and from the seeds a vegetable butter is extracted, of tha 
consistence of fine lard and of a white colour. It does not melt under 120^ and keeps 
a lon^ time without deteriorating. It makes good soap, and is useful for candles 
as it is said to bum without smoke or unpleasant smell. When prfumed, it is used 
as an ointment and as an external application for rheumatism. The flowers are not 
eaten. The bark is used in Sikkim to poison fish. 

ibc 

£ 622. Bamunpokri, Darjeeliog •••...« 62 



Pat/eua, ] sapotace^. 245 

5. PAYENA, A, DC. 

Ti70 species. P. paraUeloneura, Kurz ii. 121, is an evergreen tree of the tropi- 
cal forests of Martaban and Tenasserim. 

1. P. lncida, DC. ; Kurz. ii. 121. Ceraiophorus WigMiij Hassk. 
Isonandra polyandra, Wight Icon. t. 1589. Vern. Dolu-iurla, Cachar. 

An evergreen tree. Wood red^ hard. Pores moderate-sized^ in short 
radial lines. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous, uniform, 
equidistant. Numerous parallel, wavy, concentric lines, not very pro* 
minent. 

Cachar, Tenasserim (P). 

Weight, 45 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood is nsed for planking. 

ita. 
£ 1275. Cachar 45 

6. MIMUSOPS, Linn. 

Contains 4 Indian species. M, Boxhurghiana, Wight ; Beddome cxlii. ; Brandis 
293 Yem. Kanu pala, Tarn. ; Renga, Kan., is a common tree of the forests of the 
Western Gh&ts. Beddome, evidently quoting Skinner s No. 96, M, indiea, Vera. 
• Palava, Tam., gives weight =48 lbs. and P = 845 ; and says that the wood is reddish 
brown, rather coarse-grained, but strong, fibrous, durable and easily worked ; Brandis, 
however, doubts whether this is a species of Mimusops, It is used for house- 
building and for gun-stocks. 

Evergreen trees. Heartwood red, very hard. Pores small, in 

oblique lines. The distance between the rays equal to, or larger than, 

the transverse diameter of the pores. Numerous wavy, concentric 
lines. 

1. M. Eleng^ Linn.; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 286; Beddome t. 40; 
Brandis 293 ; Kurz ii. 123. Vern. Buial, bohly Beng., Mar. ; Mulsdri, 
maulser, Hind. ; Magadam, Tam. ; Pogada, Tel. ; Bokal, boilu, mugali, 
Kan. ; Barnoli, Mey war ; Favoli, ovalli, Mar. ; Blengi, Mai. ; KAofa, 
Burm. ; Moonemal, Cingh. 

A large evergreen tree. Bark dark grey, rough, deeply cracked with 
vertical and transverse fissures. Sapwood large, whitish, very hard. 
Heartwood red. Pores small, in short lines, which are generally radial, but 
often irregular. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous, uniform and 
equidistant. Many parallel, wavy, concentric bands* 

Wild on the Western Ghits as far north as Khandalla, Northern Circars, Burma, 
Andaman Islands and Ceylon. Cultivated throughout India. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 94, 61 lbs. ; Wallich 46 lbs. ; Adrian Mendia, 
61 lbs.; our specimens give 60 lbs., leaving but the Salem specimen, which is extra- 
ordinarily heavy. Skinner gives P = 632. Beddome says the wood is used for house 
building, carts and cabinet work. Its fragrant star-shaped flowers are used for 
garlanas and are distilled to make a perfume. The fruit is eaten, and the seeds give 
an oil. The bark is astringent and is used as a febrifuge and tonic. 

ita. 
W 1223. North Ennara 62 

D 1073. „ Arcot ^ 

B 2224. Andaman Islands • 60 

B 2241. „ 58 

No. 66. Ceylon Collection ...••••• 61 

No. 13. Salem Collection (marked Bausia l<mg%folia) • . • 87 



24^ 



SAPOTACK*. 



[ MimuiopM. 



2. M. indica^ A. DC. ; Brandis 291. M. kexandray Roxb. M. Ind. 
ii. 238.; Beddome cxli. Vera. Khir, HiVfii^ Hind.; Rain, Meywar; 
Palla, kannu palle, Tarn. ; Palle panic, palla pandu, TeL ; Kkimi, Mar. ; 
Raini, Gondi ; Palu, Cingh. 

A large evergreen tree. Heartwood red^ very hard. Pores small, 
in wavy, radial and oblique lines. Medullary rays fine, uniform, equidis- 
tant, very numerous. Concentric wavy lines irregularly distributed and 
less prominent than in U. Elengi. 

Mountaiiui of South India extendiDg in Central India to th« Bandstone hills of 
Pacbmarhi, north of the Godavari. It is onW found on sandstone, and ireqnentlj 
associated with Buchanania angustifolia and Hardtoiekia binata. 

Weight, Skinner, No. 95, gives 70 lbs. ; A. Mendis 68 lbs. ; our smcibmb gives 
only 60 lbs. per cubic foot. Skinner ^ves P = 944, Mendis 1,062. The wood is 
tough, even-grained and durable ; it is used for sugar-mill beams, oil-presses, house- 
posts and for turning. The fruit is eaten, 

lbs. 
D 1283. Anamalai Hills 60 

No. 66. Ceylon Collection 68 

3. M. littoraliB, Kurz il 1 23. M. indiea, Eurz, And. Report ; 
Brandis 292. Andaman Bullet Wood. Vem. Kappali, Burm. ; Do^la, 
And. 

A large evergreen tree with thin, smooth^ dark-brown bark. Wood 
red, smooth, very hard and close-grained. Pores extremely small, 
elongated, subdivided, often in radial lines. Medullary rays very fine, 
very numerous, uniform and equidistant. Numerous parallel, equicQstant, 
fine, wavy, concentric lines. 

Coast forests of tbe Andaman Islands and Tenasserim, in the Andamans, forming 
nearlv pure forests on the level lands behind the beach and the manerove swamps. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined oy the following 
experiments : — 



Experiment by 
whom oondaoted. 



Bmadii 



ft 
t» 

M 
ft 

n 



t* 

BeoDett 
Smythies 




Wood whence procured. 



Andamana 



I* 

H 
ft 
t« 

n 
tff 
t» 
t» 



Weight 


Namber of 


Siseofbar 


experimento. 


used. 






Ft. In. In. 


67 


7 


6x 2 X S 


66 


7 


6 X 2 X If 
2 X Ix 1 


68 


11 


71 


6 


2x1x1 


66 


S 


6x2x2 


64 


1 


6 X 2 X U 
2 X 1 X 1 


68 


8 


66 


• •• 




72 


3 





ValneofP. 



748 



],0M 
779 
881 

1,000 

1,288 

1. 



The wood is handsome, it is close-grained and durable, but apt to split. It is used 
in the Andamans for bridges and house-posts, and Major Ford (1866) said it had 
been sent to Calcutta to be tried for sleepers. He also says the bark is used to give 
a red dye. 

Iba. 

B 513. Andaman Islands 41 

B 2212. „ „ (1866) 76 

B 2497. u „ (Home, 1874, No. 6) 72 



Dioipyros, ] 



BBBNACIA. 



247 



Order LXV. EBENACEJE. 

Containing 2 Indian Genera of trees or shrubs, Afaba and THospyros, A full 
description of all the speoieis of this Order is found in Mr. W. P. Hiern's " Monograph 
of the Ebenaoese," Cambridge Phil. Soc. Trans, xii. 1873. 

Maha contains 6 species. If. niffrescens, Dalz. and Gibs. Bombay Flora, 
p. 142. Vem. Baktrura, Kan., is a small tree of the Western Gh4t8. M» buxifolia, 
rers. ; Beddome cxlviii. ; Kurz ii. 139 {Ferriola buxifolia, Willd. ; Boxb, Fl. Ind. 
iii. 790.) Yem. Iratnballi, eruvalli, humbilli, Tam. ; Nella maddi, alii, pishinna, 
Tel. ; Kalu-habaraleya, Cingh. ; Mepvoung, Burm., is a small evergreen tree of South 
India and Tenasserim ; it is said to have a dark-coloured, hard and durable wood, 
weighing according to Skinner, No. 89, 58 lbs. ; P = 875. M, micraniha, Hiern. 
(Holochilns micranthus, Dalz. ; Beddome cxlvii.), is a tree of the Si^y&dri hiUs of 
the Bombay Ghats. M, merauietuis, Hiern; Kurz ii. 139, is a small tree of the 
Mergui Archipelago. M. andamanica, Kurz ii. 140, is an evergreen shrub of the 
Andaman Isluids {see page 258)» 

1. DIOSPYROS, Linn. 

Contains 41 or 42 species. From the list given below, which has been taken from 
Mr. Hiem's Monograph, it will be seen that 4 species are found in Northern India, 
15 each in Burma and South India, 9 in Eastern Bengal and 6 in the Andamans ; 
most of the Ceylon species have been omitted : — 



S. India, Ceylon. 

N. India. 

S. India. 

S. India, Ceylon. 

Andamans. 

Burma* 

S. India, Ceylon. 

Burma. 

Burma. 



S. India, Ceylon. 
Ceylon. 



Section I. Mslonia — 

1. D. insignis, Thw. 

2. 2>. Tupru, Buch. 

3. 2). Melanoxylon, Roxb. 

4. 2). sylvatica, Roxb. . 

5. Z>. iL«rzti, Hiern. 

6. D, ehretioides. Wall. . 

7. 2>. hirsuta, Linn. f. . 

8. D. burmanica, Kurz . 

9. 2>. densiflora. Wall. . 

Section II. Ebenus — 

10. 2>. oocarpa, Thw. 

11. 2>. quasita, Thw. 

Section III. Noltia— 

12. 2>. Brandisiana, Kurz . . . Burma. 

13. 2>. pruriens, Dalz S. India, Ceylon. 

Section IV. GuNiSAirrHus— 

14. 2>. foliolosa, Wall 9. India. 

15. D, pilosula, Wall E. Bengal, Burma, Andamana. 

16. 2>. paniculata, Dalz. . . . S. India. 

Section V. Guiacana — 

17. 2>. Horsfieldii, Hiern . . . Burma. 

Section VII. Ebxelinus— 

18. 2). stricta, Roxb E. Bengal. 

2>. variegata, Kurz ~ 

2). dtuyphgllay Kurz 



19. 



21. 2>. oleifolia, Wall. 

22. D. JlavicanSf Hiern 

23. 2). sapotoides, Kurz 

24. 2). mgricans. Wall. 

25. 2>. Ebenum, Kon. 



Buima. 

Burma. 

Burma. 

Burma, Andamans. 

Burma. 

E. Bengal. 

S. India, Ceylon. 



248 BBKNACKiB. [ DioipffOM. 

Section VIII. Pitohia— 

26. 2>. lancetjefolia, Roxb. • . . E. Bengal. 

27. D, undulata. Wall Burma, Andamans. 

Section IX. Lbucoxtlok — 

28. D, buxifolia, Hiern . . . S. India. 

Section X. Danzlbbia — 

OQ CD. montana, Roxb. *> . . . N. India, S. India, and B. 

^' [ 2). cordifolia, Roxb. j Bengal, 



80. 2). Lotus, Linn. 

31. 2). Xaki, Linn. . 

32. D. chartacea,Vla}\. 

33. 2). vaccinioides, Ldl. 

34. 2>. Chlororylouy Roxb. 



N. India. 
E. Bengal. 
Burma. 
Andamans. 
S. India. 



Section XI. Pabalba— 

35. 2). ramijloraj Roxb E. Bengal. 

36. 2>. ovalifolia, Wight . . . . S. India, Ceylon. 

Section XTV. Cayavillea — 

37. 2). EmhryopterU, Per.. . . .j ^'^J^^n^cT^n ^' ^'''^' 

Section XV. Amuxis— 

38. 2>. 2b/>o«>a, Ham. • . . E. Bengal, Ceylon. 

Unclassified — 

39. 2). ^ato, Wall. .... Nepal. 

40. 2>. orixensis, Wigbt . .8. India. 

41. D. pyrrhocarpa, Miq Andamans. 

2). insignU, Thw. ; Beddome cxlv., is a large tree of the Anamalai Hills and Ceylon. 
2>. sylvaiica, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 537; Beddome cxliii. Vem. T^lla ffada, Tel. 
Kaka suroli, Kan., is a common tree of the Western Qh&ts, with a white, strons* wood. 
2>. burmanica, Kurz ii. 133. Yern. Tai^beng, Burm., is a large tree of Burma, 
chiefly found in the Eng forests. 2>. prurient, Dalz. ; Beddome cxlir., is a small 
tree of the Western Gh&ts of Bombay, Mysore, Malabar and Ceylon, whose fruit 
is covered with stinging hairs. D.pilosula, Wall. (Ouni$anthu$ pilosulus, DC. i 
Kurz ii. 125), is a tree of the hills of Sylhet, the Pegu Yoma and the Andaman 
Islands. 2>. stricta, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 539, is a tall tree of Eastern Bengal and 
Chittagong. 2>. nigricans, Wall., is a tree of the Khasia Hills and Sylhet. 
2>. lancettfolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 537 ; Brandis 297 ; Kurz ii. 136. Yern. Ardinia, 
Kumaun ; Oulal, Beng. ; Soilo, Khasia or Cachar, is an evergreen tree of Eastern 
Bengal and Tenasserim, extending westwards to Kumaun, and said by Roxburgh to 
have a hard, durable timber. 2>. buxifolia, Hiern (2). mierophylla, Beddome cxlv.), 
is a laree tree of the Anamalai Hills, Wynaad and S. Kanara. 2>. JCaki, Linn. ; 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 527, is a fruit tree of China and Japan found by Hooker in 
the Khasia EU^ls, and said by Roxburgh to grow in Nepal. It is cultivated in India 
and called " Wilayati ffob." 2>. Chloroxylon, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 538 ; Beddome clxiii. ; 
Brandis 297. Yern. Ntnai, Bombay ; Illinda, aulanche, nella ulemira, Tel. ; Andvii 
Gk)ndi, is a tree or large shrub of Southern India from Guzerat and Orissa south* 
wards, having a hard and durable yellow wood. 2>. ramijlora, Hoxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 535. Yern. Oulal, uri gdb, lieug., is a large tree of Eastern Bengal with a stronff 
hard wood. 2>. To^osia, Ham. ; Kurz ii. 128. (2>. racemosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. u. 
536.) Yern. Topost, gulal, Beng. ; Kahakaala, Oingh., is a tree of the mountains 
of E. Bengal and of (Jeylon, with an edible fruit. 

The structure of the wood of the different species of Dio^pyroM is 
very uniform^ and is distinguished by small pores, often in radial lines^ 
and fine^ very numerous, uniform and equidistant medullary rays, often 



Diosp^roH, ] BBENACEiE. 249 

closely packed. lu most species there are numerous wavy^ concentric 
lines across the rays. In several respects the structure of the ebonies 
resembles the structure of SapotaceoB, 

1. D. Melanoxylon, Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. 530 ; Brandis 294. D. WighU 
tana, Beddome t. 67. (Including D. Tupru, Buch., D. exnculpta. 
Ham. ; Beddome t. 66, and D. iomentosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 532.) Vern. 
Tendu, kendu, temru, abnus Hind. ; Kend, Icyou, Beng. ; Tumri^ tummer, 
tumkiy Gondi ; Tendi, Baigas ; Tumri, temru^ timbumi, Mar. ; Tumbi, 
tumbali, karunlAumbi, Tarn.; Tumi, tumki, tumida, timmurri, damddi, 
Tel.; Kendhu, Uriya; Balai, Kan. 

A moderate-sized tree. Bark ^ inch thick » greyish black ; the inner 
substance black and charcoal-like, with numerous transverse and longi- 
tudinal cracks exfoliating in regular oblong scales. Wood hard, of a 
light pink colour, with irregular-shaped masses of black ebony in the 
centre. No annual rings. Pores small, scanty, generally m radial 
lines. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous, equidistant and 
uniform, visible on a radial section. Numerous fine, wavy, concentric 
lines visible in the sapwood. The ebony is jet black with purple streaks, 
extremely hard, pores and medullary rays difficult to distinguish. 

Throoghont India, bat not in Barma. 

The weight and transverse strength have heen determined by the following 
experiments : — 

Puckle, in 1869, in Mysore, with bars 2' X V X F . found W = 76 

Skinner, in 1862, No. 62 W = 80; P= 1180 

Cunningham, in 1854, in Gwalior, with bars 2' X 1" X 1" „ W = 77 ; P = 862 
The Central Provinces List of 1873 .... gives W = 85 .- 



. • • 



Eyd found W = 49-5, P = 547; R. Thompson 49*6 : this was probably the outer 
wood ; Wallich gives 61 ; Smythies' measurements of our specimens give : outer wood 
54 lbs., ebony 72 lbs., but the good specimens with only ebony wt^igh 77, which is the 
best weight to take, and which accords with Brandis' statement that the weight per 
cubic foot varies from 76 to 80 lbs. Besides Skinner's and Cunningham's values 
for P, Fowke gives P = 756. The wood- is used for building, shoulder-poles and 
carriage shafts, and the ebony for all purposes of fancy work and carving. The 

fruit is edible. 

ibfl. 

P 170. Hoshiarpur, Punjab ^Stewart, 1866), the specimen referred to 

at p. 137 of the ''Punjab Plants" 69 

P 469. Ajmere 59 

1492. Kheri, Oudh 65 

O 2981. Bahraich. Oudh 48 

C 828. Bairagarh Reserve, Berar 53 

C 1113. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 

C 2754 Mob arli Reserve, Central Provinces 

C 1237. Oumsur, Madras 65 

C 1301. „ „ 77 

C 1302. „ „ 68 

D 2008. Mysore 73 

D 2045. „ 70 

No. 26. Salem Collection 82 

S. D. Enrziiy Hiern ; Kurz ii. 181. Andamanese Marble Wood. 
Vern. Teakah, thiikya, Burm. ; PecAa»da, And. 

An evergreen tree, with very thin, smooth, grey bark. Wood hand- 
some, streaked with black and grey ; the grey wood hard ; the black wood 
very hard, with alternate streaks of black ebony and grey wood. The 

2 H 



250 EBBNACE^. [Diospyros. 

mass of ebony occupying the centre of the tree is large and very 
irregular in outline, and frequently encloses interrupted concentric belts 
of light-coloured wood. Pores small and very small, often oval and 
subdivided, between the very fine and extremely numerous, uniform 
and equidistant, wavy, medullary rays. Numerous, very fine transverse 
bars across the rays. 

Andaman Islands. 

Weight of the ebony 80 lbs. per cubic foot ; the specimens partly ebony, partly 
grey wood, give 57 to 62 lbs. Brandis in his Memo, of August 25th, 1874, gives 
70 lbs. The wood is used for cabinet work and should be better known, as a substitute 
for the Ceylon Calamandcr wood, which it resembles in appearance. It is said byMajor 
Ford to be used in the Andamans for handles and sheaths of blades, and for fomiture. 
Home's surveys gave 224 trees or 1 tree per acre ; so it is pretty common. 

Ibi. 

B 2203. Andaman Islands (1866) 57 

B 2498. „ „ (Home, 1874, No. 16) .... 80 
B 521. „ „ 62 

3. D, ehretioides, Wall.; Kurz ii. 129. Vern. Ouk^chingza, Burm. 
A large tree with dark-grey bark. Wood dark grey, with darker 

streaks, moderately hard, even-grained. Pores moderate-sized, scanty, 
often oval and subdivided. Medullary rays fine, numerous. Numerous 
fine, wavy, concentric lines across the rays. 

Burma. 

AVcight, according to Brandis' List of 1862, No. 73, 41 lbs. ; our specimens give 
53 lbs. The wood is used for house-posts. 

B 1422. Tharrawaddi, Burma 54' 

B 2542. Burma (1862) 62 

4. D. OOCarpa, Thw. Enum. 180. Vem. Kadoemhaheya, Cingh, 
Wood purplish brown, with black streaks, moderately hard. Pores 

moderate-sized. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. Numerous 
fine, wavy, concentric lines. 

Concan, Mysore and Ceylon. 

A handsome wood. Weight, 45 lbs. per cubic foot. 

lbs. 
No. 40. Ceylon Collection (marked Diospyros sp.) . . . • 45 

5. D, qusesita, Thwaites Enum. 179; Beddome cxlv.; Brandis 296. 
Calamander Wood. Vern. Kaloomidereya^ Cingh. 

A large tree. Wood hard, consisting of irregular alternate layers of 
black ebony and greyish brown wood. Pores scanty, moderate-sized, 
in short radial lines. Medullary rays fine, numerous, equidistant, 
traversed by innumerable wavy concentric lines. 

Ceylon. 

Weight, according to Adrian Mendis' List, 67 lbs. per cubic foot ; Skinner, No. 62, 
60 lbs.; our specimen gives 53 lbs. Skinner gives P = 751. 

The most valuable ornamental wood in Ceylon ; it is now scarce, but is much in 
demand. 

D 2923. S. India or Ceylon 53 

No. 12. Ceylon Collection (JD. hirsuta) 57 



Diosp^ros,] EBENACEJS. 251 

6. D. Ebennm, Konig^; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 529; Beddome t. 65; 
Brandis 296; Thwaites Enum. 179. Ebony. Vern. MaM, abnus, 
tendu, Hind. ; Kmdhu, Uriya ; Acha, tumbi, shengitan, kaka-iaii, tat, 
Tarn. ; Tuki, Tel.; Karemara, Kan. ; Tai^ iendu, abnus, Mar. ; Mallali, 
Maujarabad ; Kalutcara, Cing. 

A large tree. Wood grey, with irregularly-shaped masses of jet- 
black ebony near the centre, frequently with lighter-coloured streaks. 
Structure of the wood similar to that of D, MelanoxyLon^ but pores 
slightly larger, oval and subdivided, not in radial lines. The structure 
of the ebony is exceedingly indistinct. 

South India and Ceylon. 

Weight, according to Beddome 81 lbs. ; Adrian Meudis, 71 lbs. ; our specimens 
give 61 to 70 lbs. ; A. Mendis gives P = 720. The wood is used for inlaying and 
ornamental turnery, but' the demand for it is not very great. 

IbH. 

W 731. South Kanara 61 

W 750. „ „ 70 

No. 13. Ceylon Collection (marked Diosfyros sp.) . . . .71 

7. D. montana, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 538; Beddome cxliii. ; Brandis 
296. Vern. Hirek, keindu, temru, pasendu, Pb. ; Tendu, dasdundu, 
lokari, bisi4nd, Hind. ; Makar-tendi, Bauda ; Passud, Bhurtpur ; Temruy 
Meywar; Ambia, Banswara; HddrUy Panch Mehals ; Ka^ickan, kadal^ 
paUewar, paiwan, C,V,; Muchi (anki, yerragoda, micAa-lummurra, Tel.; 
Timru, Hm burnt ^ Mar. ; Goindu, kala goindu^ balkunikiy jagalagante^ 
Kan. 

A moderate-sized tree, with thin, pinkish grey, smooth bark, when old 
exfoliating in thick irregular flakes. Wood yellowish grey, soft, no 
heartwood, no annual rings. Pores numerous, small, in radial Hues 
between the closely-packed medullary rays,which are very fine, and on 
a radial section distinctly visible as horizontal plates. White streaks 
parallel to the medullary rays. 

Most parts of India except Sindh, the Northern Punjah and Burma. 

Weight, 45*5 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood is durable and would be good for 

furniture. 

ibff. 

C 192. Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) 47 

C 1167. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces . . . . • . .44 

8. D. COrdifolia, Willd. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 538 ; Beddome cxliii. ; 
Kurz ii. 130. 1), moniana, Roxb. (part) ; Brandis 296. Vern. Ban^ 
gdby Beng. ; Vackana, kaka nlimera, Tel. j Gyutbeng, Burm. 

Wood reddish, moderately hard. Pores small, often oval and sub- 
divided. Medullary rays very fine and very numerous, with fine, wavy, 
transverse lines across. 

Bengal, South India and Burma. 

Weight, 47 lbs. per cubic foot ; Kurz (evidently quoting Brandis' List of 1862, 
No. 74) gives 49 lbs. ; Skinner, No. 60, gives 70 lbs. P = 1017, but this may be a 
mistake for some other species. 

Wood useful for cabinet-work. 

Ibf. 

B 716. Chittac:ong ( JfowAi-a«rfa, Beng. ; CAa;?ra^a, Magh) . . 46 
B 2541. Burma (1862) V3 



25l2 EBENACEJ6. [DioMfiJffOM. 

9. D. Lotos, Linn. ; Brandis 297. Vern. Jmluk, maUi, Pb. 

A midille-sized tree with dark-brown or black tesselated bark. 
Wood grey, moderately hard, close-grained. Pores small^ in radial 
groups. Medullary rays very fine, closely packed. No concentric lines. 

Punjab Himalaya, in Hazara and Kashmir, from 2,500 to 6,000 feet; Afghanistan, 
Beluchistan, extending to Southern Europe (Mathieu, Fl. For. n. 205). 

Growth slow, 10 rings per inch of raidius (Brandii), The fruit is sweetish and is 
eaten fresh or dned, by the Afghans ; Mathieu says that in Southern France it is 
eaten when half-rotten like the Medlar. 

H 3183. Dungagalli, Hazara, 5,000 feet. 

10. D. EmbryopteriSy Fers. ; Beddome t. 69 ; Brandis 298 ; Karz ii. 
128. D. glutinoaay Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 533. Emdtyopteris ffluHni/era, 
Roxb. Vern. Gab, maiuf'kendi, Beng., Hind.; Kusi, Banda; Kendu^ 
Ass.; GusvaiendAu, Vriys^ ; Tnmbika, pani-chikay Tain.; Tumil, tumiia, 
Tel. ; Holle-tupra, Coorg ; Kusharla, Kan. ; Timberee, Cingh. 

An evergreen shrub or small tree, with dark-green foliage and long 
shining leaves. Bark smooth, dark grey, almost black, with a greenish 
tinge. Wood white, moderately hard, close-grained. Fores small, scanty, 
in short radial lines. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous, uniform 
and equidistant. 

Throughout India and Burma, except the arid and dry zones in the Poiyab and 
Sindh, 

Growth moderate, 7-8 rings per inch of radius (Brandis). Weight, our specimen 
gives 63 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood used in building, in Ceylon for masts and 
yards. 

The fruit fs large, reddish ; it contains a viscid pulp, which is used as gum in 
bookbiudin^, and in place of tar for paying the t^eams of fishing-boats. Its use for 
*' gibing " boats is general throughout the rivers of Lower Bengal and Assam. An 
infusion is used to render fishiog-nets durable. It is full of tannin and is used in 
medicine as an astringent. The oil extracted from the seeds is used in native medicine. 

Ibc 
3161. Dehra Dun 62 

11. D. pyrrhocarpa, Miq. ; Ku'-z ii. 136. Vern. Tay, Burm. 

An evergreen tree. Wood reddish brown, moderately hard to hard. 
Pores small, in short radial lines. Medullary rays very fine, closely 
packed, with fine transvei*se lines across them. 

Andaman Islands. 

Weight, 52 lbs. per cubic foot. Major Ford says the fruit is eaten by the Burmese 
and is used as a red dye for linen ; that Chinese umbrellas are dyed with the juice, 
which also has the property of rendering them waterproof. 

lbs. 

B 1991. Andaman Islands (Eurz, 1866) 60 

B 2244. „ „ (1866) 64 

12. D. sp, from the Andamans (B 2232, 61 lbs.) Vern. Moong, 
Burm., has very small scanty pores, often in short radial lines between 
the closely-packed, very fine, uniform, medullary rays. No concentric 
lines; white streaks parallel to the medullary rays. 

Major Ford says that " the wood is hard, compact and close-grained, dark-purplish 
grey with narrow streaks of jet black ebony. The bark and fruit of this tree produce 
a beautiful black dye. The Burmese use the wood for flutes and other wind instru- 
ments, for earringH, carved imager, t^ol handles, picture frames, Ac. The black heart- 



DiospyrOS, ] EBENACKS. 253 

wood of large trees has a diameter of about 4 or 5 inches." It may poftsibly be 2>. 
pilosula, Wall. 

13. B 1997 collected on the Andamans by Eurz in 1866 and marked D. 
undulata (Hingado) is a large cree with small black wood in the centre of large 
trees. Wood purplish grey. Pores, small, sometimes in short radial lines between tne 
closely-packed, very fine, undulating, medullary rajs. Weight, 49 lbs. Numerous 
wavy concentric lines. 

. B 2472 from Andamans pSCurz, 1866) marked Maha andamanica, with bluish-grey 
wood, is similar in structure to the preceding number. Weight, 49 lbs. per cubic foot. 



Order LXVI. STTEACEJE. 

Contains two (Genera of Indian trees or shrubs, Symplocos and Styrax, Sty rax 
contains about 3 or 4 Indian species. 8. serrulatum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 415 ; Kui'z 
ii. 142 ; Gamble 64. Vern. Kum-jameva, Beng. ; Chamo, Lepcha, is a small evergreen 
tree of Sikkim, Eastern Bengal and Chittagong* 8, virgatum. Wall. ; Eurz ii. 142 Vi 
a small evergreen tree of Eastern Bengal. Both these species yield a kind of gum 
benjamin or ^nzoin of inferior quality. 8. rugosum, Eurz ii. 141, is an evergreen 
tree of the Martaban Hills. 8, Benzoin of the Malay Archipelago yields the true 
''Gum Benzoin," which is used in medicine, in perfumery, and to make incense. 
8. officinale of the Levant yields the gum known as " Storax," used in medicine and 
permmery. 

E 3320, Daijeeling, 6,500 feet, probably 8, virgatum. Wall., has a thin bark; 
white, close-grained moderately hard wood with faint white, regular, concentric bands. 
The pores are scanty, usually subdivided; and the medullary rays short, fine, very 
numerous. 

1. SYMPLOCOS, Linn. 

Contains 25 to 30 species of Indian trees, generally small. 8. epiccUa, Boxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 541 ; Beddome cxlix. ; Brandis 300 ; Eurz ii. 146 ; Gamble 54. Vern. 
Lodhf Hind. ; Lodh bholia, hurt, Beng. ; JPalyok, Lepcha ; Boothganiy Burghers, is a 
tree of the North-East Himidaya, Western Ghats and Tenasserim, whose leaves are used 
in dyeing and whose seeds are strung as beads and hung round ol^ildren's necks to prevent 
evil. 8. racemosa, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 539 ; Brandis 300 ; Eurz ii. 144 ; Gamble 53. 
Yern. Lodh, Beng. ; Chamlani, Nep. ; Palyok, Lepcha ; Kaiday, Mechi ; Singyan, 
Bhutia, is a common small tree of the plains and lower hills of "cengal and Burma, 
chiefly in drv forests. The leaves and bark are used in dyeing. 8. Ocurdneriana, 
Wight ; Beddome t. 237, is a handsome tree of the Western Gh&ts. Mr. Mann says 
that 8, Qrandiflora, Yern. Bumroti, Ass. ; Moat soom, Phekial, is used to feed silk- 
worms (the Muga worm, Antheroea Assama) and as a dye in Assam. 

Wood white, close-grained, apt to warp and split. Pores very small. 
Medullary rays very fine. 

1. S. cratogoideSy Hamilton ; Brandis £98 ; Kurz ii. 147. Yern. 
Lu, Idndar, loj, losJk, Pb. ; LodA, Kumaun ; Zoja, Sutlej. 

A large shrnb or small tree. Bark light grey, corky, with long 
vertical cracks. Wood white, hard, close-grained, splits and twists in 
seasoning. Pores small and very small, uniformly distributed* Medul- 
lary rays numerous, fine and very fine. Annual rings visible. 

Himalaya from the Indus to Assam, between 3,000 and 8,000 feet ; Khasia Hills ; 
Hills of Martaban. 



'254 STYRACE^. I8^mploco0. 

Growth slow, 16 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 45 to 54 lb«. per cabk foot. 
Wood durable, has been recommended for turning and would do for carviDgs, if 
properly seasoned. The leaves and bark give a yellow dye. This may be the ZAwd 
tree on which, according to Mr. Browulow of Cachar, the silkworms .^l^^acuf ^^/a« 
and A. Canningi are fed. 

Ibg. 
H 64. Nagkanda, Simla, 7,000 feet 54 

xl ZooU. „ „ M » • • • • . . .... 

H 3018. Kotgarh, „ „ „ ^ 

H 429. Kuruwa Forest, Jaunsar, 6,000 feet 45 

2. S.lucida, Wall.; Kurz ii. 143; Gamble 54. Vern. Kkarani, 
Nep. ; Chashing, Bhutia. 

A small evergreen tree. Bark thin, brown. Wood white, soft. 
Annual rings distinctly marked by a continuous line of pores. Pores very 
small, numerous. Medullary rays fiue and very fine, numerous. 

Sikkim Himalaya and hills of Martaban. 

Growth moderate, 6 to II rings per inch of radius. Weight, 36 lbs. per cubic 
foot. Used for fuel and rough house-posts. 

llM. 

E 2390. Rangbiil Forest, Darjeeling 36 

3. S. ramosissima^ Wall.; Brandis 299; Gamble 54. Vern. Lodh^ 
Hind. ; Kala kharani, silingi, Nep ; TungcAong, Lepcha. 

A small evergreen tree with dark red bark. Wood white, soft, even- 
grained. Pores numerous, very small. Medullary rays fine and very 
fine, unequally distributed. Annual rings visible. 

Himalaya from the Jumna to Bhutan ascending to 7,500 feet, Khasia Hills. 
Growth moderate, 6 to 9 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 37 lbs. per cubic foot. 
Brandis says that in Sikkim the yellow silkworm is fed on its leaves. 

Ibi. 
E 367. Rangbiil, Daijeeling, 7,000 feetj 37 

E 3336. Rangirum, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet ^ 

4. S. *J». ; Gamble 54. Vern. Lai chandariy Nep. 

Wood white, soft, close-grained. Annual rings marked by a white 
line. Pores extremely small. Medullary rays fine, numerous. Wood 
with vertical streaks of bright red colour ; the red wood, which is most 
abundant iti the root, is pounded and used for caste marks by Nepalese. 

lb«. 
E 370. Kalapokri, Dai-jeeling, 9,000 feet 46 

E 2391. Thosum La, Dumsong, 8,000 feet ^ 

(It is possible that this may prove to be Daphniphyllum himalayense, Miill. Arg.) 



Order LXVII. OLEACEJE. 

Contains 10 Indum Genera, belonging to i Tribes, viz, : — 

Tribe T. — Jasniinea? Jasminum and Nifctanthea^ 

„ II. — Syringeii} Schrehera and Syringa, 

„ III. — Fraxinea) Fraxinus 

„ IV. — Oleineje Osmanthus, Linociera, Olea, 

Ligustrum and Myxopyrum, 

Nyctanthes Arhor-trisfis, Linn. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 86; Beddome t. 240; Brandis 
311 J Kurz ii. 155. Vern. Uar, nilntnt, harsiughar, saherway seoli, nibari, Hind.; 
Harsinghar, sephdlikd, Beng. ; Fakura, laduri, kun\ Ph.; Shdli, Meywar; 



Jasminum, ] oleacejg. 255 

Kirsahdr, Baigas ; Khersdri, Gondi ; Oongo seoli, Uriya ; KAurasli, Mar. ; Karassi, 
Bhil ; Manja-puy paghala^ Tarn. ; Poahada, karchid, Tel. ; Hursing, Kan. ; Tsay- 
beeloo, Burm., is a large shrub of the Sub-Himalayau forests from the Chenab 
to the Sarda, Oudh, Bengal, Central India and Burma, with a brown, close- 
grained wood, used only for fuel. The leaves are used for polishing wood, and 
the flowers give an orange dye. It is often cultivated for ornament. Jfyxopyrum 
smilacifolium, Bl. ; Karz li. 160, is a climbing shrub of the Darjeeling Terai, Eastern 
Bengal, Chittagong and Martaban. 

Wood with few exceptions light-coloured, moderately hard or hard, 
most species v^ithout heartwood. In the genera FraxinuSy Jasminum, 
Syringa and Zigusirum, the annual rings are marked by continuous lines 
or belts of pores. In the other genera the pores are small and uniformly 
distributed, except in OsmantAus, where they are in reticulate tails. 
Medullary rays sharply defined. 

1. JASMINUM, Linn. 

Contains a large number of Indian shrubs, erect or climbing, of little importance. 
J. SambaCf Aiton; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 88; Brandis 311. Vem. Chamba, mugra, bel. 
Hind. ; Mallihaphalf Beng. ; Sapai, maliy Burm., is a fragrant climbing shrub culti- 
vated throughout India. J» hirsutum, Willd. ; Brandis 312 ; Kurz ii. 154. 
(J. pubescensy Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 91 ; Gamble 66). Vern. Kunda, Hind. ; Parirajhar, 
Nep., is a common shrub of the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards, 
Bengal and the Central Provinces. 

1. J. revolutuniy Sims ; Brandis 313. Vern. Chamba, juari, tsonu, 
tsuman^ summun, kuja, Pb. ; Bonajdhi, Kumaun. 

A small shrub with soft, thin, grey bark. Wood white, moderately 
hard, even-grained. Annual rings marked by a narrow continuous belt 
of pores, which are small, while the pores in the outer part of the ring 
are extremely small. Medullary rays extremely fine, very numerous. 

Afghanistan, Salt Range, Himalaya from the Indus to Nepal, Nilgiris and Ceylon. 

Growth slow, 26 to 40 rings per inch of radius. 

lbs. 
H 2891, H 3027. Nagkanda, Simla, 7,000 feet 46 

2.3. J. grandiflorum^ Linn.; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 100; Brandis 313; Kurz ii. 360. 
Vem. Chambelf jatif Hind.; Myablay^ Burm. found in the Himalaya and often culti- 
vated (No. H 3026, Nagkanda, 8,000 feet) and J. officinale, Linn. ; Brandis 313. 
Vem. Chamba, chirichog, kiri, Kashmir; Bansu, ktoer^ dumni, Chenab; Da^si, 
samsem, Ravi ; Sunt, somun, Sutlej ; Chambeli, Kumaun, a climber of the Salt Range 
and Himalaya from the Indus to the Sarda (No. H 2879, Nagkanda, 8,000 feet) have 
white woods with a structure resembling that of J. revolutum, 

2. SCHREBERA, Roxb. 

1. S. SWietenioideSy Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 109 ; Beddome t. 248 ; Brandis 
305 j Kurz ii. 156. Vern. Moia, g6ki, ghant, ganthay Hind.; Fatali, 
ghanta patali, Bandelkhand ; Janiia, Uriya ; Maiiam, moiob, Tel. ; Moga- 
linga, Tam. ; GAaUdr, Baigas ; Karindi, moMa, dAaiid, Gondi ; JAdn, 
Kurku; Mokkai, Bhil; Kalganle^ Coorg; TAilswaylway, Burm. 

A deciduous tree with grey bark^ ^ inch thick, exfoliating in thin 
irregular scales. Wood brownish grey, hard, close-grained, polishes 
well. No heartwood, but irregular masses of purple or claret-coloured 
wood in the centre, and scattered throughout the tree. Annual rings 
indistinct. Fores small, uniformly distributed, often in radial groups. 



256 



OLKACE^. 



[ Sekrebera. 



Medullary rays fine^ numerous^ uniform and at equal distanoes, con- 
spicuous on a radial section as narrow plates. 

KumaTm, Banna, Central and South India. 

Weight, 66 lbs. per cabic foot ; Brandis says 50 lbs. The wood is durable, wofki 
freely and does not warp or split. It is ased for oombs, weavers' beams and tttrniog. 

C 829. Bairagarh Reserve, Berar (M> 

C 2772. Melghdt, Berar .... 

C 193. Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) . 

C 1108. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces . 

C 1410. Moharli „ 

B 1413. Burma 

B 3149. „ (1862) .... 



61 



69 
64 



3. SYRINGA, Linn. 

Contains 2 species. 8, persicOf Linn. ; Brandis 306. Vem. Hid^min, Kashmir, is 
a dabrous shrub found wild by Dr. Stewart at 8,000 feet on the Suliman Range and 
cultivated in the Punjab and Kashmir. S. vulgaris, Linn., is the '* Lilac" so much prized 
in European gardens and occasionally cultivated in the Himalaya. 

1. S. Emodi, Wall. ; Brandis 306. Vern. Ban phunt, ban daHur, 
banchify razli,juari, rangkrun, kehimu, loUi, leila, Bhafri, skapri, duden, 
cAilanphaii, Pb. ; GAia, Kumann. 

A large shrub with grey bark, ^ inch thick. Wood smooth, bard, 
with a small, dark-coloured heartwood. Annual rings well marked by 
a narrow porous belt. Pores small in the spring wood, extremely small 
and arranged in irregular groups in the autumn wood. Medullary rays 
fine, numerous. 

Safed-koh, North-West riimalaya from the Indus to the Sarda, asoending to 
11,000 feet. 

Growth slow, 20 lings per inch of radius. Weight, 69 lbs. per cubic foot. 



H 2911. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet . 
H 3023. „ „ 9,000 



»f 



11m. 



69 



4. PRAXINUS, Tournef. 

Contains 3 Indian species found in the North-West Himalaya. K excelsior, 
Linn. ; Brandis 30?. Vem. Sum, kum, Pb. The Ash, is found in the valleys of the 
Jhelum, Chcnab and Ravi between 4,000 and 6,000 feet. JF, Moorcrqftiana, Wall. ; 
Brandis 301. Vem. Shang, Afg. ; Hanuz, nuch, shilli, chuj, siiu, chum, thum, 9andal, 
shangal, hutru, Pb. ; Auqa, gaha. North- Western Provinces, is a large shrub or small 
tree of Afghanistan, the Trans-Indus and the North-West Himalaya from the Jhelum 
to Kumaun. It is often gregarious, has a slow growth (20 rings per inch of radius) 
and a light-brown, heavy, nard, close-grained wood which is us^ tor tool handles and 
makes good fuel. 

Wood moderately hard, white in some species ; with a brown heart- 
wood. Pores large and numerous in the spring wood ; small, scanty and 
often arranged in groups in the autumn wood. Medullary rays fine, 
uniform, equidistant. In F. Jloribunda, excelsior , and other species the 
wood consists of alternate layers of soft porous spring wood^ and hard^ 
compact, autumn wood. 

1. P. floribanda^ Wall. ; Brandis 802. Vern. Bandrisi, Afg. ; S^m, 
sunnu, shnn, hum, Aamu, tunntl, Pb.; Angan, angu, daiiurij North- 
western Provinces ; Kangn, faAdsi, Nep. 



fraxinus.] oleacbje. 257 

A IsLfge deciduous tree. Bark grey^ corky, with longitudinal fur- 
rows. Wood white, with a light red tinge, no heartwood, soft to moder- 
ately hard. Annual rings marked by an almost continuous line of large 
pores, the layers cutting differently under the knife. Fores in the outer 
part of the annual ring smaller. The large pores of the annual rings are 
well defined on a longitudinal section: Medullary rays fine, numerous, 
giving the wood a mottled appearance on a radial section. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Sikkim, between 5,000 and 8,500 feet. 

Growth slow to moderately fast, averaffing 13 rings per inch of radins for onr speci- 
mens; Wallioh sajs 8 rings (Braiulis), Weight, 48 lbs. per cabic foot. The wood b 
tough and hard, and is used for oars, jampan poles, ploughs and other purposes. 

ibi. 

H 612. Parbatti Valley, Kulu, 7,000 feet 47 

H 904. Upper Chenab, 8,000 feet 

H 2971. Naini T41 49 

H 3190. Dungagalli, Hazara, 7,000 feet . . . . .... 

The structure is exceedingly similar to that of F. ewcelsior, the European Ash 
(No. 2974), but that species has a distinct brown heartwood. 

5. OSMANTHUS, Lour. 

Contains 2 or 3 species. O. fragrant^ Lour.; Gamble 54. (0/m fragrant , 
Thunb.; Bozb. Fl. Ind. i. 105; Brandis 309.) Vem. Shilling ^ tt^oiMr, Kumaun ; 
Tungrung, Lepcha, is a small tree of the Himalaya from Kumaun to Bhutan, some- 
times gregarious, but more often planted for the sake of its very sweet-soented flowers. 
The wood is whitish, mottled with brown ; the flowers are used to keep insects away 
from clothes in Kumaun, and in China to flavour tea. 

1« 0. nov. sp. Yern. Silingi, Nep. ; Chathing, Bhutia. 

A small tree^ with grey bark, white twigs, and opposite coriaceous 
leaves. Wood white, hard, close-grained, seasons well, mottled on ver- 
tical sections. Pores very small and extremely small, arranged in wavy, 
irregular, anastomosing oblique bands, which form a most elegant net- 
work on a horizontal section. Medullary rays fine, uniform, equidistant, 
numerous, traversed by parallel concentric lines of soft texture. 

TonglojDarjeelinff, 10,000 feet. 

The structure of me flowers shews it to be a species of Osmanthus* The leaves are 
opposite, small, about 1 inch long, serrated ; the flowers white, the berries purple, 
reeemblmg small plums, and the bark of the twigs yellowish white, with raised specks. 

Ib0. 

E 379. Tonglo, Darjeeling, 10,000 feet 53 

6. OLEA, Linn. 

Contains 6 to 8 species of Indian trees. O. dioiea, Boxb. FI. Ind. i. 106 ; Beddome 
diii ; Eurz ii. 157 ; Gamble 54. Yern. Atta-jam, Beng. ; Kala kiamoni, Nep. ; l^imber 
nt/oh, Lepcha ; Koli, Tam. ; Parjamh, hutrchnuge, mudla, Kan. ; Karamhu, Mar., 
is a iaree of the forests of Northern and Eastern Bengal, Chittagong and South Kanara ; 

fiving, according to Beddome, a valuable sttong timber. O, aentata, Wall ; Karz ii. 
57, IS an everflrreen tree of the Burma forests. O. europma, Linn., the Olive, has been 
introduced on u&e Himalaya and the Nilgiris. 

Wood hard, with a distinct heartwood in a few species. Fores small, 
numerous, subdivided or in short radial groups. Medullary rays uniform, 
equidistant, fine or very fine. 

2 I 



258 OLEACB^. [Olea, 

1. 0. ferraeineay Boyle ; Brandis 576. 0. cuipidaia, Wall. ; Brandis 
S07. Vern. KAwan, sAwan, Trans.-Indos; Zailun, Afg. ; Ko, koh4, too, 
iau, Fb. ; Kau, Hind. ; Kkau, Sind. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark grey, thin, smooih when 
youDg; when old exfoliating in large narrow strips. Sapwood whitish ; 
heartwood large^ regularly shaped^ from light brown or olive brown to 
nearly blacky smooth, extremely haid. Annual rings distinctly marked by 
a belt of closely-packed pores. Pores in the rest of the annual ring ex- 
tremely small^ in irregular patches of soft tissue. Medullary rays fine, 
uniform, very numerous, equidistant. 

8ind, Suliman Hange, Salt Eange, North- West Himalaya, extending as far as 
the Jumna eastwardB, and ascending to 6,000 feet. 

Weight, 65 to 82 lbs. per cubic foot, averaging 73 lbs. Brandis says that Sind 
wood weighs 65 lbs., but his specimen from the Sind hills reaches 82 lbs. The wood 
polishes well and is highly prized for turning, for combs, agricultural implements and 
fuel. The fruit is eaten, but is rarely found on the trees owing to the fondness of 
crows for it. Oil has been extracted from it, but only in small ouantiiy though of good 
unlity. The wood is worth trying as a substitute for boxwooa or for the wood or the 
uropean olive and for inlaying work, as it is often prettily marbled. 



£ 



nw. 

H 162. Shahpur (Stewart, 1866) 65 

H 118. Vaziri-Rupi. 4,000 feet 73 

H 779. Chamba, 3,600 feet 71 

H 426. Koti Forest, Jaunsar, 6,000 feet 75 

P 2729. Hills of Sind 82 

2. 0. glandnlifera. Wall. : Beddome t. 238 ; Brandis 809. 0. pani- 
culaia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 105^ not paniculaia, R, Brown (an Australian 
species). Vern. GulUiyraban, siruyphalshf Pb.; Gair^ galdu, garirt Kamaun. 

A moderate-sized tree. Bark ^ inch thick^ S^^Yf uneven, exfoliating in 
brittle scales. Wood reddish grey, bard. Annual rings marked by a 
distinct line. Fores moderate-sized, oval, subdivided, uniformly distri- 
buted. Medullary rays fine, numerous, prominent on a radial section. 

Outer Himalaya from the Indus to Nepal, between 2,600 and 6,000 feet. NOgiris 
and Anamalai Hills in South India. 

A section of a tree 43 years old, in the Botanic Grardens, Calcutta, shewed 43 rings 
On a radius of 10 inches (Brandis) ; this would give 4*3 rings per inch or fast growth : 
our specimens give 12 to 33 rings ner inch of radius. Weight, on an average, 64*5 lbs. 
per cubic foot. The wood is durable, takes a good polish and is not liable to be eaten 
by insects. 

IfaM. 

H 928. Hazara, 3,000 feet 69 

H 2940. Suni, Simla, 3,000 feet 65 

H 222. Garhwal Hills (1868) 60 



7. LIGUSTRUM, Linn. 

Contains about 6 species of shrubs or small trees. Z, robustum. Hook, f . and 
Th. ; Beddome cliii. ; Brandis 310; Gamble 64 (PAt7/^ea ro^t^^d, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 
101. Olea robusta, Eurz ii. 168) Vern. ITeri, banpatara. Hind. ; Jamu, Nep., is a 
small tree of the outer Himalaya from Kumaun eastwards, Bengal, Southern India and 
Burma, with a hard durable wood. Z. nepalense. Wall. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 149 ; Brandis 
310. Vern. Gumgacha, Ncp. ; and L, brarteolatum, Don ; Brandis 310, are sinall trees 
of Kumaun and Mepal. Z. fnicrophyllum, Beddome cliv., is a shrub of Cooi^jp. The 
European Privet is i. vnlgixre, Linn. 



LiffHslrum.] oleace^. 259 

1. L, compactam^ Hook. f. and Th. ; Brandts 310. 

A large shrub. Bark grey, ^ inch thick. Wood white, moderately 
hard. Annual rings marked by a narrow porous belt. Fores small in 
the spring wood^ extremely small in the autumn wood. Medullary rays 
fine and very fine, numerous. 

North-West Himalaya from the Beaa to the Sarda, at 3,500 to 6,000 feet. 
Growth slow, 17 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 64 lbs. per cabic foot. 

H 3059. Koti, Simla, 6,000 feet . .64 

8. LINOCIERA, Swartz. 

Contains about 6 species. Z. intermedia, Wight. (Chionanthus intermedia^ 
Beddome t. 239) and Z. malaharica. Wall. (C. malabarica, Beddome cliv.) are large 
trees of the Western Qh&ts, while Kurz under Chionanthus describes 4 species £rom 
Burma and the Andamans. 

No. 3211 is Z. macrophylla (Chumanthiu mcuyrophylliu,K\irz n, \S^) ^tom Vk 
cultivated tree in the Saharanpur Oardens ; it has a brown bark, \ inch thick ; pinkish 
white wood ; pores small, arranged in radial lines or groups ; and medullary rays fine, 
bent where they touch the pores. 



Oedkb LXVIII. SALVADOBACILS. 

Contains 2 genera, Sahadora and Azima, Azima tetracantka, Lamk. ; Kurz 
ii. 161, is a straggling, dioecious, thorny shrub of South India and Burma. It is very 
common, and the leaves and bark are used in native medicine as an expectorant. 
(Wight 111. 1. 152, p. 156.) 

1. SALVADORA, Linn. 

1. S. perrica, Linn. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 389 ; Brandis 315. S. W'i^Ati^ 

ana, Beddome t. 247. The Tooth-brush Tree. Veru. Ami, Irak, Arab. ; 

Kabbar, kharidjar, pilu, Sind ; JAdl, Rajputaca ; Kauri van, kauri-jal, 

jhdr, jkit, Pb. ; Opa, nghai, Tarn. ; Waragu-wenki, ghunia, Tel. ; Ptlu, 

Mar. 

A small evergreen tree, with thin grey bark. Wood white, soft. 
Pores small, in short radial lines, but enclosed in oval patches of soft tissue. 
Numerous fine concentric bands of sofb tissue, separating broader bands 
of firm texture, in which the fine and numerous medullary rays are dis- 
tinctly visible. 

Wild in Sind, B^jputana, Guzerat, Konkan and the Ciroars. 

The tree is generally small, but in favourable circumstances attains 30 to 40 
feet, with a short trunk, often crooked and fluted, 8-10 feet lon^ and 4-5 feet in girth, 
^oecimens have bcMsn seen as much as 14 feet 9 inches in girth. Weighty 40*5 lbs. 
(Dalzell); 46 lbs. (Fenner); our specimen gives 38 lbs. It is very little used and 
is not even a good ^el. The twigs are used as tooth-cleaners ; the root bark is very 
acrid and acts on the skin like a blister ; the shoots and leaves are pungent, but 
are considered as an antidote to poison, they are eaten as salad and given as fodder 
to camels ; the fruit also is pungent, bitter and aromatic, and is used medicinally. 

P 1381. Siud .38 



260 SALVADORACKJE. [Sahadofa. 

2. S. oleoideSy Linn. ; Brandis 816. Vera. Kabbarjidr, didr, Mtfit- 
dldr, Sind ; Jdl, van, vdni, mithi van, Pb. ; Jhal, Hind. ; Ugiai, toku. Tarn. ; 
PUu, Mar. 

A large evergreen shrub or tree. Bark \ inch thiok^ whitish 
grey^ tesselated. Wood light red, moderately hard, with smallj irregalar^ 
purple heartwood. Pores large and small, oval, often subdividea into 
irregular patches of soft tissue, which are joined by wavy, irxegnlar 
zigzag bands. Medullary rays fine, numerous, distinct, at unequal dis- 
tances. 

Arid zone. Sind and Punjab, often forming the greater part of the vegetation of 
the desert ; ascends to 3,000 feet in the Trans-Indas hills and to 2,400 feet m the Salt 
Bange. 

Weight, 49 lbs. (Brandis) ; oar specimens give 54 lbs. (Punjab) and 88 Iba. (Sind). 
Wood sometimes used for building and agricultural implements, Persian wheels and 
the^ knee timbers of boats. Is a bad fuel and leaves a great deal of ash. The 
fruit is sweet and is eaten. 



P 942. Mult&n (with heartwood) * 64 

P 1382. Sind (no heartwood) .88 



Ordbr LXIX. APOCTNEJE. 

A large Order containing 33 genera, only a few of which are of any importance* 
They belong to 3 Tribes, viz.— 

Tribe I.— €arisse» .... Allamanda, Willouykbeia, Ckilocar* 

pus, Melodinut, Winekia and 
Carissa. 

„ II.— Plumerieffi .... JRautoolfia, Alyxia, Hunteria, The- 

vetia, Cerbera, Oehrona, KopHa, 
jRhazya, Tinea, Plumeria, ElleT' 
tania, AUUmia, Tabfmamuntana 
and Holarrhena, 

„ III.— Echitideie .... Vallaris,Parson4ia,Pottsia,TFri^k' 

Ha, Nerium, Strophanthus, Para- 
meria, Ureeola, lehnocarput, 
Epigynum, Anodendron, CJume* 
morpha and Beaumontia, 

Among these genera, however, four contain only introduced plants. Allamanda eaikap' 
Oca, Linn. ; Kurz ii. 164, is a large yellow-flowered shmb from America, mnoh onlti- 
Yated in India and run wild in tidal backwaters of the Western Coast {Bsddame). 
Thevetia neriifolia, Juss. ; Eurz ii. IGB.'Yem. 2kird hunil. Hind. ; Hpayounghan, 
Burm., is a handsome yellow-flowered small tree, much cultivated in Bengal and Burma. 
It has long narrow leaves and a hemispherical drupe, from the seeds of which a bright 
yellow oil can be obtained. Vinca rosea, Linn^ the Madagascar Periwinkle, is a small 
pink-flowered shrub commonly planted in India and Burma. Plumeria aeuttfolia^ 
Foiret; Brandis 323; Kurz ii. 179; Gamble 56. Yern. Qui achin, golainchi^ 
cAame/t,Hind. ; Khairchampa, Bombay ; Champa pungdr, Gondi ; Kana^aUt, Kan.; 
Tayopsagah, Burm., is a gouty-branched tree with large, yellowish white, fn^;rant 
flowers, commonly found in gamens in India and Burma. Van Someren calls it the 
•• Pi^a tree." 

Seventeen other genera contain only climbing shrubs. Willoughheia contains 2 
species. W, edulis, Rozb. Fl. Ind. ii. 67 ; Knn ii. 166. Yern. Luti-atn, Beng., is a large 
climber of Chittagong with edible fruit. It yields a kind of caoutchouc, as does also 
W. martahanka, Wul. ; Kurz ii. 166. Yern. Thit kyauknway, Burm., of Tenaaserim. 



Carissa.] APOCYNEiB. 261 

Beaumontia grandiflora, Wall. ; Eurz ii. 179 ; Gamble 66. (Echites grandiflora,'BoTh, 
Fl. Ind. iL 14). Tern. Barbari, Nep., is a large climber of Northern and Eastern Bengal, 
with a large trnmpet-shaped flower. Chonemorpha wacropkylla, G. Don ; Brandis 328 ; 
Karz ii. 187 ; Gamble 66 (Echites mcterophvlla, Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 13). Vern. Oar 
badero, Hind. ; Yokchounrik, Lepcha ; Biarki, Sylhet, is a large milky climbing shrab 
of Northern and Eastern Bengal and the Andaman Islands, with broad leaves, beaati- 
ful large white flowers, and long fruit, yielding a kind of caontchonc. Vallatis dicho' 
toma. Wall. ; Brandis 327 ; Knrz ii. 181 (Echites dichotoma, Rozb. Fl. Ind. 19). Vern. 
Dudhi, Eumann ; Happur-mali, Beng., is a large twining shrub of the Sab-Himalayan 
tract from the Ganges eastwards, Centnd and South India and Burma (C 2921 Central 
Provinces). Urceola esculenta, Bth. ; Eurz. ii. 184 {Chavannesia esciilenta, DO.), is a 
climber of Tenasserim, said by Mr. G. W. Strettell to be common all over Pegu and to 
yield a superior kind of caoutchouc (to this genus also belongs U, elastica, Boxb., 
givi ng the Borneo rubber). The remaining genera of climbers, Ckilocarpus, Melodinus, 
Wtnchia, Alexia, Ellertonia (South India), Parsoruia^ PotUia, StnyphanthuM^ 
Parameria, Ichnocarpus (Northern and Eastern India), Epiffynum, and Anodendron, 
are chiefly Burmese, but contain few species of any forest importance. 

Bauwolfia serpentina, Bth. ; Eurz ii. 171 (Uphioxylon serpentinum,yfTiX[^, ; Boxb. 
Fl. Ind. i. 694; Beddomeclvi. ; Gamble 66.) Vern. C/kim^ra.Beng. ; Patalgani, Tel. 
is a small undershrub of Bengal, Burma and South India ; and R, deneiflora, Bth. ; 
Beddome clvi., an erect shrub of the WestemGhits and Ceylon. Hunteria Boxburghiana, 
Wight ; Beddome clviii., is a shrub of the Tinnevelly Gb6ts. Ochroeia contains 2 smaJl 
trees : O. ealubrie, Bl. ; Eurz ii. 172, of the tidal forests of the Andamans, and O. Bor* 
bonica, Gmel. ; Beddome clviii., of similar localities in Ceylon and probably Travancore. 
Kopeiafruticoea, DC. (Calpicarpum Boxburghii, G. Don ; Eurz ii. 178.) Vern. Salap 
Burm., is an evergreen large shrub of Burma, often planted. Bhazya strieta, De- 
caisne; Brandis 322. Vern. Vena, Salt Range; Oandera, Trans-Indus; Sewar, sikar, 
ishwarg, Sind, is a shrub of the arid zone of the Punjab, Sind and Afghanistan ; its 
wood is used for fuel, and the fruit and leaves in native medicine. 

Wood white, soft (hard in Carissa), without heartwood. Fores small 
or very small Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. Alstonia is 
anomalous in having moderate-sized pores, distant rays and concentric 
lines of soft texture. 

1. CARISSA, Linn, 
Contains 4 species. C. Carandas, Linn. ; Beddome clvi. ; Brandis 320 ; Kurz ii. 169 : 




Dalzellii, Beddome clvii., is a small tree of Ck>org, S. Kanara and the Bombay GhAts. 

1. C. difltasiL Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 689; Beddome clvii-.; Brandis 321 ; 
Kurz ii. 169. Vern. Karaunda, Hind. ; Odn, garna, garinda, Pb.; San 
iarunda, Uriya ; Waioilu, Tel. 

A small, thorny, evergreen shrub, with light grey bark. Wood hard, 
smooth, close-grained, said when very old (in Kangra) to be black and 
fragrant (Brandis). Annual rings marked by an interrupted line of 
pores. Pores very small and extremely small. Medullary rays very 
fine, very numerous. 

Wild in most parts of India, especially in the drier zones as in the plains of the 
Punjab, the Sub-Himalayan tract np to 4,000 feet, and in Trans-Indus territory; 
also on the coast of South Andaman (Eurz). 

It is generally gregarious, often forming undergrowth in forests of Pinus 
longtfolia, bamboo, and occasionally teak. It spreads rapidly in clearings, coppices 
freely, and gives an excellent fuel. It is used for turning and combs, and to make dry 
fences. Growth slow, 15 rings per inch of radius. 

P 112. Bb^i, Sunk, 4,000 feet. 



262 APOCYNE^. {Cerhtra. 

2. C£KBERA, Linn. 

1. C. Odollaxn, Gaortn. ; Roxb. PI. Ind. i. 692 ; Beddome dvii. ; 
Braudis 322; Kurz ii. 171. Vern. l)abur,dAalur, Beng. ; Kada md, iat" 
arali, Tarn. ; Gon-iadura, Ciugh. ; Ka-lwai, Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Wood grey, very soft, spongy. 
Annual rings marked by a sharp line. Pores small, in short radial lines. 
Medullary rays indistinct. 

Coast forests of India and Barma. 

Growth fast, 5 to 7 rings per inch of radias. Weight, 21 lbs. per calno foot. 
The wood is only occasLonallj ased for firewood. The seeds give an oil which is used 
for haming. 

E 400. Sondarbans .21 

8. ALSTONIA, R. Brown. 

Contains about 3 species. A. venenata, R. Br. ; Beddome clx. ; Gamble 66. Vem. 
Chattea, Nep. ; Parbo, Lepcha, is a shrub of Sikkim and the Nilgiris. J^ epeeiabilU, 
£. Br. ; Kurz ii. 183, is a large evergreen tree of the Andamans. 

1. A. ScllolariB, B. Brown ; Beddome t. 242 ; Brandis 326 ; Karz ii. 
183; Gamble 55. Vem. Chatwan, chatinn, Beng.; SatUn, eAaiium, 
satwin, saint, Hind, ; 04a/iW«, Nep. ; Furbo, hepchB, ; Saiiana,As8.; 
Satwin, Mar. ; Satlni, Cachar ; Pala, toodraae, Tarn. ; Bda-iula, pala 
garnda, Tel. ; Muiampala, Mai. ; JanUalla, Kan ; Rookaitana, Cingh. ; 
Ckaile, cAalain, Magh ; Lei-fop, tonngmayoheng , Burm. 

A tall evergreen tree with dark grey bark and whorled branches. 
Wood white, soft, even-grained, seasons badly, and soon gets mouldy and 
discoloured. Pores moderate-sized, oval, subdivided. Medallary rays 
fine, wavy, irregularly distributed, with numerous intermediate extremely 
fine rays. Numerous, fine, wavy concentric lines at unequal distances. 

Sub-Himalayan tract &om the Jumna eastwards ascending to 3,000 feet, Bengal, 
Burma, South India. 

Weight, 28 Ihs. per cubic foot, according to our specimens; Brandis gives 40 lbs., 
and Kjd {EcMtes seiolarU) 40*5 lbs. and P = 710. It is not durable, but is easily 
worked. The wood is used for boxes, furniture, scabbards, coffins and other pur- 
poses, and is made into blackboards in Burma. It is used occasionally in Darjeeling, 
Assam and Cachar for tea-boxes. The wood and bark are bitter ; the latter is used as 
a tonic, anthelmintic and an ti periodic. The tree is readily recognised by its branohes 
and leaves in whorls, the leaves are smooth, shining, parallel veined, milky. 

Ibt. 

E 677. Khookloong Forest, Darjeeling Terai 28 

E 718. Chittagong 28 

E 1270. Lakhimpur, Assam 31 

W 863. 8outhKanara 28 

No. 76. Ceylon Collection 26 

4. TABERN^MONTANA, Plum. 

Contains about 12 species of shrubs or rarely small trees found in Eastern 
Bengal, South India and liurma. Several snecies are cultivated for ornament T, 
recurva, Roxb. ; Kurz ii. 171. Vern. Ihu-sa'tap, Bwrm., is a sbrub of Chittagong and 
Burma, with handsome white ilowers. T. dichotomj, Boxb., T, crispa, Roxb., and 
T. verticellata, Beddome clix., are shrubs of the Western Ghats aud Cevlon. 



Tabernamoniana.] afocyke^. 263 

1. T. COronaria, Willd. ; Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 28 ; Beddome clix. ; 
Brandis 322 ; Gamble 55. Vera. Chandni, iaggai, taggar, Hind. ; Asuru, 
Nep. ; Krim, Lepcha. 

An evergreen shrub with silvery grey bark. Wood wbite, moderate- 
ly hard^ close-grained. Fores very small. Medullary rays fine^ numer- 
ous. 

Kamaan, Eastern Bengal, Konkan, Cultivated thronghoat India. 

Growth fast, 5 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 47 lbs. per cubic foot. The 

fruit has a red pulp, whicn may give a dje. 

lb«. 

£ 2392. Sivoke Forest, Darjeeling Terai 47 

5. HOLARRHENA, R- Brown. 

1. H. antidysenterica, Wall. ; Beddome clx. ; Brandis 326 ; Kurz ii. 
182 ; Gamble .55. Vern, Karra, iaura, iora, Mra, Mar, kari, iarehif 
dhudiy Hind. ; Kogar, iiam, Pb. ; Kachri, Oudh ; Samoia, gircii, Gondi; 
Kuraiat, Eurku ; AniAria, Bhil ; Dhowda, Guz. ; Kirra, iaringi, Nep. ; 
DudAali, dudhkuHy Mechi ; JJudeory, Ass. ; Mat^andi, Q&ro ; Pairw 
iurwan, XJnjSL ; Vej)ali,Tsiui,; Pala, kodaga, Tel.; iTiirra, Mar. ; Let* 
toukgyee, Burm. 

A small deciduous tree. Bark \ inch thick, brown, roughs exfoliating 
in small irregular flakes. Wood whitej soft, even-grained. Annnal 
rings marked by a faint line. Fores very small, very numerous, often 
in radial lines. Medullary rays fine and very fine, very numerous. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab eastwards ascending to 3,500 feet, Oudh, 
Bengal, Burma, Central and South India. 

Growth moderate, 7 to 8 rings per inch of radius. The weight and transverse 
strength have been determined by the following experiments :— 

Weight. p= 

Kyd (1831) in Assam with bars 1 {H. antidysenteriea) 47 417 

2 feet X 1 in. X 1 in. found . . | {R, pubescens) 34 523 

Skinner (1862) in South India, No. 134, found ... 38 562 

Smythies in 1878 with our six specimens „ ... 38 ^ 

The wood is largely used for carvings, especially at Saharanpur and Dehra Dun ; 
in Assam for furniture ; in South India for turnine. The bark, leaves, fruit and seeds 
are used medicinally, the bark as a tonic and febrifuge and in dysentery. Hamilton in 
Aikin's List of Wallich's specimens says beads are made of the wood in Assam to be 
worn round the neck as a medicine. 

lbs. 
O 258. Garhwal (1868) 33 

O 263. „ „ 34 

O 3083. Gonda, Oudh 

C 2801. Melghat, Berar . 36 

1168. Ahiri Beserve, Central Provinces ^ 

C 2734. Moharli „ „ „ 44 

C 967. Guzerat 41 

No. 52. Salem Collection (marked Wrightia tincioria) . . .39 

2. H. mitiSy R. Br. ; Beddome clxi. ; Thwaites Enura. 194. Vern. 
Kiriwalla, Cingh. 

A tree. Wood white, close-grained, soft, in structure resembling that 
of H, aniidy sent erica. 

Ceylon, 

lb». 

No. 46. Ceylon Collection (Echiics lanceolaia) 35 



264; APOCYNSA. [ JTrigiiia. 

6. WRIGHTIA, R. Brown. 

Contains 4 to 6 species. W, Wallichii, DC. ; Beddome dz., is a small tree of the 
Western Gli&ts. W, coccinea, Sims ; Eurz ii. 193. (Nerium eoeeineum. Bozb. FI. 
Ind. ii. 2.) Vem. Pallam, Beng., is a small tree of Northern and Eastern Bemgal 
and ChittagODg. 

1. W. tomentosa, Rom. and Sch. ; Beddome dix ; Brandis S2S ; 
Gamble 55. JF. mollissima, Wall. ; Kurz ii. 192. Nerium tomentoium, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 6. Vern. Keor, iildwa, Pb. ; Dudhi, dharanU, daira. 
Hind.; Karinffi, iirra, i^e^. ; Selemnyoi, Lepcha; Pal kurwdn, Uriya; 
Harido, Cuttack ; Telia pal, koila-muiri, Tel. ; Kala indetjan, Mar. ; 
Atkuri, Ass. ; Letiouk thein, Burm. 

A small deciduous tree. Bark \ inch thick^ ^rey, corky. Wood 
yellowish white^ moderately hard, close-grained. Annual rings marked 
by an interrupted line of pores. Pores very small, in short radial lines. 
Medullary rays very fine and extremely fine, very numerous, closely 
packed. 

Snb-Himalajan tract from the Beas eastwards, Oadh, Bengal, Baima» Central and 
Sonth India. 

Growth moderate, 8 rings per inch of radios. Weight, according to Eyd 84 lbs, 
per cubic foot ; onr specimens give 44*6 lbs. Eyd gives P = 623. The wood is 
nsed for taming and carved work. The bark of the stem and roots are given as an 
antidote to snake-bite. Mr. Manson says the milky juice is nsed to stop bleeding 

by the Nepalese. 

lbs. 

C 830. Bairagarh Beserve, Berar 41 

W 998. Poona 48 

W 994. Sahyadri Gh&ts, Ahmednagar 49 

E 623. Bakti Forest, Darjeeling Terai 40 

2. W. tinctoria, R. Br. ; Beddome t. 241 ; Brandis 824 ; Kurs * 
ii. 193. Nerium tinctorium, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 4. Vern. Dudii, Banda; 
KAirni, Meywar ; Pdld, veypalS, Tam. ; Tedlapdl, Tel. ; Kola iudd, Mar. 

A small deciduous tree. Wood moderately hard, close-grained. Pores 
scanty, very small, in short radial lines. Medullary rays extremely 
fine and numerous. 

Bajputana, Central and South India. 

Growth moderate, 7 rings per inch of radios. Weight, Wallioh gives 40^ our 
specimen 49 11». per cubic foot. Wood nsed for carving and taming. The leaves 
are used for dyeing. 

P 466. Apmere 4» 

P 3222. Nagpahar, Ajmere 



.*• 



7. NERIUM, Linn. 

N» Oleander, Linn. ; Brandis 329, is the Oleander Tree of the Meditenanean, often 
cultivated in India. 

1. N. odonmi) Solander ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 2 ; Brandis S28. Vero. 
Kanira, kaner, ganhira, Pb. ; Kanydr, Kumaun. 

A large shrub. Wood greyish white, soft. Pores very small, in radial 
lines. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. 

South-West and Central India, Sind, Afghanistan, Outer Himalaya to 6,600 feet. 
Oftf n cultivated. 



Nerinm.] apocyne*. 205 

The bark and root arc poisonous, and the leaves used in native medicine. 
H 3057. Murree Hills, 6,000 feet . 37 



Order LXX. ASCLEPIADE^. 

A large Order of shrubs or undershrubs, generally scandent. It contains about 
11 genera with woody stems, divided into 5 tribes, viz., — 

Tribe I, — Periploce« , . . . . Cryptolepis, FMajfsonia, 

StreptoeauUm and Peri' 
ploca, 

„ II.— Secamoneee Toxocarpus, 

„ IIL — CynancheaB Calotropis axid Maphistemma, 

„ IV.— Marsdenie® ..... Oymnema, MarsdeiUa and 

Pergularia* 
„ v.— Ceropegiese ..... Leptaaenia 

Cfrvptolepis Buchanani, Roem, and Sch. ; Brandis -330; Kurz ii. 199 {Nerium 
reticutatumt Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 8). Vera. KarantcL, Hind., is a twining shrub of most 
part« of India, rare in Burma. Finlay$onia obovata. Wall. ; Kurz ii. 197, is a 
climber of the tidal forests of Burma. Streptocaulon tomentosum, Wight, and 
8. exteiufum, Wight; Kurz ii. 198, are climbers : the first of the Eng forests, the 
second of iiie lower mixed forests of Burma. Periploca contains 2 species. 
P. aphylla, Decaisne; Brandis 330. Vern. Barrarra, oane, Trans-Indus; BdtOf 
Jhelum and Chenab, is a shrub of the arid and northern dry zones in th^J^myab and 
Sind ; and P. calophylla, Falc. ; Brandis 330 ; Gamble 56. Vern. Mculara, Nep. ; 
Pargiuj Lepcha, a small shrub of the Outer Himalaya from the Jumna to Bhu^ein 
ascending to 6,000 feet, and of the Khasia Hills. 

Toxoearpus laurifidius, Wight, Kurz ii. 199, is a large climber of the forests 
of the Pegu Yomah. 

Calotropis contains 2 species. C. giffantea, R. Br. ; Brandis 331 ; Kurz ii. 200 
Gamble 56. (Asclepicu gigcnUea^Bajb, Fl. Ind. ii. 30) Vern. Madd/Tj sqfed'ak. Hind. 
Uk, Sind ; Akand, swetakand, Beng. ; AuJc, Nep. ; Yereum, Tam ; YeJcka, Kan. 
Kadrdti, Gondi ; Mayo-beng^ Burm., is a large shrub found almost all over India 
chiefly in waste land. Its inner bark gives a valuable fibre of fine silky texture, 
which is very strong, and is used for do w strings, fishing nets and lines, and is 
found to be durable in water. The seeds are surroun£d by silky hair, which is said to 
be made into thread in Borneo. It is difficult to spin, but mixed with one-fifth of 
cotton it gave, in experiments made \)j Mr. Monckton in Madras, a good wearing cloth, 
capable of being washed and dyed. It is well suited for stuffing pillows. The fibre 
of the stems was found to bear 552 lbs., against 407 borne by Sunn hemp, {Crotalaria 
juncea) and 224 lbs. borne by " coir" (Royle, Fibrous Plants of India, pp. 306 to 310) 
The wood is made into gunpowder charcoal in Kattiawar and the Dekkan, and the 
powdered root is used m medicine as an alterative, tonic and emetic. The acrid 
m ilky juice is also used for various medicinal purposes. C. procera, R. Br. ; Brandis 331 ; 
Kurz ii. 200. Vern. S^alwakkUf Afg. ; Ak, muddr, Hmd., is a shrub smaller than 
the preceding, but found in drier parts of India than it. It is chiefly found in 
the Sub-Himalavan tract from the Indus to the Jhelum, Oudh, Central India and the 
Deldian. The fibre, wood, silk from the seeds, and root, are used in the same way as 
those of Cgiyantea. Iiaphisiemmapulchellum,yfa\L; Gamble 56. Vern. CJwnft- 
hrikf Lepcha, is a handsome climber of the North- East Himalaya. 

Gymnema tingetu, W. and A. ; Gamble 56, occurs in Siklam Hills ; and G. acU' 
minatum, Wall. ; Kurz ii. 202, in Chittagong and TenaQserim. Marsdema contains 4 
species, most of which give a strong fibre. M, iinctorict, R. Br. ; Brandis 332 ; Kurz 
ii. 201 ; Gamble 56 {Asclepias tinctoria, Roxb., Fl. Ind. ii^ 43) Vern. Kali lara, 
Nep. ; jRySm, Lepcha, of the North-East Himalaya and Burma, is a climbing shrub 
from whose leaves a black or blue dye resembling indigo is obtained. M» terujt" 
cissima, W. and A. ; Brandis 333 ; Kurz ii. 201 {Asclepias tena^tsima, Boxb. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 51), a climber of Kumaun, Oudh and Behar extending to Chittagong and 
Ava, gives a beautiful, strong, silky fibre called " Rajmahal fibre" used for bow- 
strings. Roxburgh states that a line of it broke with a weight of 248 lbs. when 



26G ASCLEPiADK^. IMarsdenia. 

dry and 343 lbs. when wet, while common hemp only withstood 168 and 190 lbs. 
Boyle 8ay8 that a rope (1^ inch) broke with 903 lbs., strong^ European rope 
breaking with 1,203 lbs. M. Roylei, Wight ; Brandis 333. Yem. Patkor, Ghenab ; 
Tar, vert. Salt Bange ; Rurang, Simla (H 3194. Naldehra, Simla, 6,000 £eet, with 
a white porous wood and annual rin^ marked by large pores), and Jf. lueidat 
Edgew. ; jBrandis 333. Yem. Dudhi, E^maun, are small climoers of the North- West 
Himalaya. Pergularia contains 2 species : P. pallida, W. snd A. ; Brandia d&4t ; Kun 
ii. 202. Yem. Sfurhila, Eumaun, of Northern India ; and P. odaratiisima^ Linn. ; 
Brandis 334 ; Kurz ii. 203 ; Gamble 56. Yem. Kanja luta, kunfaU^ Beitg. ; Sim" 
pletbuk, Lepoha, of Bengal, Burma and the North- West Himalaya as ^ as the Jamnay 
often cultivated. 

Lefiadenia viminea; Bth. and Hook. f. {Orthanthera viminea, Wight; 
BrandiB 335) Yem. Mowa, lanebdr, Trans-Indus; Matti, Beas; Khip, Delhi; 
Kipf Siud ; Ckapkia, Kumaun ; Mahur, Hind., is a glabrous shrub of the arid and 
northern dry region from Sind to Oudh. The flower-buds are eaten as a vegetable, 
and a rope is made of the fibre. Hemidesmus indieut, R. Br. {Asclepias Pseudihtartat 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 39,) Yem. Ananiamul, Beng., is a climber whose roots are used as 
a substitute for sarsaparilla. There are also numerous small climbers of other genera 
found in the Indian forests, but none sufficiently large to be worth mention. 



ObdebLXXI. LOGANIACEJE. 

Contains 4 Indian genera, Buddleia, Fagraa, Stryeknos and Gardneria, 
Gnertnera, Beddome clziv, contains only Ceylon plants. Gardneria ovata. Wall. ; 
Kurz ii. 227 ; Gamble 57. Yem. Banjahi, Kumaun; Takpadik, Lepcha, is a climber of 
the North-East Himalaya and Eastern Beogal. Kurz has divided this Order among 
several neighbouring ones, placing Strychnos in Apocyneee ; Fagraa in Gentianese ; 
Buddleia in Pedalinese ; and Gardneria in Solanero ; we have, however, considered 
it better to follow Bentham and Hooker, and retain the Order, althou^ the diverse 
structure of the wood of the different genera would seem to accord with Aurz's views. 

The structure of Strychnoa and Fagraa is similar in baviDg scattered, 
large, ramified pores (intercellular ducts ?) and small pores in concentric 
bands or irregular patches ; and very sharply marked medullary rays in 
the firmer tissue intervening between the irregular patches. The struct- 
ure of Buddleia is altogether different. 

1. BUDDLEIA, Linn, 

Contains 4 or 5 species. B. macroetachya, Bth., is a shrab of the Himalaya from 
Simla eastwards, the Khasia Hills and Sylhet 

Wood soft or moderately hard, nobeartwood. Annual rings distinctly 
marked by a belt of numerous pores, the pores in the outer wood beingp 
smaller and often arranged in groups or concentric lines. 

1. B. a43iatica^ Lour.; Beddome clxiii; Brandis 318 ; Kurz ii. 250; 
Gamble 56. B. Neemda, Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 896. Vein. Bhati, diaula, 
shiiintra,Kumtinn', Bana, Simla; Newarpati, Nep.; Ponddm, Lepcha; 
Nimda, budibdta, Chittag^ng; Kyonngmee koo, Burm. 

A large evergreen shrub. Bark thin, grey. Wood grey, moderately 
hard. Annual rings distinctly marked by a belt of closely-packed pores 
in the spring wood. Pores small, not all of equal size, scanty except 
along the annual rings. Medullary rays fine, numerous. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Indus eastwards, ascending to 4,000 ft., Bengal, 
Burma, Sonth India ; chiefly found in second growth forests, deserted village sites and 
savannahs. 



Buddleia!] loganiace^. 267 



Growth fast, 4| riDgs per inch of radius. Weight, 44 lbs. per cubic foot. It has 
;e, long, iomentose leaves and long s] 
omamentiu and is often grown in gardens. 



, , — ^ ^ 1, — — ^ r a — — --^w- — — 

white, long, iomentose leaves and long spikes of fragrant white flowers. It is very 



lbs. 
HllO. Sutlej Valley, Simla, 4,000 feet 44 

2. B. panicnlata, Wall. ; BrandisSlS; Eurz ii. 251; Gamble 56. 
B. crispa, Bth. Vern. Spera umna, Afg. ; JjAollu, piuHia, sodAera, 
sudAari, North-Western Himalaya ; Sinna, Nep. 

A large evergreen shrab. Bark thin^ light grey, peeling off in long 
strips. Wood white, moderately hard, close-grained. Annual rings marked 
by a belt of small pores. Pores in the autumn wood very small, in groups 
and in oblique lines. Medullary rays fine. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Bhutan, ascending to 7,000 ft. 

Growth moderate, 11 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 41 lbs. per cubic foot. 

lbs 

H 168. Simla, 7,000 ft 41 

H 2882. Nagkanda, Simla, 7,000 feet 

3. B. Golvilleiy Hook. f. and Tb. ; Gamble 56. Vern. Puri aingbatiif 
Nep. ; Pya^Aing, Bhutia. 

A small tree. Wood reddish brown, soft. Fores of two sizes : large 
near the annual rings, smaller in the autumn wood, these latter grouped, 
the groups being enclosed in patches of soft tissue, which are arranged 
in interrupted concentric bands. Medullary rays fine. 

Eastern Himalaya, 9,000 to 12,000 feet 

Growth slow, 13 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 36 lbs. per cubic foot. An 
extremely handsome tree with masses of dark crimson flowers, which appear in August 
and make the tree very conspicuous in its habitat on the summit of Mount Tonglo. 

lbs. 
£ 2393. Tonglo, Daijeeling, 10,000 feet 35 

2. FAGRiEA, Thunb. 

Contains about 6 species. P, corotnandelina, Wight ; Beddome t. 244, Yern. 
Oinnuna, Kan., is a small handsome- flowered tree of tiie Eastern Ghats of Sputh 
India. JF. auricularia, Jack, and F, carnosa, Jack ; Kurz ii. 204, are large shrubs of 
Tenasserim. 

1. F. fragranSy Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 461; Kurz ii. 205. Vern. Anan, 
Burm. 

An evergreen tree. Wood hard, brown, close-grained, beautifully 
mottled. Pores of two classes, large ones scanty, often subdivided, 
small ones in narrow, wavy, concentric bands, which alternate with broader 
bands of firm and dark-coloured tissue in which the numerous fine medul- 
lary rays are distinctly visible. The large pores (vessels or intercellular 
ducts) are prominent on a vertical section. 

Burma. 

Weight, according to Baker, 70 lbs. ; Wallioh, 52*5 lbs. ; Simpson, 57 lbs. ; Mt^or 
Seaton ^ lbs. ; our speciments vary from 63 to 65 lbs. Baker's four experiments 
with Tavoy wood, with bars 7' X 2^ X 2^ gave P = 653 ; Simpson's gave 387, but 
the wood was a bad specimen. The wood is very durable, and is not liable to the 
attacks of ** Teredo. " It is one of the most important of the reserved trees of Burma« 



268 LOGANiACB-B. [Faffraa. 

especially in Tavoy ; aud is used for house-building, bridge and whaif pilea* boat- 
anchors and other purposes. 

B 289. Burma (1867) 63 

B 550. Martaban 05 

B 3073. Burma (1862) 57 

2. F. racemosa. Jack ; Eurz ii. 205. Vern. Thit-hpaloQ, Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Wood moderately hard^ greasy to 
the touch and with a scent like that of India-rubber. Pores of two sizes : 
moderate -si zed pores scattered, often oval and subdivided, and extremely 
small pores in narrow, wavy, concentric bands, alternating with broader 
bands of firmer tissue, in which the fine, numerous medullary rays are 
distinctly visible. 

Andaman Islauds. 

Weight, 50 lbs. per cubic foot. Major Ford says it is strong and durable, tha the 
wood is used for house-posts, and the root bark as a cure for fever. 

B 1990. Andamans (Kurz, 1866) 52 

B 2294. „ (Ford, 1866) 48 



3. E 1450. (56 lbs) brought by Dr. Griffith from the Mishmi Hills in 1836, has 
the structure of Fagnsa, It is probably JF, obovata, Wall. ; Beddome dxiv ; Enn iL 
205 ; Qamble 56. Vern. Sutiakhari, Nep. ; Longsoma, Magh ; Npoungk^ap, Bunnan 
evergreen tree, often scandcnt or stem clasping, found in the forests oi Northern 
and iijastcrn Bengal, Chittagong and Burma. 

3. STRYCHNOS, Linn. 

Contains 6 to 8 species of Indian trees or climbing shrubs. S. WallickiaHa, 
Steud. ; Kurz ii. 167, is an evergreen tree of the forests of the Pegu Yomah. 8. cinno' 
momtfolia^ Thw. and 8. colubrina, Linn. ; Beddome clxiii are gigantic climbers of the 
Western Gh&ts, while 8, laurina, Wall, and 8, cuniminata. Wall. ; Kurz ii. 166, are 
large evergreen climbers of Tcnasserim, the latter also occurring on the coasts of South 
Andaman. 

1. S. potatomm, Linn. fil. ; Roxb. FI. Ind. i. 576; Beddome clxiii; 
Brandis 317 ; Kurz ii. 167. The Clearing Nut Tree. Vern. Nirmali, net 
tnal, Hind. ; Kotaku, Uriya ; Ustumriy Gondi ; Teltancott-ai, feUian, Tarn. ; 
CAilla, indupa, induga, lcataiamu,judapa,Te\,; Nirmali, chilbinj, Mar.; 
Ustumri, Gondi; Tetiam-parel, Mai. ; CAilCu, Kan.; Ingini, Cingh. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Bark ^^th inch thick, greyish brown 
and sometimes almost black, with numerous small angular^ exfoliating 
scales. Wood white when fresh cut, turning yellowish grey on exposure^ 
hard, close-grained, seasons well. No heartwood, no annual rings. 
Pores of two classes : large pores scanty, very small pores numerous, 
arranged in irregularly ramified patches, which are extremely variable in 
shape, giving the wood a remarkably fantastic pattern on a cross section. 
These patches are joined by white concentric lines which may possibly be 
annual rings. Medullary rays white, fine and moderately broad, numerous, 
sharply defined in the darker tissue. The large pores, which are promi- 
nent on a radial section, arc filled with a white shining substance and are 
often ramified. Tliey are probably not vessels, but large intercellular 
ducts. 



Sirychn08.'\ LOGANIACKiE. 269 

Bengal, Central and South India. 

Weight, 67 lbs. per cubic foot. Wood durable, used for building, carts and 

agricultural implements. The pulp of the fruit is eaten, and the ripe seeds are used 

to clear muddy water by merely rubbing the inside of the jar with the seed. 

lbs. 

1101. Ahiri Besei-ve, Central Provinces 55 

C 2979. Bijeragogarh, Central Provinces 

D1060. South Arcot \ ^^ 

No. 44. Salem Collection • . . .' 56 

2* S. Nnx-VOmicai Linn.; Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 575; Beddome t. 243 ; 
Brandis 317 ; Kurz ii. 166. The Snake Wood, Nux- vomica or Strychnine 
Tree. Vern. Kuchla, kajra. Hind. ; KucAila, Beng. ; Kerra, iorra, Uriya 
Yetti, Tarn. ; MusAU, musadi, Tel. ; Kasaraia, iujarra, khasca, kasara* 
gaddej Kan. ; Kata^ jAar kaicAura, Mar. ; Kanjaram, Travancore j Goda 
kaduru, Cingh. ; KAa bounty, Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree, with dark grey bark. Wood brown- 
ish grey, hard, close-grained, splits and warps. Pores of two classes : 
very large pores (intercellular ducts) scanty^ filled with a white substance, 
very prominent on a vertical section, where they are often branching ; and 
small pores in irregularly shaped, ramified patches, which are joined by 
concentric and oblique white lines. Medullary rays fine and moderately 
broad, prominent in the firm, shining, hard tissue intervening between 
the patches above described. 

Bengal, Burma and South India. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 119, 56 Ibe. (P = 1160) ; Brandis' experiments 
(3) made m 1864 with Bui-ma wood in bara 3 ft. X 1 inch X 1 inc^gave weight 49 lbs. ; 
P = 623 ; his list of Burma woods of 1862, No. 75, gave 62 lbs. ; our specimens give 
an average of 57 lbs. The wood is used in Burma for carts, agnoultural implements, 
and fancy cabinet-work. The seeds contain 0*28 to 0*63 per cent, of strychnia mixed 
with brucia, poisonous alkaloids. The pulp of the fruit is eaten by birds. 

Ibt. 

W 1224. North Kanara 65 

W 727. South „ 69 

B 3072. Burma (1862) 49 



Order LXXII. BOBAGINE^. 

Contains 4 genera belonging to 3 tribes, viz,, — 

Tribe I. — Cordie© Cordia, 

„ II. — Ehretiese Ehretia and Skabdia, 

9, III. — Heliotropiese Toumefortia, 

jRhabdia tnminea, Dalzell ; Brandis 341, 677 ; Kurz ii. 211, is a small shrub of 
sandy and shingly river beds in Kumaun, Bengal, South India and Burma. 

Toumefortia viridiflora. Wall. ; Qamble 67. Vern. Ampati, Nep. ; Tungrong, 
Lepcha, is a climbing shrub of the North-East Himalaya, with soft brown wood Jiaviug 
the anual rings marked by darker lines, and large pores (£ 3299, Chunbati, Darjeeling, 
8,000 feet). The Heliotrope, Heliotropium peruvianum, Linn., in some places in the 
hills and especially on the ^iilgiris, reaches to the size of a shrub, and may be used for 
hedges. 

Pores small or moderate-sized^ the transverse diameter generally less 
than the distance between the rays, which are uniform and equidistant, 
generally short, either fine or raoder.ately broad. Cordia has concentric 
bands of soft texture which are wanting in EAretia, 



270 BORAOiNK^. [Cordia. 

1. CORDIA, Linn. 

Contains 13 Indian species. C Wallichii, G. Don; Beddome t. 246. Vem. 
Chandle, Kan., is a tree of the Western Gh&ts, Mysore and Bombay, with woolly leaycs. 
C.grandiSf Koxb. ; Kurz ii. 20A ; Gamble 67 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. L 593. Yern. Atarit Nep. ; 
Thanat, Burm. ; is an over^'en tree of Northern and Eastern Bengal and Chittagong. 
C octandra, DC. ;.Bcddome clxvi. (C terrata, Roxb. FL Ind. i. 591.) Veni« Grathondori, 
Hind., is a small tree of Trairancore. C. monoica, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 592 ; Beddome 
clxvi. Vem. Pida, Hind. ; Panugeri, Tel., is a small poor^looking tree of the barren 
parts of the Circar forests. C. polygama, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 594 ; Beddome clzYi. ; 
Kurz ii 207. Vem. Bottuhuru, patcha, Tel., is a small tree of the mountains on the 
Coromandel Coast and the Eng forests of Martaban. C PerottetH, DC. ; and C 
fulvosOf Wight, are small trees of the Western Gh&ts. The above are wlute-floweied 
species. C. subcordata, Larok. ; Kurz ii. 209 (C catM>anulata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. L 
593) is a handsome large shrub of the Andamans and Tenasserim, with red flowers, 
often cultivated. C. speciosa, Willd., and C tectonifblia^ Wall., are small trees with 
handsome scarlet flowers, cultivated in gardens, but introduced from the West Indies. 

Numerous concentric lines of soft tissue, which sometimes are inter- 
rupted, but generally with the medullary rays divide the wood into 
oblongs or squares. Medullary rays prominent on a radial section. 

1. G. Mvxa, Linn. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 590 ; Beddome clzv. ; Brandis 
836; Kurz li. 208; Gamble 57. Vern. Lasora, bhokaty gondii Hind.; 
Laswara, Fb. ; Lesuri, giduri, Sind ; Borla, baurala, Eumaun ; Bohari^ 
buhal, Beng. ; Boeri, Nep. ; Nimat, Lepcha; Dobakari, Mechi ; Gondi, 
Uriya; Fidi, verasu, Tam. ; Pedda boiu, virgi, nakiera, irii, iriii, Tel. ; 
Semar, goden, gondan, Mar. ; Chotte, Kaa. ; Selie, Gondi ; Silu, Earku ; 
Lassiri, Baigas; Loluy Cingh. ; Ciaine, Magh; TAanai, ioung tkanai, 
Burm. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark i to | inch thiok^ gvej or 
brown, rough with shallow longitudinal wrinkles and furrows. Wood 
grey, moderately hard. Fores of two sizes, a few moderate-sized or large, 
uniformly scattered and frequently double, the rest very small in narrow 
continuous concentric belts of soft tissue. Medullary rays alternately 
fine and broad, the rays with the white concentric lines dividing the 
wood into marked squares or oblong compartments. Medullary rays 
prominent on a radial section as rough horizontal plates, having a 
mottled appearance. 

Salt Range, Sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to Assam ascending to 
6,000 feet, Khasia Hills, Bengal, Burma, Central and South India. 

Growth moderately fast, 3 to 9 rings per inch of radius {Brandts) ; our specimenfl 
do not show the rings well, with the exception of two, whicli give 1 to 2 rinjzs per inch, 
which must be csdled very fast. The weight is very variable. Brandis in Surma List 
of 1862, 1^0. 82, gives 83 lbs. per cubic foot ; our specimens vary from 23 to 42 lbs., but 
the average is 33 lbs. Brandis in For. FL, p. 337, say^s 33 to 49 lbs. The wood, in spite 
of its softness, is fairly strong, and seasons well, but is readily attacked by insects. It 
is used for boat-building, well-curbs, gun-stocks and agricultural implements, in Bengal 
for canoes. It might 1^ tried for tea-boxes. It is an excellent fuel. The bark is 
made into ropes and the fibre is used for caulking boats. The leaves are used as plates 
and in Pegu to cover Burmese cheroots. The fruit (Sebentan) is eaten, it is very 
mucilaginous and is used in native medicine. The viscid pulp is used as birdlime. 
The kernel is eaten and is used for marking linen, but the mane is fugacious. 

Ibe. 

O 250. Garhwal (1868) 42 

O 1376. Gonda, Oudh 38 

C 1149. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 87 

E 042. Rakti Forest, Darjecling Terai 28 



Cordia.] boragikejb. 271 

lbe« 

E 2394. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai 28 

E 714. Chittagong 23 

B 2543. Burma (1862) 36 

No. 42. Salem Collection (marked Spondias mangtfera) . . .32 

2. C. Macleodii, Hook. f. and Th. ; Brandis 837. Vem. Dhengan, 
dAdman, didian, dewan, daAi, dahipalds^ dihgan, Hind.; DAaiwan, 
Sattara; Daiufas, diaim, bhoti^ Mar.; Bot^ Oondi; Lauri iassamdr, 
Kurku ; Gadrn, Ajmere. 

A middling-sized deciduous tree^ with thick^ grey, soft, corky bark. 
Heartwood light brown, beautifully mottled with darker veins, even- 
grained, very hard, strong, tough and elastic, seasons well and works 
easily. Fores small, in irregular concentric belts of white tissue, often 
joined by white lines without pores. Medullary rays white^ fine and 
moderately broad, prominent. 

Central and South India, Dekkan. 

Weight, 40 to 60 Iha, (Brandis); our Bpecimens give 49 to 63, average 51 lbs. 
The wood is used for furniture, picture frames and other ornamental work ; also for 
fishing-rods, which are said to be excellent. It deserves to be better known and more 
in use. 

IlM. 

P 3219. Nagpahar, Ajmere 

. C 180. Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) 53 

C 2985. Jubbulpore (1863) 50 

C 831. Bairagarh Beserve, Berar 49 

3. C* vestitay Hook. f. and Th. ; Brandis 838. Crynaion vesUtum, 
A. DC. Vem. Kumbi, kar4k, Fb. ; Kum paimdn, pin^ indai, chinia^ 
ajdnta, bairula, berula, Hind. 

A small deciduous tree. Bark i inch thick, dark grey, exfoliating 
when old in large woody scales. The wood has the same structure and 
appearance as that of C, Macleodiij except that the concentric lines are 
occasionally interrupted. 

Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Jhelum to the Sarda Biver, Oudh. 
Weight, 52 to 53 lbs. per cubic foot Wood strong, used for wheel and well work. 
The fruit is eaten, it is preferred to that of C. Myxa, 

Ibe. 

O 231. Garhwal (1868) 52 

O 2998. „ (1874) 53 

O 3232. Dehra Ddn 



... 



4. C. fragrantissimay Kurz ii. 207. Yern. Toungiatamef, Burm. 

A deciduous tree. Wood moderately hard, reddish brown with 
darker streaks, beautifully mottled, has a fragrant scent. Pores small, in 
roundish patches, which are joined by fine, concentric lines. Medullary 
rays short, moderately broad, distinctly marked on a vertical section. 

Burma, chiefly in the hills of Martaban and Tenasserim. 

Weight, 48 to 51 lbs. per cubic foot. It is a beautiful wood and should be better 
known. It has a himdsome grain, and its fresh, fragrant odour makes it very pleasant 
to use. Pieces sent to London for sale in 1878 realized £4-10 per ton. 

Ibfl. 

B 285. Burma (1867) .48 

B 1428. Tharrawaddy, Burma 51 

6. C. Bothiiy Rom. and Schtdtes ; Brandis 338. C. angustifolia, 
Soxb. Fl. Ind. i. 595. Vem. GQndi, gondni, gundi. Hind. ; Lidr, lidi, 
Sind ; Narvilli, Tam. 



i7'Z BORAGiNK.l^. [Conlia. 

A small tree. Bark grey or brownish grcy^ with deep longitudinal 
furrows. Wood grey, compact, hard. Pores small, often subdivided. 
Medullary rays fine and moderate- sized. Numerous fine bands of softer 
tissue which on a transverse section divide the wood between the 
medullary rays into small squares* 

Dry zones of North- West and South India. 

Growth moderate, 10 rings per inch of radios. Weight, 42 to 52 lbs. per cubic 
foot (Brandts) ; our specimen gives 46 lbs. Used for fuel, m Sind for building, and in 
Cutch for agricultural implements. The bark when wounded gives a gam, and the 

liber is made into ropes. The pulp of the fruit is eaten. 

lb«. 
P 449. Ajmere 46 

2. EHRETIA, Linn. 

Species about 8. £. serrata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 596; Brandis 339; Enrz ii. 210; 
Gamble 57. Vem. Pursan, kalthaun, Pb. ; Punyan, punjlawdi, panden, hoda^ 
kurhina, arjun, Hind. ; Aarra, Garhwal ; Shaurst, Kumaun ; Send, Kurku ; Midif 
Baigas ; NaUhuna, chillay, Nep. ; Bual, Ass. ; JETala'aja, Beng., is a tree of the Sab- 
Himala^an tract from the Indus to Bhutan ascending to 5,0(K) feet, Eastern Beneal, 
and Chittagong. Brandis says " the wood is light brown, with white specks, &irly 
even and compact, soft, not heavy, easily worked, made into scabbards, sword-hilts, 
gun-stocks, and employed for building and agricultural implements." Aikin in Wallich's 
List of 1831 gives 3'3 rings per inch of radius for the rate of growth. Kyd gives for 
the weight, 37 Ihs. per cubic foot, and P = 530.^ The fruit is eaten. J^. aspera, Boxb. 
Fl. Ind. i. 598 ; Beddome clxvi. Vem. Telia Juvi, Tel., is a snudl bushy tree of dry 
barren places in South India ;| as is also J^. buxifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 598 ; Beddome 
clxvi. Vem. Bapana-buri, Tel. £. ovalifolia, Wight; Beddome clxvi., is a small 
tree of Coimbatore, Madura and Tinnevelly up to 2,000 feet, and £, WigkHanOf 
Wall. ; Beddome clxvi., a small tree of the Tinnevelly Gh&ts. 

1. K lavis, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 597; Beddome t. 246 ; Brandis 840 ; 
Kurz ii. 210. Vern. Chamrdur, kdda, darar, 4atrangay Hind. ; TamboU, 
Banda ; Mo8oneay Uriya ; Doiti^ disii, gilchi, Gondi ; DaCranga, Mar. ; 
Paldaianiy redda pul-mera, sere^ad, Tel. ; Kabpura, Kan, 

A moderate-sized tree. Bark J inch tniek^ g'ey. Wood greyish 
white^ bard. Annual rings indistinctly marked. Poi-es small^ g^uped 
in small clusters or radial lines. McKlullary rays fine, shorty numerousj 
distinctly visible on a radial section. 

Suliman Range, Punjab, Rub-Himalayan tract, Oudh, Bengal, Burma and the 
Andaman Islands, Central and South India. 

Growth moderate, 6 to 8 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 33 to 38 lbs. per cubic 
foot. Wood tough, durable, uaihI for agricultural implements and building. The 

fruit is eaten, as is also the inner bark in times of famine. 

lbs. 

O 267. Garhwal (1868) 83 

C 1166. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 38 

2, E. obtnsifoliay Hochstetter; Brandis 340. 

A small shrub. Bark grey, thin. Wood resembling in structure 
that of £. Icsvis. 

Salt Range in the Punjab, Sind and Rajputana. 
P 3245. Ajmere. 

3. E. Wallichiana, Hook. f. and Th. ; Gamble 57. Vern. Boeri^ 
doioari, Nep. ; Kalef, Lcpclia. 

A large tree, sometimes gregarions. Wood grey, moderately hard. 
Annual rings marked by light-coloured belts. Pores small and moderate* 



Mrelia.] BORAGiNEiB. 273 

sized^ in scattered groups and short radial lines. Medullary rays shorty 
fine^ uniform^ distinctly marked on a radial section. 

Darjeeling Forests, from 2,000 to 7,000 feet 

Growth moderate, 7 rings per inch of radios. Weieht, 33 lbs. per cubic foot. 
The wood is used for building, for charcoal, and ocoasionaUy for making tea^boxes. 

Iba. 

£ 690. Sepoydura Forest, Darjeeling, 5,600 feet . • • .33 



Ordbe lxxiii. convolvulaceje. 

Contains 7 genera of Indian shrubs or climbers, viz., ErycihCf Sivea, Argy~ 
reia, Lettsomia, Ipomaa, Porana and Neurop